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IEEE 802. 11 Wireless LANs Presented by Peng Ge September 12, 2001 IEEE 802. 11 Wireless LANs Presented by Peng Ge September 12, 2001

Wireless LAN v. s. Wired LAN § Similarity • From the beginning, 802. 11 Wireless LAN v. s. Wired LAN § Similarity • From the beginning, 802. 11 was designed to look and feel like other IEEE 802 wired LAN • 802. 11 operates under 802. 2 LLC layer (same as 802. 3) § Difference • using air link (that is, no real link) – Everything around is either a reflector or an attenuate of the signal – location-dependent: some change in position cause large changes in the received signal strength – security problem: packets broadcast in air • Mobility – protocols to deal with mobility : DHCP, mobile-IP – no fixed physical location, “what is the nearest printer? ”

History of IEEE 802. 11 § The first version was adopted in 1997 • History of IEEE 802. 11 § The first version was adopted in 1997 • MAC sub-layer • MAC management protocols and services • Three physical layers: all operate on 1 M or 2 Mbps – infrared-based PHY – Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) radio in 2. 4 GHz – Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) radio in 2. 4 GHz § Revised in 1999, add 2 new PHY layers • Orthogonal Frequency Domain Multiplexing (OFDM) – 802. 11 a, radio in UNII bands, delivering up to 54 Mbps • extension to DSSS PHY – 802. 11 b, in 2. 4 GHz, delivering up to 11 Mbps

IEEE 802 Architecture IEEE 802 Architecture

Overview § § IEEE 802. 11 Architecture and Services Medium Access Control MAC Management Overview § § IEEE 802. 11 Architecture and Services Medium Access Control MAC Management The Physical layer

Component in 802. 11 Architecture § Station : mobile/portable/stationary node • provide station-services : Component in 802. 11 Architecture § Station : mobile/portable/stationary node • provide station-services : – authentication, de-authentication, privacy, and delivery of data § Basic Service Set (BSS) • a group of stations connect to each other • Independent BSS (IBSS) : no connection to wired network – e. g. , short-lived ad-hoc network – no relay function in an IBSS(in MAC layer) • when a BSS includes a Access Point (AP) – it’s no longer independent. – called Infrastructure BSS, or BSS

Component in 802. 11 Architecture § Access Point (AP) • A station provides distribution Component in 802. 11 Architecture § Access Point (AP) • A station provides distribution services • All mobile stations communicate with AP • AP provides connection to wired LAN if any, and local relay function in BSS • A little waste for local communication – up-link and down-link consume twice of bandwidth – benefits outweigh the cost, such as » buffering at AP when the station is in low power state

Component in 802. 11 Architecture § Extended Service Set (ESS) • a set of Component in 802. 11 Architecture § Extended Service Set (ESS) • a set of BSSs while APs communicate among themselves to forward traffic and to facilitate the mobility • Distribution System (DS) : – an abstract medium for the communication among APs – 802. 11 didn’t define how to implement DS » APs from different vendors may not be used in one ESS » could be wired LAN (802. 3), or purpose-built box § Services • Station services : – authentication, de-authentication, privacy, delivery of data • Distribution services : – association, re-association, distribution, integration

Station Services § Authentication • to prove the identity of one station to another Station Services § Authentication • to prove the identity of one station to another § De-authentication • to eliminate a previously authorized user from further use § Privacy • to provide an equivalent level of protection for data on WLAN as that provided by Wired network § Delivery of data • similar to other 802 LANs • to provide reliable delivery of data frames in MAC layers, with minimal duplication and minimal reordering.

Distribution Services § Association • to make a logical connection between mobile station and Distribution Services § Association • to make a logical connection between mobile station and AP § Re-association • similar to association, except including the info about previously associated AP (for roaming, data forwarding, etc. ) § De-association • either to force a mobile node to associate or just announce the association is no longer available/required § Distribution • An AP to determine how to deliver the frames – within its own BSS, into DS to another AP, outside WLAN § Integration • translation between 802. 11 frames and other LAN frames

Interaction between some services State 1: Unauthenticated, Unassociated Class 1 Frames Successful Authentication Class Interaction between some services State 1: Unauthenticated, Unassociated Class 1 Frames Successful Authentication Class 1 & 2 Frames State 2: Authenticated, Unassociated Successful Association or Re-Association Class 1, 2 & 3 Frames De-Authentication Notification De-Association Notification State 3: Authenticated, and Associated De-Authentication Notification

Interaction between some services § Each station maintains 2 variables • state of authentication Interaction between some services § Each station maintains 2 variables • state of authentication and state of association – A station may be authenticated with many stations simultaneously – A station may be associated with only one other station at a time • Multiple instances of the variables are needed – to maintain a unique copy for each station it communicates § If a station is a part of an IBSS (ad hoc) • it’s allowed to implement data service in state 1 – because neither authentication nor association is used in IBSS, no station can leave state 1 § A station must react to every frame it receives • even if the frame type is not allowed for a particular state • A state 1(2) station will send back de-authentication(deassociation) upon receiving an illegal frame, to force the other station transit to proper state

Overview § § IEEE 802. 11 Architecture and Services Medium Access Control MAC Management Overview § § IEEE 802. 11 Architecture and Services Medium Access Control MAC Management The Physical layer

MAC functionality § To provide reliable data delivery service • through a frame exchange MAC functionality § To provide reliable data delivery service • through a frame exchange protocol at MAC level • Reliability is improved as compared to earlier WLANs § To fairly control access to the wireless medium • Distribution Coordination Function : basic access • Point Coordination Function : centrally controlled access § To protect the data it delivers • a privacy service, Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) • the same level of protection the data might have on a wired LAN that prevents unauthorized connection

MAC Frame Exchange Protocol § The minimal protocol has two frames frame Snd ACK MAC Frame Exchange Protocol § The minimal protocol has two frames frame Snd ACK Rcv • The two frames are an atomic unit of the MAC protocol • The frame will be retransmitted if ACK is missing – reduce the inherent error rate at the cost of extra bandwidth • more efficient in MAC layer than in higher layer – to determine the lost packet, higher layer timeout is often in seconds § Hidden Node Problem A B C

MAC Frame Exchange Protocol § Two more frames to solve Hidden Node Problem • MAC Frame Exchange Protocol § Two more frames to solve Hidden Node Problem • Request To Send (RTS) and Clear To Send (CTS) RTS CTS frame ACK Snd Rcv • The four frames are an atomic unit – if fails at any point, the station can recover and regain control of the medium in minimum time § To address the Hidden Node Problem Area cleared by RTS CTS A B C RTS Area cleared by CTS

MAC Frame Exchange Protocol § dot 11 RTSThreshold attribute (0 -2339) • The value MAC Frame Exchange Protocol § dot 11 RTSThreshold attribute (0 -2339) • The value defines the minimum length of the frame that RTS and CTS are required before sending the frame. – all frames with greater length use 4 -way protocol – all frames with equal or less length use 2 -way protocol – In some cases, 4 -way protocol is unnecessary, such as » low bandwidth demand » concentrated area where everyone can hear the others. § Retry counters • long retry counter and short retry counter – long or short? Compare the frame length with dot 11 RTSThreshold – each retransmission will increment the corresponding retry counter – the frame has to be discarded if the retry counter reaches the limit • There is also a lifetimer associate with each frame

MAC Basic Access Mechanism § CSMA/CA with binary exponential backoff • Carrier Sense Multiple MAC Basic Access Mechanism § CSMA/CA with binary exponential backoff • Carrier Sense Multiple Access – partly implemented by a physical sensing mechanism by PHY layer – Network Allocation Vector (NAV) » a value that indicates to a station the amount of time it remains before the medium become available to use » to provide a virtual carrier sensing » a station may avoid transmitting, even when medium seems free • CA(Collision Avoidance) instead of CD(Collision Detection) – Wireless device can hardly send and receive at the same time • Contention Window in Binary Exponential Backoff – When the transmission is deferred because the medium is busy, sender waits a random time within “contention window” – Contention window double its size every time the sender is deferred – Contention window reset to minimal size when transmission succeed

Timing Intervals § 5 timing intervals recognized by 802. 11 MAC • 2 basic Timing Intervals § 5 timing intervals recognized by 802. 11 MAC • 2 basic intervals determined by PHY – Short Inter-Frame Space (SIFS) – Slot Time – SIFS < Slot Time, but they are close. • 3 additional intervals – Priority Inter-Frame Space (PIFS) = Slot Time + SIFS » used in PCF – Distributed Inter-Frame Space (DIFS) = Slot Time + SIFS * 2 » used in DCF – Extended Inter-Frame Space (EIFS) » much larger than any other intervals » used when a frame received by MAC contains error, allowing MAC frame exchange protocol to complete correctly

DCF Operation Next Transmission End of Previous Transmission DIFS Slot time § When MAC DCF Operation Next Transmission End of Previous Transmission DIFS Slot time § When MAC is about to send a frame, • it checks if the medium is not in use for an interval of DIFS (EIFS if last frame received contained errors) – if in use, the MAC will » choose a backoff number and double the contention window » increment the appropriate retry counter • Otherwise, every interval of slot time the medium is idle, MAC will decrement the backoff value. • Once backoff interval expires, the frame is transmitted – if no ACK received, assume collision, backoff again • till the transmission is successful or is cancelled.

PCF Operation § PCF uses a “Poll and Response” protocol • to eliminate the PCF Operation § PCF uses a “Poll and Response” protocol • to eliminate the possibility of contention for the medium • PCF is built over DCF, they can operate simultaneously – PCF uses PIFS to seize and keep the medium (PIFS < DIFS) • A Point Coordinator (PC) controls PCF – the PC is always located in an AP » stations request PC to register them on a polling list » PC regularly polls the stations for traffic and delivers traffic to – PC begins a Contention-Free Period (CFP) periodically » medium is completely controlled by PC, no DCF allowed – PC sends out a Beacon frame to notify the other stations » the Beacon provided the maximum length of the coming CFP » All stations have to update their NAV so that DCF is prohibited – PC ensures that the interval between frames is no longer than PIFS » another way to prevent DCF from gaining access to the medium

PCF Operation SIFS Data+ CFPoll Data+ CF-Ack from station 1 CF-Poll to station n PCF Operation SIFS Data+ CFPoll Data+ CF-Ack from station 1 CF-Poll to station n Data+CF-Poll to station n+1 Data+ CF-Ack+CFPoll to station 2 ACK from station 2 CF-End PIFS – PC expects a response frame in SIFS after sending a Poll » If no response in SIFS, PC will send its next frame in PIFS – PC will send a CF-End frame to conclude the CFP • To make the use of the medium more efficient, it’s possible to piggyback both ACK and CF-Poll onto data frames – station to PC: data frame with ACK of last frame received – PC to station: CF-Poll, ACK, and data can be in one frame • After the CF-End is heard, each station reset its NAV – DCF starts working

Control Frame subtypes § 6 control frame subtypes • request to send (RTS) and Control Frame subtypes § 6 control frame subtypes • request to send (RTS) and clear to send (CTS) » 20 bytes for RTS, 14 bytes for CTS – duration information of coming traffic, allow other stations to update their NAV, to prevent the collision • acknowledgement (ACK) 14 bytes – as a receipt, no need of retransmission – in fragmentation, ACK contains the duration information of next fragment, act like a CTS • power save poll (PS-Poll) 20 bytes – to request an AP to deliver a frame buffered when this station was in power-saving mode • contention-free end (CF-End) 20 bytes – to conclude a CFP by PC, let stations to compete the medium • contention-free end plus ACK (CF-End+ACK) 20 bytes – combination of two frame subtypes

Data Frame subtypes § 8 data frame subtypes – variable length frame: 29 -2346 Data Frame subtypes § 8 data frame subtypes – variable length frame: 29 -2346 bytes • Data – encapsulate the upper layer protocol packet • Data+CF-ACK, Data+CF-Poll, Data+CF-ACK+CF-Poll – sent only during CFP, never used in IBSS – combination of frames, which may target to different stations • Null function (no data) – Zero data length, but needed to complete the frame exchange – The sole purpose of the frame is to carry “power management” BIT • CF-ACK (no data) – more efficient if use ACK control frame (14 bytes v. s. 29 bytes) • CF-Poll (no data), CF-Poll+CF-ACK (no data)

Management Frame subtypes § 11 management frame subtypes • Beacon – transmitted periodically for Management Frame subtypes § 11 management frame subtypes • Beacon – transmitted periodically for others to locate and identify a BSS – also convey information of buffered frame for stations – Other information includes » service set identity (SSID), supported rates, PHY parameters, . . . • Probe Request – transmitted by a mobile station to quickly locate an 802. 11 WLAN – either locate a WLAN with a particular SSID, or locate any WLAN » Our SSID is “tsunami” • Probe Response – In IBSS, the station who sent the latest Beacon answers the request – In BSS, AP always answers the Probe Request – A Probe Response is similar to a Beacon

Management Frame subtypes • Authentication – to conduct a multi-frame exchange stations – The Management Frame subtypes • Authentication – to conduct a multi-frame exchange stations – The ultimately result is the verification of the identity to each other • De-authentication – notify the termination of an authentication relationship • Association Request and Response – for a mobile station to join the BSS, and the result • Re-association Request and Response – Association Request with additional information of current AP – Re-association Response is the same as Association Response • De-association – notify the termination of an association relationship • Announcement Traffic Indication Message (ATIM) – A mobile station in IBSS to notify others that it has frame buffered to a target mobile station who may be in low power mode.

Privacy in IEEE 802. 11 MAC § Wired Equivalent Privacy • A wired LAN Privacy in IEEE 802. 11 MAC § Wired Equivalent Privacy • A wired LAN has to be physically compromised (tap line) – A WLAN can be compromised by anyone with an antenna – WEP provides the same security as wired LAN • The frame body of the data frame is encrypted – by RC 4, developed by RSA Data Security, Inc. » a symmetric stream cipher that support variable length key » RC 4 supports up to 256 bytes key. 802. 11 has chosen 40 bits. – No encryption for frame header and other frame types. » Protect only the content of data frame » Vulnerable to other threats, like traffic analysis • Key distribution or key negotiation is not included in 802. 11 l Two ways to select a key for use – up to 4 default keys, or – a station to establish a key-mapping with another station

Fragmentation in 802. 11 MAC § dot 11 Fragmentation. Threshold attribute(256 -2338) • • Fragmentation in 802. 11 MAC § dot 11 Fragmentation. Threshold attribute(256 -2338) • • Default value is such that no frame will be fragmented A frame is divided into fragments according to threshold When a frame is fragmented, “more fragment” bit is used Subsequent fragment is sent out immediately upon receiving previous fragment’s ACK » no competition for medium, “fragment burst” Source RTS Destination Fragment 0 CTS SIFS Fragment 1 ACK 0 ACK 1

General Frame Format § Frame Control field (16 bits) • frame type and subtype: General Frame Format § Frame Control field (16 bits) • frame type and subtype: control, data, management • To DS bit and From DS bit – 00: direct communication between two mobile stations – 01 or 10: a frame sent from AP to mobile station, or the opposite – 11: wireless DS, sharing the medium with BSS, from AP to AP • Other 1 -bit sub-fields – – More Data: There is at least one frame buffered here More Fragment : This isn’t the last fragment in the fragmented frame Retry: This is the retransmission, instead of first-time transmission Power management: The station will enter low power mode, and won’t be available – WEP: The frame body is encrypted using WEP algorithm – Order: The content of data frame is provided to MAC with a request of strictly ordered service

General Frame Format § Duration/ID field (16 bits) • Association ID (AID) in PS-Poll General Frame Format § Duration/ID field (16 bits) • Association ID (AID) in PS-Poll frame subtype – 0 -2007, the ID a mobile station got when Association – A Beacon includes Traffic Indication Map (TIM), up to 256 bytes, to tell who have buffered frame in AP » each bit in TIM corresponding to a mobile station’s AID • Duration Information to update NAV, in other frame types – the length of the time the medium will be used after this frame – 32768 (1 for highest bit, 0 for others) for all frames sent in CFP » No station can interfere with CFP – 0 for all multicast data frames » There is no response in multicast § Address fields (IEEE 48 -bit format for each) • up to 4 addresses: source, destination, receiver, transmitter, or BSSID

General Frame Format § Sequence Control field • Sequence Number subfield (12 bits) – General Frame Format § Sequence Control field • Sequence Number subfield (12 bits) – 0 to 4095 and wrap around. – Incremented after assignment to each MSDU • Fragment Number subfield (4 bits) – incremented after assignment to each fragment § Frame Body field • variable length field, can be as long as – 2304 bytes without WEP, 2312 bytes with WEP – 2304 was chosen to allow application send 2048 -byte pieces of data § Frame Check Sequence field (32 bits) • applying CCITT CRC-32 polynomial to MAC header and frame body • The same used in other IEEE 802 LAN standards

Overview § § IEEE 802. 11 Architecture and Services Medium Access Control MAC Management Overview § § IEEE 802. 11 Architecture and Services Medium Access Control MAC Management The Physical layer

MAC Management § The first in 802. x to include MAC management • 802. MAC Management § The first in 802. x to include MAC management • 802. 11 WLAN has more complex the environment – Many other users to share the medium » Microwave Oven operates in 2. 4 GHz band (because one excitation frequency of water molecule lies in that band) » Radio frequency ID (RFID) tag uses microwave power, i. e. tracking retail inventory, identify rail cars, … » Other WLANs than 802. 11 that share the medium » Other 802. 11 WLANs that share the medium – Security: the medium is connectable to anyone – Mobility: to provide the reliable service like wired LAN – Power management: to save the battery life. • Defined MAC management capabilities in 802. 11 – Authentication, Association, Address filtering, Privacy, Power management, and Synchronization

MAC Management § Authentication • for one station to prove its identity to another MAC Management § Authentication • for one station to prove its identity to another station – frame exchanges: questions, answers, and results • Two authentication algorithm available – Open system authentication » always return “success” as the result – Shared key authentication » depends on both stations share the same WEP key » encrypt and decrypt a “challenge text” to prove it owns the key • There is no limit on the number of authentication. – one station can pre-authenticate with many stations • Usually a AP initiate the authentication to a mobile station – assumed AP has a more privileged position – some subtle security problem » A rogue AP can adopt the SSID, take the place of old AP, and intercept the content of frames in plain text.

MAC Management § Association • to provide transparent mobility to stations – – Association MAC Management § Association • to provide transparent mobility to stations – – Association is the process of a mobile station “connecting” to AP only after a successful authentication Only one association is permitted for each station Once associated, AP is responsible forwarding the data frames • The procedure of association – Mobile station send a request, including its information » data rate supported, contention-free abilities, support of WEP … – AP decides to grant or deny the service request » 802. 11 doesn’t define what policy the AP should use • Re-association – DS must maintain the location of each mobile station – association request + last AP address – New AP contacts old AP, gets buffered data frame, terminates the old association

MAC Management § Address filtering (MAC function) • more complicated than other 802 LANs MAC Management § Address filtering (MAC function) • more complicated than other 802 LANs – not only based on destination address • each data/management frame has at least 3 addresses – and a BSS identifier (BSSID) • A station must use addresses and BSSID when making receive decisions, according to the standard – Filtering on BSSID is important to minimize the multicast frames with which the station must deal § Privacy (MAC function) • WEP mechanism, as described earlier

MAC Management § Power management • the most complex part in 802. 11 standard MAC Management § Power management • the most complex part in 802. 11 standard – allows mobile stations to enter low power modes » turn off receiver and transmitter to conserve power – Two different mechanism for IBSS and BSS, respectively • Independent BSS – The station enters low power state after notifying another station – This station must wake up periodically to receive the beacon, and stay awake for a period after the beacon, called “ad hoc traffic indication message(ATIM) window” – A station who wants to send to a low-power station should use ATIM to inform the targeted receiver – The receiver should acknowledge it and stay awake till next ATIM window » In multicast, no ACK expected, each receiver must stay awake till next ATIM window

MAC Management § Power management • Infrastructure BSS – each station should inform AP, MAC Management § Power management • Infrastructure BSS – each station should inform AP, in association request, the number of the beacon periods that the station will be in low power mode – Each beacon includes Traffic Indication Map(TIM) » data frame will remain buffered no less than the number of beacon periods determined in association – for multicast, AP will send out the frame right after the Beacon » a station to join multicast must wake up every beacon period – An AP that is running CFP will use CFP to deliver buffered frames to stations that are CF-Pollable » it may also use CFP to deliver multicast frame • Power saving is deeper in Infrastructure BSS than in IBSS – station is not required to wake up every beacon period – it doesn’t have to stay awake after the beacon

MAC Management § Synchronization • the process of stations in a BSS getting in MAC Management § Synchronization • the process of stations in a BSS getting in step to each other – to allow support of PHY layers that use time-based mechanisms » e. g. , frequency hopping – the process involves » beaconing, to announce the presence of a BSS, and » scanning, to find a BSS – the process is entirely distributed • Timer Synchronization Fucntion (TSF) – maintains a 64 -bit timer running at 1 MHz, synchronized by beacons – current TSF timer = the value in beacon + processing time • Independent BSS – each beacon contains the TSF timer of the sender – TSF timer can only be incremented – All stations will synchronize to the fastest timer in BSS, eventually

MAC Management § Synchronization • Infrastructure BSS – only AP sends beacon, so all MAC Management § Synchronization • Infrastructure BSS – only AP sends beacon, so all stations synchronize to AP‘s timer • Beacon frame may not be received by some stations – may be delayed, from competing the medium – The broadcast of beacon may be corrupted, and no retry is attempted – There is no degradation to the WLAN operation • Scanning – passive scanning: switch to a channel, and listen for beacon » save the power, take longer time if no BSS in current channel – active scanning: switch to a channel, send a probe request, and wait for the beacon or probe response » save the time to find a BSS, need more power • Join a BSS – after finding a BSS, synchronize all MAC and PHY parameters with the BSS, and start to use the service

Overview § § IEEE 802. 11 Architecture and Services Medium Access Control MAC Management Overview § § IEEE 802. 11 Architecture and Services Medium Access Control MAC Management The Physical layer

PHY Layer § To provide 3 levels of functionality • Physical layer convergence procedure PHY Layer § To provide 3 levels of functionality • Physical layer convergence procedure (PLCP) sub-layer – controls frame exchange between the MAC and PHY • Physical medium dependent (PMD) sub-layer – transmit data frames over the medium • PHY provides a carrier sense indication back to MAC – to verify the activity on medium MAC Layer PLCP Sub-layer PMD Sub-layer PHY Layer

DSSS PHY § Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum • one of three PHY layers defined DSSS PHY § Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum • one of three PHY layers defined in IEEE 802. 11 – operates at 2. 4 GHz band • PLCP protocol data unit (PPDU) in DSSS – PLCP preamble and PLCP header: are always sent at 1 Mbps – MAC protocol data unit (MPDU) may be sent in 1 or 2 Mbps • Each DSSS channel occupies 22 MHz of bandwidth – 11 channels available in North America, with 5 MHz intervals – At most 3 non-interfering channels spaced 25 MHz apart

FHSS PHY § Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum • one of three PHY layers defined FHSS PHY § Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum • one of three PHY layers defined in IEEE 802. 11 – operates at 2. 4 GHz band – PLCP preamble and PLCP header are always sent at 1 Mbps • In North America and Europe (excluding Spain and France) – 79 channels are chosen over a span of 84. 3 MHz » Each channel covers 1 MHz bandwidth – 3 Set of hopping sequences » designed to minimize the interference • According to FCC regulation in US – Every second, FHSS radio must hop at least 2. 5 hops and 6 MHz distance

IR PHY § Infrared • one of three PHY layers defined in IEEE 802. IR PHY § Infrared • one of three PHY layers defined in IEEE 802. 11 – uses near-visible light as the transmission media – restricted to indoor environment, cannot pass through walls » different from DSSS or FHSS • PPDU consists of PLCP preamble, PLCP header, and PSDU – PLCP preamble and PLCP header are always sent at 1 Mbps – PSDU can be sent at 1 or 2 Mbps

OFDM PHY § Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing • defined in IEEE 802. 11 a, OFDM PHY § Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing • defined in IEEE 802. 11 a, 1997 – operates at 5 GHz U-NII frequency – PLCP preamble and PLCP header are always sent at 1 Mbps – PSDU can use 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54 Mbps » 6, 12, 24 MHz are mandatory rates for 802. 11 a-compliant system

HR/DSSS PHY § High Rate DSSS • defined in IEEE 802. 11 b, 1997 HR/DSSS PHY § High Rate DSSS • defined in IEEE 802. 11 b, 1997 – extend the PSDU data rates to 5. 5 and 11 Mbps – provides a rate shift mechanism, which allows 11 Mbps networks to fall back to 1 and 2 Mbps, and inter-operate with 802. 11 PHY layers • Two kind of PLCP preamble – long preamble with 128 -bits SYNC field (same as old DSSS PHY) » is backward compatible with existing 802. 11 DSSS » sent at 1 Mbps, PSDU may be sent at 1, 2, 5. 5, and 11 Mbps – short preamble with 56 -bit SYNC field » sent at 2 Mbps, PSDU may be sent at 2, 5. 5, and 11 Mbps » higher speed than “long preamble” » cannot inter-operate with 802. 11 2 Mbps network • The same channel allocation with old DSSS

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