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ICT IMPACT 1950 s Green Revolution House Hold 1970 s Industrial Revolution Transformation 1990 ICT IMPACT 1950 s Green Revolution House Hold 1970 s Industrial Revolution Transformation 1990 s Knowledge Revolution Nation’s Economy

Emerging Trend in Education Emerging Trend in Education

Break Through in GIRLS Education!!! • National Programme for Education of Girls in Elementary Break Through in GIRLS Education!!! • National Programme for Education of Girls in Elementary Level • Computer Literacy at Primary & Secondary Schools • Exponential Growth of Institutions for Higher Education • High Enrollment of Girls in Science & Engineering • Computer Literacy for Women – Drive by Training Institutes Literacy Rate of Women on the increase 14% between 1991 & 2001 Affordability ? Reach ? Opportunity ? Social Reform

Educational Institutions Vs Female Enrollment 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 33% Enrollme nt 40% Educational Institutions Vs Female Enrollment 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 33% Enrollme nt 40% Enrollme nt 7929 4862 3000 2000 1000 0 2223 886 1991 2001 Year General Education Professional Education

Female Literacy Rate in % 80 9 % Growth 70 73 60 50 16 Female Literacy Rate in % 80 9 % Growth 70 73 60 50 16 % Growth 14 % Growth 64 54 Legend: 40 Urban 47 30 31 20 40 Rural Total Literacy 10 0 1991 2001 Period 1991 2001

“Indian Women in IT” – Remarkable Turnaround !! • US $ 16500 Million turn “Indian Women in IT” – Remarkable Turnaround !! • US $ 16500 Million turn over in 2002 -2003 • 3. 15% of National GDP • # 2 Contributor to Nation’s Foreign Exchange Earnings • 20. 4% share in India’s Exports • Geographical Spread over Worldwide Market - Americas including Canada & Latin America - Asia Pacific, West Asia, South East Asia - Europe - Africa Who were behind this revolution? “Obviously Indian Women in

18000 3. 5 3. 15 IT Market in US $ Million GDP Share 16000 18000 3. 5 3. 15 IT Market in US $ Million GDP Share 16000 14000 2. 87 3 2. 66 16500 2. 5 12000 10000 8000 13783 1. 87 2 1. 45 1. 22 1. 5 12410 6000 1 8357 4000 5021 6014 1997 -98 1998 -99 0. 5 2000 0 0 1999 -00 2000 -01 Year 2001 -02 2002 -03 GDP IT Market in US $ Million Indian IT Market: 1997 -2002

Indian Domestic IT Market: 1997 -2002 1. 26 Indian Domestic IT Market in US Indian Domestic IT Market: 1997 -2002 1. 26 Indian Domestic IT Market in US $ Million 6000 1. 36 1. 27 1. 4 GDP Share 6213 5000 4000 6598 0. 79 2000 1. 2 1 6114 0. 82 0. 8 3000 3248 1. 6 4351 0. 6 3381 0. 4 1000 0. 2 0 0 1997 -98 1998 -99 1999 -00 2000 -01 Year 2001 -02 2002 -03 GDP IT Market in US $ Million 7000

Educated Women in India find foothold in ICT • ICT access & literacy drive Educated Women in India find foothold in ICT • ICT access & literacy drive creates cultural & economic independence for Indian women. • 21% are Women out of 650, 000 professionals employed in IT • Expected to touch 35% by the Year 2005 • Already 65% women in ITES segment • 1: 3 to 1: 7, Female: Male Gender ratio in employment • 76% of this strength is graduate degree or above • 1. 1 Million people on demand estimated by Year 2008 • 235, 000 shortfall anticipated by 2008 Can Indian Women make good this shortfall & sustain growth ?

Male Female Gender Ratio 59312 # Employees 60000 30000 20000 10000 0 WOS/MNC/JVS : Male Female Gender Ratio 59312 # Employees 60000 30000 20000 10000 0 WOS/MNC/JVS : 29 % Indian Cos : 71 % 14828 50000 40000 Sample Size: 186 ITES : 12 % IT Services : 88 % 19475 3895 44484 Ranges from 1: 2 to 1: 7 in Indian Cos 15600 MNC/Wo. S Gender Ratio: (Female: Male) 1: 5 to 1: 7 in WOS/MNCs Indian Type of Company Female Employees Male Employees

Staff Employed 59312 Sample Size: 186 WOS/MNC/JVS : 54 # Indian Cos : 132 Staff Employed 59312 Sample Size: 186 WOS/MNC/JVS : 54 # Indian Cos : 132 # ITES : 56 # 19475 [ Wo. S/MNC/JV - 18 #, Indian Cos - 38 # ] IT Services : 130 # [ Wo. S/MNC/JV - 36 #, Indian Cos - 94 # ]

Women in IT Pyramid Vs Effort & Time Demand Effort & Entrepreneur Employment Segment Women in IT Pyramid Vs Effort & Time Demand Effort & Entrepreneur Employment Segment Time Demand A: Data Entry/Billing. Handling ICT in various functions in B: ITES Industry / Kiosk Management C: Handling ICT in Banks / Software Programmers D: Project Managers / Technical Architect E: Quality Assurance & Hi-Tech specialization in IT F: Senior Executive Managing IT Organization

Women in ICT – Grass Root to Pyramidal !! • Today at (or) out Women in ICT – Grass Root to Pyramidal !! • Today at (or) out of school, in (or) out of college - Women & ICT are integral • Basic operations to high-tech IT applications - Women make their presence felt • Employee to Entrepreneur - Women have excelled in the last decade • Family & Work - Women have balanced their time & effort Positive Trend but are they a reckoning force for economic

“Life Cycle Diamond” “Life Cycle Diamond”

“Life Cycle Diamond” – Women flaking social stigma !! Marriage - Baby Phase Indian “Life Cycle Diamond” – Women flaking social stigma !! Marriage - Baby Phase Indian Women in IT are learning to cross the crucial phase of life to enhance

Case Study – Reflection of Thoughts Kalyani Marrying men in Foreign Country draws Women Case Study – Reflection of Thoughts Kalyani Marrying men in Foreign Country draws Women to IT Sexual harassment protection & Working in Shifts- Boon for Women in IT Ann Mallika Nuclear Family System deterrent for Women in IT “Glass Ceiling” Predominant for Women to climb-up the ladder in Organization Kanchana Radha Sarada More support from Family & Society for Women at work ICT access in geometrical progression. Progress of Women is stymied in

Emerging Trends – Women in IT: What they said!! Mythili Ramesh: • Gender discrimination Emerging Trends – Women in IT: What they said!! Mythili Ramesh: • Gender discrimination on attitudes & perspectives remain. • 100% output for family & employer. Faster burnout. • Flexi-timings & caring organization Naseem Mariam: • Socializing is yet to catch-up. • Family support for business travel & client interaction. • Tax relief towards child care & concierge services

Sumitra Seshan: • ICT education for women at par with Men • Quality Engineering Sumitra Seshan: • ICT education for women at par with Men • Quality Engineering institutions created ample opportunity. • More graduates but less number turn out for work. Vidya Balasubramanian: • Ethics committee in organization to listen to voice of women • Apt environment with pick-up & drop + support for rudimentary household chores. • Motivational training to help women look at long standing association with employer

Emerging Trends: Path breaking reformations!! • Spouse support & Managing IT as an entrepreneur. Emerging Trends: Path breaking reformations!! • Spouse support & Managing IT as an entrepreneur. • Marriages amongst IT Professionals leads them from being employee to become employer. • ‘Work from home’- options for drop out women to sustain interest & continue their profession. • Less strenuous & flexi time work during Marriage-Baby phase. • More technology oriented capability demonstrated • Successful Senior Executives overcoming cultural & social pressures managing IT operations

Government Policies & Initiatives • 30% employment of women attracts capital subsidy. • e-governance Government Policies & Initiatives • 30% employment of women attracts capital subsidy. • e-governance & computerization of government operations has created ICT Access. • Rural Knowledge centres to enhance self esteem & social prestige of women. • Exclusive financial assistance for Women Entrepreneurs. • Labor Law amendment for women to work in all shifts. More changes in policy for women to support Nation’s economy expected

Conclusion • Competency & Work Demand when met, gender equality is established. • Emerging Conclusion • Competency & Work Demand when met, gender equality is established. • Emerging Trends are indicators of portrayal of Indian Women as part of global community. • Cultural, Ethical & Social changes will continue for productive role by women in Nation’s economy

Conclusion (Contd…) • Forced & chosen change due to IT revolution will benefit Indian Conclusion (Contd…) • Forced & chosen change due to IT revolution will benefit Indian women. • ‘There are no road blocks for Women in any field’ as said by Ms. Kiran Bedi, IPS – ‘Ramon Magsaysay Award Winner’

What I say ? My Belief … • As enabler of IT over the What I say ? My Belief … • As enabler of IT over the last 12 Years being in the Ministry of Communication & Information Technology / STPI, I believe that • Women’s share in ICT could easily grow to 45 ~ 50% in next 5 years provided women: - repositions & become more career oriented. - prioritize & manage issues. • Higher percentage of Women in Senior Positions in IT will become a reality. WIT 2003 Conference is towards this direction.

“ Yes there are really no road blocks for Women in ICT” “ Yes there are really no road blocks for Women in ICT”

Website: www. stpc. soft. net R. RAJALAKSHMI Director Email: rrl@stpc. soft. net Website: www. stpc. soft. net R. RAJALAKSHMI Director Email: [email protected] soft. net