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ICT in the Progress of China Qiheng HU China Association for Science and Technology ICT in the Progress of China Qiheng HU China Association for Science and Technology November 2003 Qiheng HU, Budapest 1

The Trend • The economical globalization is accelerating the distribution of scientific knowledge and The Trend • The economical globalization is accelerating the distribution of scientific knowledge and technological innovation: – International trade: products and technology – Foreign Direct Investment – ICT: in particular the Internet – International collaboration in S&T November 2003 Qiheng HU, Budapest 2

The necessary condition to be a part of this accelerating process: Easy communication within The necessary condition to be a part of this accelerating process: Easy communication within the country and with the rest of the world November 2003 Qiheng HU, Budapest 3

Beacon towers have been used in China to transmit the alarm of war in Beacon towers have been used in China to transmit the alarm of war in Zhou Dynasty- 1100 before Christ -The Ancient IC System : -A professor asked his students: What is the bandwidth of the beacon smoke? November 2003 Qiheng HU, Budapest 4

“Stride across Great Wall to the World” • 1987: The first email sent from “Stride across Great Wall to the World” • 1987: The first email sent from China on Internet : “Stride across Great Wall to the World” • 1990: The Assignment and Registration of CN in DDN-NIC of DARPA (Prof. Qian Tian. Bai) • 1994: Full Connection to Internet (64 kbps) November 2003 Qiheng HU, Budapest 5

The fast development of Internet in China 60 m. 50 m. The penetration rate The fast development of Internet in China 60 m. 50 m. The penetration rate is still very low 40 m. 30 m. 20 m. 10 m. 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 [CNNIC: the 12 th Statistic Report on the Internet Development, July, 2003] November 2003 Qiheng HU, Budapest 6

The ICT application-1 • The National Informatization Surveying Center promulgated the NIQ of China: The ICT application-1 • The National Informatization Surveying Center promulgated the NIQ of China: 38. 46 for 2002 • The NIQ growth during 1998- 2000 amounted to 48. 6%, annual growth is 21. 9%,much higher than the growth in GDP; • The report of the NISC shows that during the past 10 years the annual growth of IT industry has been over 32%, and it is the fastest one among 40 industrial categories • The percentage of IT industry in the whole industry is 8% in 2001 [Computer World, Industry Internal Reference Report, 1 April, 2002] November 2003 Qiheng HU, Budapest 7

The ICT application-2 • Among the composing factors in the NIQ of 2002, the The ICT application-2 • Among the composing factors in the NIQ of 2002, the index for ICT application is the highest one, achieving 65. 89; the ICT, particularly the Internet is penetrating into widespread areas of the socio-economic structure and playing its role [Computer World, Industry Internal Reference Report, 1 April, 2002] November 2003 Qiheng HU, Budapest 8

The ICT application-3 • The next highest index is that of the IT product The ICT application-3 • The next highest index is that of the IT product and services, achieving 53. 78; • The other 4 indexes are: – Index for information resources development and utilization: 45. 29 – Index for information network infrastructure: 37. 12 – Index for informatization environment: 21. 86 – Index for human resources: 13. 43 [Computer World, Industry Internal Reference Report, 1 April, 2002] November 2003 Qiheng HU, Budapest 9

The ICT application-4 • It shows that the problematic issues are in the depth The ICT application-4 • It shows that the problematic issues are in the depth of information resources development and application, the IPR protection and information resources sharing mechanism, and the structural weakness in human resources November 2003 Qiheng HU, Budapest 10

The external resources • The international trade volume of China in 2002 amounted to The external resources • The international trade volume of China in 2002 amounted to 4. 7% of the world; • The FDI amounted to 4. 5% of the GDP in 2002; • The benefit of technology and expertise introduced with capital : accelerated the economic progress, high-tech products export amounted to 3% of the world; • The international collaboration in S&T; The knowledge acquisition via the Internet. [“S&T and development”, An. Gang HU, China Study, v. 45, 4 July, 2003] November 2003 Qiheng HU, Budapest 11

The serious challenge-1 • The dominant part of exported high-tech products are produced by The serious challenge-1 • The dominant part of exported high-tech products are produced by the foreign invested enterprises; – In 1999, wholly owned foreign capital enterprises export volume constitutes 44. 5%, and the joint venture enterprises 29. 0%, of the total high-tech export volume. • 66. 8% of the patent issued in 1999 is owned by foreigners; [“S&T and development”, An. Gang HU, China Study, v. 45, 4 July, 2003] November 2003 Qiheng HU, Budapest 12

The serious challenge-2 • The integrate S&T strength of China constitutes only 1/19 of The serious challenge-2 • The integrate S&T strength of China constitutes only 1/19 of that of U. S. A. in 1998 – The integrate S&T strength is an integrate index composed of 5 factors: • Number of scientific papers published in around 4800 international journals; • Number of patent issued to local citizens • Per capita PC • Per capita Internet users • Percentage of R&D investment in GDP [“S&T and development”, An. Gang HU, China Study, v. 45, 4 July, 2003] November 2003 Qiheng HU, Budapest 13

To explore the internal resources - Responding to the knowledge era • Initiative innovation-the To explore the internal resources - Responding to the knowledge era • Initiative innovation-the challenge for industry and science; • Improve the environment for knowledge innovation and distribution; • Shorten the gap between western and eastern China; • Institutional reformation to strengthen the ICT application. November 2003 Qiheng HU, Budapest 14

Environment for innovation • Common education for every citizen • Economic policy and law Environment for innovation • Common education for every citizen • Economic policy and law system – Encouraging fair competition – Reduce risk for initiative enterprises and venture capital – Open market for local enterprises and encourage them to compete in the international market • Government responsibility and interference in general capacity building and public goods production • Information sharing and easy access to public data • The ICT popularization and the effective society November 2003 Qiheng HU, Budapest 15

Government activities in the environment improving-1 • The Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology Government activities in the environment improving-1 • The Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (Mo. ST) initiative on “Construction of Basic Support Platform for S&T” – The government role in the public goods production and public demand satisfaction – The platform is important strategic resource for implementing the sustainable development and maintaining national security – A key measure to tamp up a solid base for further progress in S&T and the effective use of the public investment – A target that is required by the institutional reformation November 2003 Qiheng HU, Budapest 16

Government activities in the environment improving-2 • The platform is composed of: – A Government activities in the environment improving-2 • The platform is composed of: – A network for expensive scientific instrument and apparatus sharing – A group of scientific data bases and a network for data sharing – A bank of scientific materials and resources, including germ plasm and specimen – The network of scientific information and literature – The high-speed network infrastructure for S&T activities November 2003 Qiheng HU, Budapest 17

The National Library for S&T-1 -a composing element of the platform • A consortium The National Library for S&T-1 -a composing element of the platform • A consortium of 7 libraries covering the field of science, engineering, agriculture and medicine; • A virtual library, operated by a small office under the leadership of a director; • Decision maker is a council composed of representatives of the 7 members plus the representatives from government and academic communities; • The government is funding the consortium constantly with yearly growth of the budget. November 2003 Qiheng HU, Budapest 18

The National Library for S&T-2 -a composing element of the platform • The main The National Library for S&T-2 -a composing element of the platform • The main task: – Building on-line resources with unified standard and provide integrated services to users – Sharing resources to make the public investment effective – Developing alliance to include the local libraries, in particular to those of the western China to improve the literature environment via the usage of ICT – Developing partnership with National Library so as to make progress toward the establishment of digital library covering both cultural, sociological and scientific literature – Conducting research works on issues emerged in the information era concerning the new style library – Developing international collaboration with digital libraries in the rest of the world November 2003 Qiheng HU, Budapest 19

Government activities in the environment improving-3 • The Si. Chuan Rural-Information Network – All Government activities in the environment improving-3 • The Si. Chuan Rural-Information Network – All departments relevant to the agriculture are responsible to serve the farmers using the Internet, the next step will be the integration of services to a unified platform; – The Network for rural economy (Agriculture Department of the Provincial Government), – The Network for rural information (the Weather Bureau), the West Agriculture On-Line (the Cheng. Du Municipal Government), – The Network for Agricultural Science and Technology (Provincial Agricultural Academy), – The Network of the Si. Chuan Agricultural University etc. • All the networks are providing services to the farmers free of charge. November 2003 Qiheng HU, Budapest 20

Government activities in the environment improving-4 • The Western Agriculture On-Line( www. xibunongye. com. Government activities in the environment improving-4 • The Western Agriculture On-Line( www. xibunongye. com. cn ; or : www. cwaol. gov. cn) • It is a network built by the Cheng. Du Municipal Government with Information Centers built in all the 9 District and 12 Counties of the Cheng. Du city. • The Network links to the “information point” in every village for delivering the information interactively. There are trained information responsible in every village who is engaged in assisting farmers to use the facilities for information delivering. The home-pages of Districts and Counties are linked to professional web-sites like the Website for Vegitable, Web-site for Flowers etc. November 2003 Qiheng HU, Budapest 21

The Western Agriculture On-Line • The Wen. Jiang District of Cheng. Du has implemented The Western Agriculture On-Line • The Wen. Jiang District of Cheng. Du has implemented sales amounted to 45 million Chinese Yuan (about 550 thousands US$) in 2002 due to these activities on the web and through the Rural Information Service Centers. This is roughly the 22. 5% of the total sales in 2002 of the whole District. November 2003 Qiheng HU, Budapest 22

The Western Agriculture On-Line • The Internet shortened the distance between Wen. Jiang District The Western Agriculture On-Line • The Internet shortened the distance between Wen. Jiang District and users throughout the country, and, at the same time, facilitated the gardening products of Wen. Jiang to enter the networked market of dominant provinces, cities and districts. Recently the products of this district are sold to over 80 districts and cities of Si. Chuan and also to most of provinces and cities (e. g. Yunnan, Guizhou, Tibet, Chongqing, Shanxi, Gansu, Lanzhou, Xinjiang, Hebei, Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Shenzhen, etc) of the country. November 2003 Qiheng HU, Budapest 23

Modern Service Industry-1 -The important factor to accelerate development • Development of the modern Modern Service Industry-1 -The important factor to accelerate development • Development of the modern service industry is an indicator of the economic capacity and effectiveness in the modern society • In China it is very behind • Under centralized planning economy the stress was on production only, the distribution was ignored; November 2003 Qiheng HU, Budapest 24

Modern Service Industry-2 -The important factor to accelerate development • All services to the Modern Service Industry-2 -The important factor to accelerate development • All services to the individuals and to enterprises have been under government’s control, monopolized; It was “control” rather than “service”; • Since the reform and open door, it has been in a process of switch. There is great space and opportunity to develop the modern service industry in China. November 2003 Qiheng HU, Budapest 25

Modern Service Industry-3 -The important factor to accelerate development • International collaboration is of Modern Service Industry-3 -The important factor to accelerate development • International collaboration is of key importance for China, especially the training of qualified labor force for the advanced modern service industry: – – – – Law Finance Goods dissemination Culture, tourism, multimedia service E-Education E-business Communication and the Internet Content service etc November 2003 Qiheng HU, Budapest 26

Thank you for attention Wish you feel interesting to develop collaboration with China on Thank you for attention Wish you feel interesting to develop collaboration with China on the Modern Service Industry!!! You’re welcome to China for the 2004’ World Engineers’ Convention, for the 2008’ Olympia, and for Many Others!!! November 2003 Qiheng HU, Budapest 27

The coming wave of the Internet application The 1 st wave (1960-1990) The 2 The coming wave of the Internet application The 1 st wave (1960-1990) The 2 d wave The 3 d wave (1980-recent time) (1993- ) The Internet      The Web     The Grid Linked computers  Linked web pages   Linked resources TELNET FTP including: computing resource BBS EMAIL storage resource    http: //www… November 2003 information resource  knowledge resource grid: //….   Qiheng HU, Budapest 28