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Identifying political and military turning points of the Civil War and assess their significance to the outcome of the conflict NCSCOS 3. 03 Michael Quiñones, NBCT www. socialstudiesguy. com
Choice Assignment [Select one of the following/One page minimum]  Write a 10 step battle plan to defeat the North or South in the Civil War.  Write a one page letter home as a Union or Confederate soldier [or a battlefield nurse] explaining your experiences.  Write a response to the Emancipation Proclamation as a slave or Southerner [happy or angry]. Be descriptive.  Write an apology to president Davis or Lincoln for your failure as a General [Lee, Grant, Jackson, Mc. Clellan, etc. ].  Describe your assassination plan and escape as John Wilkes Booth [describe your motivation for doing what you will do].  Witness at Appomattox courthouse [describe what you heard and saw].
n Macro Concepts n Micro Concepts Conflict- Issues, problems that can lead to fighting without compromise. Resistance to war-Not wanting to fight or avoiding a military conflict. Revolution-A dramatic change in the way something is done. Turning Point-An event that alters and changes the course of history. Leadership-The act of setting an example for people to follow. Strategy-a tactic or technique used to try to win.
The Union’s Blockade n n n To trap and apply pressure to the Confederacy President Lincoln applied a blockade of all major Southern ports: Wilmington, Charleston and Vicksburg. The blockade strategy was designed to restrict supplies to the South. Small boats [blockade runners] were able to outrun large Union ships to provide supplies but much fewer supplies reached Southern ports.
Battle of Bull Run n In order to seize a key railroad center in Manassas, Virginia President Lincoln ordered a full scale attack to capture the rail line along the Bull Run River. The early attack by Union troops was pushed back by Confederate troops led by General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson. Confederate troops were able to gain the advantage because of reinforcements from Virginia. This was the first of a few key battles the Confederate army won.
Lincoln’s internal problems and conflicts n n Copperheads-Like the poisonous snake of the same name this group of democrats wanted to negotiate with the South instead of fighting. Conscription-Because of a lack of willing troops both the North and South were forced to draft soldiers. If a person had $300 cash or had a willing substitute he could avoid conscription. Suspension of Habeas Corpus. Lincoln held people in jail without trial for indefinite time periods until they complied with laws. Martial Law-Lincoln sent soldiers to enforce order where rioting or disorder took place and suspend civil rights such as legal counsel and court appearances.
New Military Technologies Reconnaissance balloons-These devices were used to track opposing armies from high above the battlefields. Conoidal bullets-Also known as the mini-ball these devices improved the ability of soldiers to hit enemies more accurately and from longer distances. Ironclads-Improved the ability of navies to attack enemies and defend themselves from attack because of protective steel armor. Telegraph-Allowed long distance communication between armies and commanders.
Antietam n n The bloodiest one day battle of the Civil War. General Lee’s confederate forces attacked the North in Maryland. Over 6, 000 men were killed and over were 16, 000 wounded. This battle was devastating for the South and invigorating for the North.
Vicksburg n n The battle of Vicksburg was a key victory for the Union because it captured control of the Mississippi River. Southern trade and supply was choked and almost completely cut off. General Grant laid siege to the Confederate troops who were “dug in” by constant artillery bombing. After 6 weeks the Confederate soldiers who were still fighting surrendered Vicksburg to General Grant.
Gettysburg n The “last straw” or last major stand for the Confederates who were led by General Lee was attacking the Union army at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The result was a disaster for the Confederacy. Altogether over 51, 000 men were killed or wounded [28, 000 were Confederates]. The Union was motivated by an earlier battle loss at Chickamauga, Georgia. n The Confederacy never recovered from the loss at Gettysburg. n n n
Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address This speech was delivered by President Abraham Lincoln on November 19, 1863 to honor and declare the battle field as a national monument Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation, so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate, we can not consecrate, we can not hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
Sherman’s March n n Union General William Tecumseh Sherman was ordered to finish off the Confederacy. To end the war Sherman marched his army from Atlanta to Savannah in Georgia then to Raleigh, N. C. He destroyed rail lines, burned buildings, homes and arsenals. The remaining Confederacy was destroyed after Sherman’s March was done.
General Ulysses S. Grant n n n Grant was, by the end of the Civil War, the lead general of the Union. He had been determined to destroy the Southern rebellion at the orders of President Lincoln. He became so popular for his military successes that he was later elected President of the United States.
General Robert E. Lee n n Before the Civil War began he was so respected within the U. S. army he was asked to led the Union army. He refused the offer because he was a Virginian and was named leader of the Confederate Military forces. He took many bold risks and lost the Civil War largely due to Northern industrial and population strength. He was forced to surrender to the Union at Appomattox Court House in Virginia.
Union Generals n n Several union generals played important roles in the Union’s battles. President Lincoln had to fire several of them for lack of success in battles. Mc. Clellan, Burnside and Hooker were all fired by Lincoln for losing too many men or making bad decisions. General Sherman was most well known for being aggressive and burning Southern towns as revenge for seceding from the Union. General Burnside General Mc. Clellan General Meade General Hooker General Sherman
Appomattox Court house n After General Lee realized his Confederate forces could not defeat superior Union forces he decided surrender was necessary to avoid further slaughter. n Grant allowed Lee to surrender and not be prosecuted for treason. n Confederate soldiers were allowed to return home with their horses.
Election of 1864 n n Because of the success of the Union during the end of the Civil War Lincoln was re-elected. Lincoln was also able to push through the 13 th Amendment which officially ended slavery for all remaining slaves in the United States.
John Wilkes Booth n n John Wilkes a very popular actor from a prominent family who was outraged by the defeat of his beloved South. He along with several accomplices developed a plan to kill Lincoln and his cabinet. Booth snuck up behind Lincoln during a play in Washington, D. C. and shot him in the back of the head on April 14, 1865. Lincoln died of the gunshot wound the next morning. Assassination of President Lincoln 4 -14 -1865
Choice Assignment [Select two of the following/One page minimum]  Write an apology to General Lee or Grant apologizing for your failure as a soldier in a specific battle [be specific].  Write an apology to President Davis or President Lincoln apologizing for your failure as a general in a specific battle [be specific].  Draw a battle scene describing the use of telegraph, reconnaissance balloons, conoidal bullets or ironclad ships.  Write a 6 -panel cartoon strip describing the surrender agreement at Appomattox.  Write a newspaper article describing the assassination of President Lincoln at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D. C.  Draw a detailed picture of a battle field at Vicksburg, Gettysburg or Antietam [be detailed].
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