- Количество слайдов: 14
Ilknur Akiner 1, M. Ernur Akiner 2 , Atilla Akkoyunlu 2 1 Mersin University, Architecture Faculty, Department of Architecture, Turkey 2 Bogazici University, Department of Civil Engineering, Turkey Presented by M. Ernur Akiner
Goksu Delta of Silifke, Mersin.
Goksu Delta is one of the five Turkish Wetlands under protection of Ramsar Convention. The Ramsar Convention is an international agreement held in 1971 in the city Ramsar, Iran. Protection of ecological values of wetlands, especially to protect the biodiversity of flora and fauna, is the main purpose of the Convention. Main pollution sources in city are the uncontrolled agriculture and unplanned constructions. Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment. It is crucial to achieve sustainable resources for an eco-friendly development. As a sustainable construction technology, green roof application will be proposed for the research area in order to decrease surface runoff. Results of the study show that the green roof application will decrease the stormwater runoff significantly. Also a mathematical relation between rainfall and water quality parameters will be investigated.
Surface water quality assessment In this research, some pollution parameters were inspected in order to determine the current pollution level of the Goksu River in the region. Samples were collected from the three designated points and some water quality parameters were measured. Point 1 2 3 East 33° 55' 23" 33° 59' 4" 34° 2' 3" North 36° 24' 24" 36° 22' 55" 36° 18' 56" Sampling Location Goksu River - Dam Goksu River - City outlet Goksu River - Menderes
Water quality classes according to Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation Water quality classification of waterbody according to Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation
One-sample T-Test was applied as a statistical test in order to judge on the exact water quality class of the waterbody in aforementioned rivers and channels. Since the available NO 2 -N data is continuous and also approximately normal, we can apply the One Sample T-Test One-sample T-Test: Whether the mean of a normally distributed population has a value specified in a null hypothesis.
Green roof application Green roofs can be separated in to two main groups. These are; intensive and extensive. Intensive roofs are usually more than 20 cm deep which allows for the growth of larger plants such as trees. Extensive roofs on the other hand, contain smaller plants, such as; shrubs, sedums, and herbs. Parts of the typical extensive green roof system are shown Green roof cross -section
Compared to complete systems, modular green roof and pre-cultivated blanket layer systems are very practical, and ease to apply systems. Complete systems Modular green roof Pre-cultivated blanket layer There are seven main benefits to having a green roof. They include increased energy efficiency, an increase in air quality, a decrease in heat island effect, temperature regulation both on the roof and surrounding areas, stormwater retention, an increase in roof lifespan and a LEED point. Vegetation provides also nesting places for birds such as, blackbirds, song thrushes and house sparrows.
Areas occupied by subbasins Delineated Subbasins of Goksu River Watershed Goksu River flows through subbasin 1, 2 and 3, respectively. There is no settlement at subbasin 1 since the area is roughly mountainous. Silifke district is located and there is a mass settlement at subbasin 2. Subbasin 3 is the last subbasin of the whole watershed and it is located around the outlet of the Goksu River and settlements are not allowed in this area due to Ramsar Convention.
Osmunda Regalis and Sedum are local plants that are approached as green roof plant alternatives in this study in accordance with the Mersin climate Sedum plant Osmunda regalis According to sample calculation, when a single building with a roof area of 900 m 2 is considered, there will be 77 % water retention by the usage of green roof systems within the subbasin 2. Potential rain water retention by a green roof of a sample building at Silifke – Mersin
Categories for Achieving LEED Points • Sustainable Sites • Water Efficiency • Energy and Atmosphere • Materials and Resources • Indoor Environmental Air Quality • Innovation in Design LEED Credit Impacts Primary Credit Impacts Credits 5. 1 Categories Sustainable Sites 6. 1, 6. 2 Sustainable Sites 69 Available Points Four Categories of Certification: • Certified: 26 -32 Points • Silver: 33 -38 Points • Gold: 39 -52 Points • Platinum: 53 -69 Points 7. 2 1. 1 1. 0 Credits Protect or Restore Open Space Stormwater Management Rate, Quantity, and Treatment Sustainable Sites Design to Reduce Heat Islands (Roof) Water Efficiency Water-Efficient Landscaping Innovation and Design Innovation in Design Secondary Credit Impacts Categories Energy and Atmosphere Energy and 4 Atmosphere Materials and 4. 1, 4. 2 Resources 5. 1, 5. 2 Materials and Resources 2 Water Efficiency 1. 0 Point s 1 Requirements 2 1 1 1 Point s Requirements Optimizing Energy Performance 2 Ozone Depletion 1 Recycled Content (roof system components) 2 Local/Regional Materials (roof components, plants) Innovative Wastewater Technologies 2 3. 1, 3. 2 Water Efficiency Water Use Reduction (20%, 30%) TOTAL DERIVED POSSIBLE LEED POINTS : 6 + 10 = 1 2 16
Even subbasin 2 has a limited area over the whole watershed, it is revealed that application of green roof systems helped the reduction of TP concentration of river water significantly, especially when the rainfall value is low. Observed and predicted values for monthly average TP concentrations in sampling point 2 at subbasin 2, with or without green roof application.
Green roof application can be used as a sustainable construction material for the buildings. This system has a great influence on runoff reduction and the improvement of the surface water quality. Historical data is needed in order to foresee the possible future pollution status of the watershed. If trend of the pollution is investigated, necessary management techniques for the reduction of the pollution can be specified. For this purpose a non-linear mathematical model as a function of rainfall was defined to show TP concentrations for the region. Additionally possible reduction in TP concentrations in case of the green roof application in subbasin 2 was calculated. Silifke district of Mersin Province – Turkey, is a typical underdeveloped city with a moderate population. It is clear that if this system is used in more developed, large and crowded cities, more remarkable results in terms of runoff retention and pollution prevention can be achieved.