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IBM Power Systems AIX 6 Excellence Ravi Singh IBM Power Systems rsingh@us. ibm. com IBM Power Systems AIX 6 Excellence Ravi Singh IBM Power Systems [email protected] ibm. com 1 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems AIX 6 2 © 2009 IBM Corporation IBM Power Systems AIX 6 2 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Characteristics of a good OS - AIX § Availability 4 Power IBM Power Systems Characteristics of a good OS - AIX § Availability 4 Power Systems with AIX delivers 99. 997% uptime § Virtualization support 4 Optimized and integrated with POWER and Power. VM 4 Compliant with several security certifications and standards § Security § Performance 4 Industry § Roadmap 4 Strong leading benchmarks and stable roadmap consistent with new releases § ISV Adoption 4 More than 11, 000 applications available § Industry standard Features 4 UNIX, Security and Open standards § Innovative and unique features 4 Features 3 available only in AIX © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems 20+ Years of AIX Progress 1986 -1992 1994 -1996 1997 -1999 IBM Power Systems 20+ Years of AIX Progress 1986 -1992 1994 -1996 1997 -1999 2001 2002 2004 -2007 2008 -09 AIX/6000 AIX V 2 & V 3 Establishment in the market: - RISC Support - UNIX credibility - Open Sys. Stds. . - Dynamic Kernel - JFS and LVM - SMIT AIX V 3. 2. 5 Maturity: - Stability - Quality AIX V 4. 1/4. 2 SMP Scalability: - POWERPC spt. - 4 -8 way SMP - Kernel Threads - Client/Server pkg - NFS V 3 - CDE - UNIX 95 branded - NIM - > 2 GB filesystems -HACMP Clustering - POSIX 1003. 1, 1003. 2, XPG 4 - Runtime Linking - Java 1. 1. 2 AIX V 4. 3 Higher levels of scalability: - 24 -way SMP - 64 -bit HW support - 96 GB memory - UNIX 98 branded - TCP/IP V 6 - IPsec - Web Sys. Mgr. - LDAP Dir. Server. - Workload Mgr - Java JDT/JIT - Direct I/O - Alt. Disk Install - Exp/Bonus CDs AIX V 5. 1 Industry Leading Performance: - POWER 4 support - Static LPAR - Linux Affinity - New 64 bit kernel - 32 -way SMP - 256 GB mem - JFS 2 - Networking enh. - Java 2 support - Dynamic CPU Deallocation - Cluster Mgt (CSM) - GRID Toolkit 4 4 -8 way SMP Flexible Resource Management: - POWER 4+ spt. - Dynamic LPAR - Dynamic CUo. D - Dyn. CPU Sparing - 512 GB mem - 16 TB filesystems - UNIX 03 branded - Concurrent I/O - Multi. Path I/O - Mobile IP V 6 - System UE Gard - Flex LDAP Client - XSSO PAM spt AIX V 6. 1 Advanced Virtualization: - POWER 5 spt. - 64 -way SMP - SMT - Micro. Partitions™ - Virt I/O Server - Partition Load Mgr - NFS Version 4 - Adv. Accounting - Scaleable VG - JFS 2 Shrink - SUMA - SW RAS features - POSIX Realtime Power. VM Virtualization: - POWER 6 support - Workload Partitions - Application Mobility - Continuous Avail. - Storage Keys - Dynamic tracing - Software FFDC - Recovery Rtns - Concurrent MX - Trusted AIX - RBAC - Encrypting JFS 2 - AIX Security Expert - Compliance Expert - AIX Runtime Expert Open Systems Distributed Network Centric Workstations Client-Server Computing Uni-processor AIX V 5. 3 AIX V 5. 2 24 -way SMP e-Business Computing 32 -way SMP On Demand Business 32 -way SMP POWER of 6 64/way SMP © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Unsurpassed Reliability According to a recent Yankee Group study* of 400 IBM Power Systems Unsurpassed Reliability According to a recent Yankee Group study* of 400 Windows, Linux and UNIX users, AIX was the most reliable server operating system: “IBM’s AIX achieved the highest level of reliability, with corporate enterprises reporting and average of only 36 minutes of downtime per server in a 12 -month period” * Source: “Unix, Linux Uptime and Reliability Increase; Patch Management Woes Plague Windows” © 2008 Yankee Group Research, Inc. All rights reserved 5 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems with AIX deliver 99. 997% uptime - 54% of IT executives IBM Power Systems with AIX deliver 99. 997% uptime - 54% of IT executives and managers say that they require 99. 99% or better availability for their applications Power Systems with AIX delivers the best RAS of UNIX, Linux, and Windows 1. Availability: The least amount of downtime § 15 minutes a year § 2. 3 times better than the closest UNIX competitor § more than 10 X better than Windows 2. Reliability: The fewest unscheduled outages § less than one outage per year 3. Serviceability: The fastest patch time § 11 minutes to apply a patch Source: ITIC 2009 Global Server Hardware & Server OS Reliability Survey Results, July 7, 2009 6 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems IBM AIX on the Power series leads all vendors for both IBM Power Systems IBM AIX on the Power series leads all vendors for both server hardware and server OS reliability Ref: ITIC 2009 Global Server Hardware and Server OS Reliability Survey 7 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems New Security Capabilities New feature Benefit to customer Role Based Access IBM Power Systems New Security Capabilities New feature Benefit to customer Role Based Access Control § Tighter security by reducing the number of root users § Improved IT efficiency by allowing administrative tasks to be delegated to non-root users Encrypting Filesystem § Critical data is safeguarded from loss, even from root § Improved IT efficiency though automated key management AIX Security Expert § Tightened security by federating security settings across the Secure by Default § Tighter security by requiring all services to be explicitly enabled § Reduced administrative effort when used with AIX Security enterprise § Improved IT efficiency by reducing administrative effort of security management Expert Trusted Execution § Stronger resistance to hacks and penetrations by validated execution § Highest level of compartmentalized security for demanding Trusted AIX and Planned CAPP/RBACPP/LSPP/EAL 4 workloads § Improved IT efficiency though automated key management + Certifications 8 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems New Continuous Availability Capabilities New feature Benefit to customer POWER 6™ IBM Power Systems New Continuous Availability Capabilities New feature Benefit to customer POWER 6™ Storage Keys § Improved availability by reducing system and application Concurrent AIX updates § Eliminate some planned system outages because some kernel Live Application Mobility & Live Partition Mobility § Greater application availability though moving applications off probevue Dynamic Tracing § Greater application reliability through improved performance Functional Recovery Routines § Improved operating system availability through self healing Mainframe inspired availability features § Greater reliability though easier problem determination and 9 outage caused by storage overlays § Reduced time to repair by eliminating a whole class of intermittent problem fixes to be installed without rebooting § Potentially improved security by enabling administrators to put on some critical security fixes without waiting for an outage window of a system that is going to be taken down § Greater application availability by allowing workloads to be moved off of overloaded servers with impacting the end user and fault analysis programming resolution © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems New Virtualization Capabilities New capability How capability addresses client needs Workload IBM Power Systems New Virtualization Capabilities New capability How capability addresses client needs Workload Partitions § Improved IT efficiency through reduced number of AIX Live Application Mobility & Live Partition Mobility § Increased application availability by moving applications to Workload Partitions Manager § Increased administrative efficiency by federating management 10 instances than need to be managed § Greater flexibility by simplifying consolidation and virtualization § Improved manageability by allowing administrators to group all application resources and manage as a whole § New workload opportunities though consolidation of hundreds of workloads on a single AIX instance avoid outages § Improved IT efficiency though relocation of workloads to lower used server § Increased energy efficiency by consolidating workloads on fewer servers at night § Greater application performance by allowing workloads to be moved to less loaded servers of workload partitions across the IT landscape § Improved IT efficiency though automated relocation of WPARs § Greater availability through built-in monitoring of WPARs § Also available as a component of AIX Enterprise Edition © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems New Manageability Capabilities New capability How capability addresses client needs IBM IBM Power Systems New Manageability Capabilities New capability How capability addresses client needs IBM Systems Director Console for AIX IBM Systems Director AIX Enterprise Edition AIX Management Edition § Improved manageability by allowing administrators manage Automated Page Size Management for POWER 6 § Improved performance management through AIX self tuning Workload Partitions Live Application Mobility Live Partition Mobility Workload Partitions Manager Role Based Access Control AIX Security Expert Trusted Execution Concurrent AIX Updates probevue dynamic tracing § All of these features provide improved manageability by 11 AIX via a secure web interface §Integrates with Director 6. 1 to provide seamless access between Director and AIX contexts page size on POWER 6 systems reducing the effort of managing AIX, improving administrator efficiency and reducing problem determination and resolution © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Security 12 © 2009 IBM Corporation IBM Power Systems Security 12 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems AIX V 6. 1 Role Based Access Control (RBAC) What is IBM Power Systems AIX V 6. 1 Role Based Access Control (RBAC) What is it? How it can help? §A new capability of AIX V 6. 1 that allows privileged administration tasks to be delegated to non-privileged users §Can reduce the cost and complexity of security administration by allowing secure delegation of administrative tasks to non-privileged users §Access to system resources are associated with roles that are assigned to non-privileged users §Enables a more secure IT infrastructure by reducing the need for so many privileged administrators §Many roles are predefined which can reduce the effort of implementing RBAC §Roles can also be associated with programs aix device fs network proc ras security system wpar boot config install stat Create “create boot image” Halt “halt the system” Info “display boot information Reboot “reboot the system” Shutdown “shutdown the system” auth = aix. system. boot. create 13 §Assigning roles to programs can reduce the need for security exposures such as the use of setuid for programs §Allows for new ways to delegate administration duties between system administrators and nonadministrative users © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems AIX V 6. 1 Encrypting Filesystem What is it? How it IBM Power Systems AIX V 6. 1 Encrypting Filesystem What is it? How it can help? §The capability to automatically encrypt data in a JFS 2 filesystem §Enables improved security by reducing unauthorized access to data, even by privileged users §Data can be protected from access by privileged users §Backup in encrypted or clear formats §Secure backups reduces the exposure of data compromised when backup media is taken outside of secure facilities §Automated key management key store open on login, integrated into AIX security authentication §Automatic management of protection keys can reduce the administrative effort of using encrypted data §Each file encrypted with a unique key §Provides the capability for additional security for applications that may have security design exposures §No keys stored in clear in kernel memory §A variety of AES, and RSA cryptography keys supported 14 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems AIX & Power Systems Security Certifications AIX 5200 -06 CAPP/EAL 4+ IBM Power Systems AIX & Power Systems Security Certifications AIX 5200 -06 CAPP/EAL 4+ Application: 01/11/05 Final report: 10/26/05 Certificate: 12/14/05 AIX 5 L 5200 -05 and Pitbull LSPP/EAL 4+ Application : 01/11/05 Certificate issued: 05/16/06 AIX 5300 -05 LSPP/EAL 4+ Pitbull MLS Ported to AIX 5300 -03 AIX 6100 -00) CAPP/RBACPP/LSPP/EAL 4+ MLS capabilities integrated into standard AIX product One certification for 3 Protection Profiles Supports P 6, P 5, P 4 Certificate issued: May 2008 Pitbull product Supports P 5, P 4 Certificate issued: 12/19/06 Pitbull product available to customers Dec 31, 05 Certification History AIX 4. 2 C 2: Apr 24, 1997 AIX 4. 3 C 2: May 6, 19987 AIX 5. 2 CAPP/EAL 4+ : Nov 4, 2002 POWER 4 HW CAPP/EAL 4+ : Apr 2003 AIX 5. 2 ML 1 CAPP/EAL 4+ : Sept 8, 2003 AIX 5. 2 ML 6 CAPP/EAL 4+ : Dec 14, 2005 AIX 5. 2 ML 5 and Pitbull LSPP: May 16, 2006 AIX 5. 3 TL 5 and Pitbull LSPP: May 16, 2006 AIX 5. 2 TL 4 & VIOS CAPP/EAL 4+: Dec 16, 2006 POWER 6: Dec, 2007 AIX 6: May, 2008 15 AIX 5300 -04 CAPP/EAL 4+ Supports P 5, P 4 Certificate issued: 12/19/06 VIOS EAL 4+ Included with AIX 53. 00 -04 CAPP/EAL 4+ POWER 6 Hardware EAL 4+ Dynamic LPAR with Micro. Partitioning Legend AIX V 5. 2 AIX V 5. 3 AIX V 6. 1 VIOS POWER 6 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems AIX V 6. 1 Security Expert What is it? §A centralized IBM Power Systems AIX V 6. 1 Security Expert What is it? §A centralized security management tool that can control over 300 security settings from a single console §Administrators can start from a “Low”, “Medium”, “High” or “Sarbanes-Oxley” security template and customize settings to met business requirements §Security settings can be exported and imported as a security profile to multiple systems §On AIX V 6. 1, security profiles can be stored in an LDAP directory for ease of distribution §AIX Security Expert was first included in AIX V 5. 3 TL 5 16 How it can help? §Can reduce the cost and complexity of security administration by allowing federated management of security profiles across multiple servers §Enables a more secure IT infrastructure by reducing the effort of maintaining system security §“Check” functionality can provide additional security by validating that the security profile for each system matches the actual security settings §Allows for new ways to efficiently manage security across multiple AIX systems © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Compliance Challenges Companies face increased pressure to achieve and maintain compliance IBM Power Systems Compliance Challenges Companies face increased pressure to achieve and maintain compliance – all with limited resources, time and budget. Analysts have estimated that North American companies are spending: 4$29. 9 B on regulatory compliance 4 $8. 8 B on technology solutions § Businesses are looking for compliance automation solutions that provide: 4 Configuration in large scale enterprises 4 Single solution for consolidating and automating 43% of CFOs think that improving governance, controls and risk management is their top challenge. multiple compliance regulations and standards. 4 Audit reporting to satisfy disparate compliance organizations Technology solutions provide automation to enable efficiency and improve IT governance 4 Payment Card Industry Data security standards and profiles 4 DOD Security implementation Profiles 64% of CIOs feel that the most significant challenges facing IT organizations are security, compliance and data protection CFO Survey: Current state & future direction, IBM Business Consulting Services IBM Service Management Market Needs Study, March 2006 17 17 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems IBM Compliance Expert Express Edition is designed to simplify IT compliance IBM Power Systems IBM Compliance Expert Express Edition is designed to simplify IT compliance Features: 4 Easily set dozens of AIX security configuration settings to match compliance standards 4 Includes profiles with recommended system settings for: §The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard Version 2 §The US Department of Defense Security Technical Implementation Guide for UNIX 4 Simple command line interface minimizes training and administrative workload 4 Reports that show whether the system configuration matches the compliance standard 4 Support for AIX 6 and AIX V 5. 3 on current Technology Levels Potential Benefits: 4 Designed to simplify the effort of maintaining system configuration for compliance 4 Preconfigured profiles facilitate standardization and easy implementation and potentially reduce the amount of administrative effort to interpret standards 4 Compliance reports may be used to provide a basis for audit activity Note: Almost all compliance standards include procedural elements that are outside the scope of system configuration settings. The IBM Compliance Expert Express Edition can potentially simplify compliance efforts, but it cannot, by itself, enforce compliance. 18 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems IBM Compliance Expert Express Edition Simplifies IT compliance with industry security IBM Power Systems IBM Compliance Expert Express Edition Simplifies IT compliance with industry security standards New Automatically sets many AIX security settings to match common compliance standards Includes profiles with recommended system settings for: 4 The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard Version 2 4 The US Department of Defense Security Technical Implementation Guide for UNIX Simple command line interface minimizes training and administrative workload Reports show whether the system configuration matches the compliance standard Support for AIX 6 and AIX V 5. 3 on current Technology Levels Lowers cost of system administration for compliance standards Facilitates standardization with minimal training Manages risk with easy-to-use reports as a base for compliance audits 19 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Other Security Features Ø Secure by Default - Secure by Default IBM Power Systems Other Security Features Ø Secure by Default - Secure by Default takes a bottom-up approach in hardening an AIX system by installing a minimal set of software, This approach is opposite to starting with a regular, full-blown AIX installation and then use the AIX Security Expert to apply hardening (top-down approach) by disabling unneeded components. Ø Trusted AIX - Enables Multi Level Security (MLS) capabilities in AIX. As compared to regular AIX, Trusted AIX label-based security implements labels for all subjects and objects in the system. Ø The Trusted Execution environment - Enhances the AIX security environment. It is a collection of features used to verify the integrity of the system and implement advance security policies, which together can be used to enhance the trust level of the complete system with Trusted Signature Database (TSD). Ø Trusted Execution - Provides a new command to verify the integrity of the system. The trustchk command used for integrity checking: System integrity check and Runtime integrity check. 20 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Other Security Features Ø Password length and encryption algorithms - Loadable IBM Power Systems Other Security Features Ø Password length and encryption algorithms - Loadable Password Algorithm (LPA). It also removes the eight character password limitation. Ø Discretionary access control - DAC are the security aspects that are under the control of the file or directory owner. Ø FPM – File Permission Manager manages the permissions on commands and daemons owned by privileged users with setuid or setgid permissions. 21 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Reliability Availability Serviceability 22 © 2009 IBM Corporation IBM Power Systems Reliability Availability Serviceability 22 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems AIX V 6. 1 POWER 6 Storage Keys § Exploitation of IBM Power Systems AIX V 6. 1 POWER 6 Storage Keys § Exploitation of a POWER 6 processor hardware feature to provide additional isolation of kernel and application data § Storage keys can prevent invalid changes to memory cause by programming errors § Application use of POWER 6 storage keys is enabled in AIX V 5. 3 § AIX kernel exploitation of POWER 6 storage keys is included in AIX V 6. 1 23 Can provide for higher AIX availability by reducing the number of unplanned outages due to intermittent memory overlay All statements regarding IBM's future direction and intent are subject to change or withdrawal without notice, and represent goals and objectives only. © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems AIX 6. 1 Concurrent Maintenance vmmove() sleepx() getgidx() Kernel Space User IBM Power Systems AIX 6. 1 Concurrent Maintenance vmmove() sleepx() getgidx() Kernel Space User Space emgr Concurrent update vmmove() patch Interim Fix selected AIX kernel problems without a service outage Non-disruptive fixes to executable code in a running AIX kernel 4 Base AIX Kernel (/unix), kernel extension, or device driver No downtime (reboot) required to apply fix and make it active Concurrent updates will be packaged as Interim Fixes Maintenance can be backed off without an outage 24 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems AIX V 6. 1 POWER 6 Automatic Variable Page Size What IBM Power Systems AIX V 6. 1 POWER 6 Automatic Variable Page Size What is it? §AIX V 6. 1 exploitation of a POWER 6 feature that supports variable page size §AIX will automatically select optimal page size to provide better performance §Kernel will choose between 4 K and 64 K pages, including a mix within a memory region §Supports process data, heap, stack, shared memory, anonymous mmap() memory §Enabled by default with administrative controls to turn off or change aggressiveness to “upsize” 25 How it can help? §Can improve overall system performance which could improve the amount of work done per Watt of energy §Automated page size tuning can reduce the amount of effort and cost associated with managing a key aspect of performance tuning §Since this feature is turned “on” by default, it improves your ability to get the most out of your systems based on POWER 6 processors §This “self tuning” aspect of AIX V 6. 1 can improve performance while reducing administrative workload © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Cluster Aware Performance Utilities § Benefits – Group resource utilization – IBM Power Systems Cluster Aware Performance Utilities § Benefits – Group resource utilization – Monitor multiple partitions in a single screen §Features – AIX topas utility is made cluster aware. Cluster aggregated utilization along with individual partition statistics are displayed – Recognizes Power. HA clusters automatically – User-defined group of hosts can be monitored as a cluster – Similar look & feel of CEC Monitor Panel – AIX topasrec utility is made cluster aware – Records Utilization aggregated at Cluster Level along with individual partitions utilization – AIX topasout utility is used to process the cluster recording file & generate reports – Reports that can be post processed by nmon analyzer 26 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems AIX Runtime Expert: Providing simplified discovery, application, update, and verification of IBM Power Systems AIX Runtime Expert: Providing simplified discovery, application, update, and verification of O/S runtime properties across one or more systems Old Way New Way Environment Variables Boot LV Settings OS Configuration and Tuning Soup Control 1 Config file x contents Env var XYZ=“Yes” AIX security profile T Single XML Profile . tuneable N CLI Utilities Configuration Files Set Apply and maintain approaches Scripts, ftp, rsh, ssh, documentation, 3 rd party tools, mksysb, etc. “One Button” Tasks Extract Act on Multiple Systems Compare System A 27 System B System N System © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems AIX Runtime Expert (included with AIX 6. 1 TL 4) Enables IBM Power Systems AIX Runtime Expert (included with AIX 6. 1 TL 4) Enables the administrator to set, most AIX tuning and configuration settings with confirmation profile Existing systems can be used as a model to create the profile Current system settings can be compared to a profile to detect unauthorized changes Extensible architecture with a programmable core engine to enable system administrator customization New Control 1 Config file x contents Env var XYZ=“Yes” AIX security profile T Single XML Profile . tuneable N Set “One Button” Tasks Extract Compare Planned to be integrated with Systems Director in 2010 28 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems AIX Runtime Expert - Architecture Extensible architecture with a programmable core IBM Power Systems AIX Runtime Expert - Architecture Extensible architecture with a programmable core engine Base Command Line Utilities artexget – extract runtime attributes from a running system based on a provided configuration profile artexset – set values on a system from a profile to take effect immediately or after system restart artexdiff – compare values between a running system and a profile, or compare between two profiles artexmerge – combine the contents of two or more profiles into a single profile artexlist – list configuration profiles that exist on a system Configuration Profiles • XML files • Based on Control Catalogs • Supplies values • Template to get (extract) values • Can reside in LDAP or locally Set Get Core Engine Diff Merge Running O/S Instance Control Catalogs • XML files • Programming Modules for the Core Engine • Specifies parameter-value rules, processing sequences, environment variable details, file content management, etc. 29 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems AIX Runtime Expert – Configuration Elements acctctl dumpctrl nis namerslv tsd IBM Power Systems AIX Runtime Expert – Configuration Elements acctctl dumpctrl nis namerslv tsd alog errdaemon probevue nfs trustchk authzcfg ewlm tcp_nw shconf vmo authent ffdc udp_nw schedo aix. secexpert chcons filter ip_nw privcmd mkuser. defuser Chdev. sys 0 ioo arp_nw privdev chuser chlicense krecovery stream privfile login chservices lvmo raso smtctl chsubserver chsys nfso role syscorepath gen. param class mktcpip ruser traces etc. env sysdumpdev file. data trcctl restricted misc. other probeview 30 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Memory Pagesize tuning Ø Options in vmo command Ø vmm_default_pspa v-1: IBM Power Systems Memory Pagesize tuning Ø Options in vmo command Ø vmm_default_pspa v-1: no page support or no hardware support v 0 -100: Percent of pages unreferenced before promotion occurs v. Defaults: • -1: for Power 5 and before servers • 0: for Power 5+ and above servers Ø vmm_mpsize_support v 0: AIX recognizes only 4 K & 16 MB pages v 1: AIX use pagesizes supported by processor v 2 (default): AIX use multiple page size per segment Ø pagesize –af: Display all supported virtual memory page sizes 31 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Performance tuning Changes KERNEL/PROCESS/TUNING 5. 1 5. 2 5. 3 6. IBM Power Systems Performance tuning Changes KERNEL/PROCESS/TUNING 5. 1 5. 2 5. 3 6. 1 32, 767 32, 768 Limit max Threads/process and max processes/user (chuser and ulimit commands) N N N Y AIXTHREAD_SCOPE – Note 45 P P P S 8: 1 1: 1 ksh 93/ ksh 88 5 K 25 K Max Threads/process AIXTHREAD_MNRATIO– Note 45 ksh Max. no. of devices – Note 32 Memory/Storage Keys Application N N Y-P 6 Memory/Storage Keys Kernel N N N Y-P 6 Restricted tuneables – Note 34 N N N Y Out of the box Perf Tuning VMM, AIO and Oracle – Note 36 N N N Y Solution Performance Tuning – Note 36 N N N Y System Filesystem I/O pacing enabled by default N N N Y aio_minservers 1 1 1 3/core aio_maxservers 10 10 10/core 30/core aio_maxrequests 4096 65536 aio_fastpath & aio_fsfastpath 0/0 0/0 1/1 minpout/maxpout 0/0 0/0 4096/8192 20/80/80 03/90/90 lru_file_repage_steal_method 1 0 1 0 0 1 Memory Affinity (To disable vmo -o memory_affinity=0) N Y Y Y nmon integration into topas Y Y VIOS Y Y I/O Pacing tuning level minperm/maxclient REFERENCE: Section 6. 3 / AIX 6. 1 Differences Redbook, SG 24 -7559 N N http: //www. redbooks. ibm. com/abstracts/sg 247559. html? Open monitoring in topas N N 32 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Increased Argument Size Ø AIX 5. 3 was capped at 24 IBM Power Systems Increased Argument Size Ø AIX 5. 3 was capped at 24 KB Ø AIX 6. 1 supports 24 KB to 4 MB Ø ARG_MAX increased from 256 K 1024 K in limits. h Ø To change 4 view with “lsattr –El sys 0 –a ncargs” 4 change with “chdev –El sys 0 –a ncargs=n § where n is number of 4 K blocks § chdev –El sys 0 –a ncargs=256 # results in 1 MB size (256 * 4 K) REFERENCE: Section 5. 3 / AIX 6. 1 Differences Redbook, SG 24 -7559 http: //www. redbooks. ibm. com/abstracts/sg 247559. html? Open 33 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Network Changes Ø IGMPv 3 implementation adheres to RFC 3376 and IBM Power Systems Network Changes Ø IGMPv 3 implementation adheres to RFC 3376 and includes the new Socket Interface Extensions for Multicast Source Filters. Ø IGMPv 3 implementation allows backward compatibility with the previous two versions of the protocol, IGMP version 1 (IGMPv 1) and IGMP version 2 (IGMPv 2) Ø IGMPv 3 protocol supports two distinct multicast modes: Any-source multicast (exclude) and Source-specific multicast (include) mode. Ø NDAF (Network Data Administration Facility) enhancements Ø A secure version of ftp (and ftpd), based on Open. SSL, using Transport Layer Security 1(TLS) to encrypt both the command the data channel. Ø NFS Proxy serving enhancements Ø NFS backwards support – NFSv 3 exports for back-end NFSv 4 exports Ø New network caching daemon (netcd) to improve performance for resolver lookups. Netcd can cache user and group information provided by a NIS server. Ø IPv 6 RFC compliances - compliant with RFC 4007 and RFC 4443 34 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Others - Support for USB Drives Ø AIX 6. 1 TL IBM Power Systems Others - Support for USB Drives Ø AIX 6. 1 TL 2 supports USB Drives (Flash/Thumb Drives) 4 Requires filesets § devices. common. IBM. usb § devices. usbif. 08025002 Ø Configuration 4 “cfgmgr –l usb 0” gets two devices: /dev/flashdrive 0 & rflashdrive 0 4 Use archive commands - tar, backup/restore, cpio or dd 4 Use ISO filesystem • “mount -rv cdrfs /dev/flashdrive 0 /mnt” • ISO file system (created by mkisofs) is written to flashdrive with dd command: “dd if=myimage. iso of=/dev/flashdrive 0” 35 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Virtualization Features 36 © 2009 IBM Corporation IBM Power Systems Virtualization Features 36 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Power. VM Virtualization Architecture Management and Provisioning AIX V 5. 3 IBM Power Systems Power. VM Virtualization Architecture Management and Provisioning AIX V 5. 3 partitions AIX V 6 partitions AIX / WPARS Kernels Hardware Management Console* (HMC) Hypervisor Linux IBM i Virtual I/O Server AIX Kernels Linux Kernels SLIC VEnet VSCSI IVM** Virtual Networks Virtual Network / Storage Virtual Processors Unassigned on demand resources Virtual Storage Processors Service Processor Memory Expansion slots Local devices and storage Networks and network storage *Integrated Virtualization Manager (IVM) is disabled if HMC attached 37 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Virtualization with Power. VM ol Po Shared Dynamically Resizable Virtual 1 IBM Power Systems Virtualization with Power. VM ol Po Shared Dynamically Resizable Virtual 1 I/O Cores Server Partition 2 Cores Int Virt Linux 3 3 6 Cores Micro-partitioning Virtual I/O paths Linux AIX V 5. 3 IBM i AIX V 5. 3 AIX V 6. 1 Storage Sharing Ethernet Sharing AIX V 6. 1 AIX V 5. 3 AIX IBM i V 6. 1 AIX V 6. 1 Linux Manager 5 2 Cores Micro-Partitioning Feature § Share processors across multiple partitions § Minimum partition 1/10 th core § 254 partition maximum § AIX V 5. 3/6. 1, Linux, & IBM i Managed via HMC or IVM Virtual I/O server Virtual LAN POWER Hypervisor Network §Shared Ethernet §Shared SCSI & Fibre Channel attached disk subsystems IVM Web Browser 38 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems AIX 6 Workload Partitions (WPARs) S/W Partitioned system capacity 4 Each IBM Power Systems AIX 6 Workload Partitions (WPARs) S/W Partitioned system capacity 4 Each WPAR gets a regulated share of the processor and memory resources 4 Each WPAR has separate network and filesystems and many system services Workload Partition d. B Separate Administrative control 4 Each partition is a separate administrative and security domain Shared system resources 4 I/O Devices 4 Processor & Memory 4 Operating system 4 Shared Library and Text Workload Partition App Workload Partition Web WPAR Types: System and Application Workload Partition ERP Workload Partition Test 4 System has own copy of /, /tmp, /var, /home 4 Application uses Global filesystems Benefits AIX 6 4 Separate regions of application space within a single AIX image 4 Improved administrative efficiency 4 Reduced no. of OS images to administer and maintain 4 System commands are WPAR enabled 39 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems WPAR Shared Applications Enables Administrative Efficiency Application installed in Global instance IBM Power Systems WPAR Shared Applications Enables Administrative Efficiency Application installed in Global instance and used by multiple WPARs Global FS Global filesystems / /etc /usr application code /opt application code (or here) /var /tmp /appserver application code (or here) System WPAR filesystems / r/w - unique per WPAR /etc r/w - unique per WPAR /usr r/o from global (typically) /opt r/o from global (typically) /var r/w - unique per WPAR /tmp r/w - unique per WPAR /appserver r/o from global /config r/w uniq per WPAR (example) AIX / /etc /usr /opt /var /tmp /appsvr WPAR FS App Server 1 / /etc /var /tmp /config WPAR FS App Server 1 global Instance Workload Partition App Server #1 Billing Workload Partition App Server #2 Workload Partition BI Web Server / /etc /var /tmp /config NFS 40 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems AIX Workload Partitions Can Be Used in LPARs Dedicated Processor LPAR IBM Power Systems AIX Workload Partitions Can Be Used in LPARs Dedicated Processor LPAR Finance Dedicated Processor LPAR Planning WPAR #1 Business Intelligence LPAR Americas WPAR #1 MFG VIO Server LPAR Asia LPAR EMEA WPAR #1 e. Mail WPAR #2 Test WPAR #2 Planning WPAR #3 Billing Micro-partition Processor Pool POWER Hypervisor™ 41 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Flexible Power. VM & AIX Options 4 4 Dedicated LPARs Micro-Partitions IBM Power Systems Flexible Power. VM & AIX Options 4 4 Dedicated LPARs Micro-Partitions WPARs Workload Manager - Application Mobility - Partition Mobility LPAR / Micropartitions Resource Flexibility & Ease of Administration AIX V 5. 3 on POWER 5 or later Workload Partitions Live Partition Mobility AIX 6 on POWER 4 or later AIX Workload Manager Live Application Mobility AIXV 4. 3. 36 on POWER 3 or later Workload Isolation 42 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Live Application Mobility…. Dedicated Processor LPAR Finance Planning Micro-Partition Processor Pool IBM Power Systems Live Application Mobility…. Dedicated Processor LPAR Finance Planning Micro-Partition Processor Pool LPAR 1 LPAR 2 LPAR 3 VIO Server Power Hypervisor Move live Workload Partitions between physical systems ( Common Hardware ) Workloads move, not the whole partition Partition OS images must be the same ( Service Level )…… 43 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems AIX 6 Live Application Mobility NFS AIX # 1 Workload Partition IBM Power Systems AIX 6 Live Application Mobility NFS AIX # 1 Workload Partition ERP Workload Partition Database Workload Partition Web AIX # 2 Workload Partition QA Application Partition Dev Workload Partition Billing Workload Partition Manager Workload Partition Data Mining Policy ØMove a running Workload Partition from one server to another for outage avoidance and multi-system workload balancing Ø Works on any hardware supported by AIX 6, including POWER 5 and POWER 4 44 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Workload Partitions Manager Ø Management of WPARS across multiple systems Ø IBM Power Systems Workload Partitions Manager Ø Management of WPARS across multiple systems Ø Lifecycle operations Ø Single Console for: 4 Graphical Interface 4 Create & Remove 4 Start & stop 4 Checkpoint & Restart 4 Monitoring & Reporting 4 Manual Relocation 4 Automated Relocation 4 Policy driven change Browser Workload Partition Manager Ø Infrastructure Optimization Ø Load Balancing Web Service Global Level WPAR Agent System/Application WPARs 45 System/Application WPARs © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Power. VM Live Partition Mobility with POWER 6 Allows migration of IBM Power Systems Power. VM Live Partition Mobility with POWER 6 Allows migration of a running LPAR to another physical server with no application downtime Reduce impact of planned outages Relocate workloads to enable growth Provision new technology with no disruption to service Movement to a different server with no loss of service Virtualized SAN and Network Infrastructure 46 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Partition Mobility: Active and Inactive LPARs Active Partition Mobility § Active IBM Power Systems Partition Mobility: Active and Inactive LPARs Active Partition Mobility § Active Partition Migration is the actual movement of a running LPAR from one physical machine to another without disrupting* the operation of the OS and applications running in that LPAR. § Applicability § Workload consolidation (e. g. many to one) § Workload balancing (e. g. move to larger system) § Planned CEC outages for maintenance/upgrades § Impending CEC outages (e. g. hardware warning received) Inactive Partition Mobility § Inactive Partition Migration transfers a partition that is logically ‘powered off’ (not running) from one system to another. Partition Mobility supported on POWER 6™ AIX 5. 3, AIX 6. 1 and Linux 47 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Mobility on Power Systems Live Partition Mobility Movement of the OS IBM Power Systems Mobility on Power Systems Live Partition Mobility Movement of the OS and applications to a different server with no loss of service Virtualized SAN and Network Infrastructure Power. VM Live Partition Mobility • Move an entire Logical Partition from one system to another while it is running with almost no impact to end users • Moves the entire LPAR including the operating system • Requires systems based on the Power 6 processor, Power. VM Enterprise, and all I/O must be through the Virtual I/O Server • Works with partitions running AIX V 5. 3, AIX 6 and Linux Potential Benefits Improved application availability Energy saving Better workload management Live Application Mobility 48 AIX Live Application Mobility • Move a Workload Partition from one AIX system to another AIX system while running with almost no impact to end users • Moves only the WPAR, the AIX operating system is not moved • Requires AIX 6, Power. VM Workload Partitions Manager, and all WPAR filesystems must be NFS • Works on systems based on Power 4, Power 5, and Power 6 processors © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Active Memory Sharing Pools of memory that can be shared by IBM Power Systems Active Memory Sharing Pools of memory that can be shared by partitions 4 Similar to shared processor partitions § Pool of processor resources OS Support 4 AIX 6. 1, IBM i and Linux Features 4 Allows for the dynamic sharing of memory 4 Provides the ability to “Over-Commit” physical memory § Overflow of memory request paged to system disk. 4 Fine-grained sharing of physical memory 4 Automated ballooning (expansion and contraction) of a partition’s physical memory footprint based on workload demands. 4 Sharing of common code pages between partitions § Reduces the memory and cache footprints § Partitions with the same OS and application code. 49 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Active Memory Sharing Overview Active Memory Sharing intelligently flows memory from IBM Power Systems Active Memory Sharing Overview Active Memory Sharing intelligently flows memory from one partition to another for increased utilization and flexibility of memory usage Memory virtualization enhancement for Power Systems 4 Memory dynamically allocated based on partition’s 4 Contents of memory written to a paging device 4 Improves memory utilization workload demands Designed for partitions with “Variable Memory” requirements 4 Low average memory requirements 4 Active / Inactive environments 4 Workloads that peak at different times across partitions Available with Power. VM Enterprise Edition 4 AIX 6. 1, Linux, and IBM i 6. 1 partitions that use VIOS and shared processors 4 POWER 6 processor-based systems All statements regarding IBM's future direction and intent are subject to change or withdrawal without notice, and represent goals and objectives only. 50 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Dedicated vs Active Shared Memory Environment Dedicated Memory Time 51 Active IBM Power Systems Dedicated vs Active Shared Memory Environment Dedicated Memory Time 51 Active Shared Memory Time © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Active Memory Sharing Requirements Hardware assist available in POWER 6, POWER IBM Power Systems Active Memory Sharing Requirements Hardware assist available in POWER 6, POWER 7, etc. 4 Redirects Data Storage Interrupts (DSI) & Instruction Storage Interrupts (ISI) to the Hypervisor 4 Allows the Hypervisor to relocate a partition’s physical memory pages with finer granularity than a Logical Memory Block (LMB) Active Memory Sharing is enabled on a partition by partition basis 4 Partitions must be defined in Shared Processor Pool 4 Partitions must have all virtual resources, no real I/O 4 No support for pages >16 MB Supported Operations Systems: 4 4 4 IBM i V 6 R 1 PTF AIX 6. 1 TL 3 Linux SLES 11 and RHEL 6. 0 Power. VM Enterprise Offering VIOS 2. 1. 1 HMC Firmware 7. 342 FW release e. FW 3. 4. 2 4 Disruptive 52 update from previous FW release © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems System Management 53 © 2009 IBM Corporation IBM Power Systems System Management 53 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems AIX V 6. 1 Systems Director Console for AIX What is IBM Power Systems AIX V 6. 1 Systems Director Console for AIX What is it? §A new Web based management tool that provides easy access to common system administration tasks §Administrators can access Systems Management Interface Tool (SMIT) menus from a browser §Graphical user interface is fast and fully integrated with IBM Systems Director §All necessary components for the Console are included in AIX §The Distributed Command Execution Manager (DCEM) feature of the Console allows an administrative task to run on multiple systems at once 54 How it can help? §Can reduce the amount of effort and cost associated with managing the AIX OS §Web access to administrative tasks can simplify systems management §Consistent user interface with IBM Systems Director and the WPAR Manager can reduce retraining and other administrative costs §The combination of Web access to administration tools and the ability to execute administrative tasks on multiple systems can change the way you manage the AIX OS © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Director Console for AIX (pconsole) Ø Systems management via a Browser IBM Power Systems Director Console for AIX (pconsole) Ø Systems management via a Browser Ø Ø It is SMIT in a Browser Works with IE 6. 0+ or Firefox Ø Installed and configured by default Ø sysmgt. pconsole. rte filesets Ø To launch use the URL below Ø https: //ipaddress: 5336/ibm/console/login. jsp or https: //ipaddress/ibm/console REFERENCE: Section 5. 7 / AIX 6. 1 Differences Redbook, SG 24 -7559 http: //www. redbooks. ibm. com/abstracts/sg 247559. html? Open 55 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Smooth Upgrade to AIX 6 Ø No charge upgrade for current IBM Power Systems Smooth Upgrade to AIX 6 Ø No charge upgrade for current AIX 5 L clients with SWMA Ø No additional out of pocket expense for clients Ø Upgrade process Ø Tools like alt disk installation and NIM minimize client risk Ø Migration installation from AIX V 4 & AIX V 5 supported Ø New GUI installation tool, when AIX Installation DVD media is used for booting 56 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems AIX Editions 57 © 2009 IBM Corporation IBM Power Systems AIX Editions 57 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems AIX Editions…. . AIX 5. 3 Management Edition bundle 4 AIX IBM Power Systems AIX Editions…. . AIX 5. 3 Management Edition bundle 4 AIX V 5. 3 4 Tivoli® Application Dependency Discovery Manager 4 IBM Tivoli Monitoring 4 IBM Usage & Accounting Mgr Virtualization Edition for Power Systems AIX 6. 1 Enterprise Edition 4 AIX V 6. 1 4 Power. VM AIX Workload Partitions Manager 4 Tivoli® Application Dependency Discovery Manager 4 IBM Tivoli Monitoring 4 Tivoli Performance Analyzer 58 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems AIX Enterprise Edition Key Features Live Application Mobility 4 Relocate Workload IBM Power Systems AIX Enterprise Edition Key Features Live Application Mobility 4 Relocate Workload Partitions between systems with almost no client impact Manage WPARs across multiple systems 4 Centralize the creation, replication, and starting of WPARs across multiple systems Automatically discover IT components and their relationships 4 Ideal for managing dynamic virtualized environments Monitor virtualized resources 4 Efficient management begins with comprehensive performance information Predictive monitoring and capacity management 4 Leverage real time monitoring in data warehouse to provide advanced analytics for capacity planning and proactive monitoring Provides a visual representation of the components 4 Assists understanding of complex application dependencies Monitor utilization and configuration changes 4 Useful for problem determination and failure analysis Tivoli Performance Analyzer §Extends ITM data to predictive trending to manage performance over time §Forecast resource trends to focus monitoring on emerging problems. §Leverages the long-term historical and real time data in Tivoli Data Warehouse Collect and report resource usage 4 Understand IT resource consumption by workload or area 59 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Simplified WPAR Management 60 © 2009 IBM Corporation IBM Power Systems Simplified WPAR Management 60 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems AIX Editions Solution Components: Discovery IBM Tivoli Application Dependency Discovery Manager IBM Power Systems AIX Editions Solution Components: Discovery IBM Tivoli Application Dependency Discovery Manager (TADDM) IBM Tivoli Application Dependency Discovery Manager initiates and assists planning for consolidation by providing best-of-breed discovery capabilities 4 Discovers the COMPONENTS in a Data Center Environment 4 CENTRALIZES and VISUALIZES the CONFIGURATION of the Components in a Data Center Environment 4 Discovers the RELATIONSHIP of the Components in a Data Center Environment 4 DISCOVERS AND TRACKS THE CHANGES in a Data Center Environment Can Feed this Information to other IBM Tivoli® Products 61 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems AIX Editions– IBM Tivoli Monitoring helps prioritize consolidation decisions by visualizing IBM Power Systems AIX Editions– IBM Tivoli Monitoring helps prioritize consolidation decisions by visualizing the actual virtual server utilization against historical trends. It automates a clients best practices in response to system events 4 Improves mean-time-to-recovery by visualizing the virtual world to solve “virtual performance problems” 4 Side-by-side real-time and historical data assists in separating intermittent problems from reoccurring problems from peak workloads 4 Out-of-the-box reporting allows clients to quickly provide executive level reports and identify resource bottlenecks IBM Tivoli Monitoring 65 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Power System Monitoring – Hypervisor View Global CPU & Memory allocation IBM Power Systems Power System Monitoring – Hypervisor View Global CPU & Memory allocation Total CPU & Memory allocated to LPARs 66 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Power System Monitoring - AIX LPAR View CPU, Memory, Disk, Network IBM Power Systems Power System Monitoring - AIX LPAR View CPU, Memory, Disk, Network Info per LPAR 67 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Monitoring - VIOS View Network / Disk Mapping / Utilization Shows IBM Power Systems Monitoring - VIOS View Network / Disk Mapping / Utilization Shows how network interfaces are mapped to LPARS 68 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Overall Frame Utilization 69 © 2009 IBM Corporation IBM Power Systems Overall Frame Utilization 69 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems CEC Event links to IBM Director 70 © 2009 IBM Corporation IBM Power Systems CEC Event links to IBM Director 70 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Advanced Performance Analytics What It Does • Provide capacity monitoring through IBM Power Systems Advanced Performance Analytics What It Does • Provide capacity monitoring through the data collected by Tivoli Monitoring • Automates Performance analysis and reporting • Enables prediction of application bottlenecks and creation of alerts for potential service threats. Use existing ITM agents and data that are stored in the Tivoli Data Warehouse Create new metrics based on combining existing date Predictive trending and forecast reports Pre-configured reports Extensible Scenarios “What will my resources look like tomorrow, next week and next month? ” “What IT resources should I worry about? ” “Will I have enough capacity to get me through Monday? ” 71 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Predictive Trending Predictive trending on key performance indicators 4 Linear trending IBM Power Systems Predictive Trending Predictive trending on key performance indicators 4 Linear trending model 4 Configurable 4 Simple, open and predictable New Tivoli Monitoring attributes for use in charts and situations 4 Trend strength, trend direction 4 Time to threshold, value in 7 days, 30 days and 90 days Use trend information in situations 4 “I predict I have 2 weeks before I hit 95% Disk Utilization and I am 70% confident and its getting worse” Leverages Tivoli Enterprise Portal 4 Overlays to represent Trends 4 Icons in Tables 72 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Using Trends in Forecast Reports Projected values across all resources Sort IBM Power Systems Using Trends in Forecast Reports Projected values across all resources Sort lists to identify future overloaded or under utilized servers 73 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Usage IBM Usage & Accounting Manager AIX Editions Solution Component – IBM Power Systems Usage IBM Usage & Accounting Manager AIX Editions Solution Component – Virtualization Edition Apportion usage by account, department or organization 4 Accountability and usage tracking ensures optimized usage by each department 4 Easily forecast growth by department to justify year-to-year budget changes Single hardware system metrics and reports Data collectors 4 AIX, Linux® and AIX Advanced Accounting – § Processor, server, LPAR, I/O, and VIO 4 OS File System – allocated and used Usability – Power System tailored: 4 Administration Console 4 Job. Runner GUI Reporting 4 Business Intelligence Reporting Tool Reports 4 Reports will be provided, with aggregation by userid within a given server 4 “Pre-Defined” Accounting Schema 4 Export to spreadsheet, comma delimited, and CSB 74 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Power System Usage Trend Sample Reports Example of Resource Usage Trend IBM Power Systems Power System Usage Trend Sample Reports Example of Resource Usage Trend report over a period of time Available for AIX, AIX Advance Accounting, Linux 75 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems IBM Usage and Accounting Manager Know what IT costs (in shared IBM Power Systems IBM Usage and Accounting Manager Know what IT costs (in shared and virtualized environments) Helps businesses to understand the true costs of their IT Who is consuming which resources? 4 What are the true costs of these resources? 4 4 How should costs be allocated for ROI or chargeback? Enables businesses to make informed decisions about IT options and acquisitions Facilitates chargeback accounting to bill internal or external customers for their actual resource use Tracks and analyzes resource utilization across the entire enterprise 4 76 Servers, storage, networks, applications, etc. © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems AIX Management Offerings Summary Offering Description OS Support OS included AIX IBM Power Systems AIX Management Offerings Summary Offering Description OS Support OS included AIX Enterprise Edition AIX 6 plus the WPAR Manager, Tivoli TADDM, Tivoli Monitoring and Tivoli Usage & Accounting Virtualization Edition AIX 6 Yes AIX Standard Edition The AIX operating system AIX 6, AIX V 5. 3, AIX V 5. 2 Yes Management Edition for AIX Tivoli TADDM, Tivoli Monitoring and Tivoli Usage & Accounting Virtualization Edition AIX 6 and AIX V 5. 3 No IBM Systems Director Cross system platform management AIX, Linux, i, z. OS, Windows No Performance Management for Power Systems Remote performance reporting especially for smaller clients with limited IT teams AIX 6, AIX V 5. 3 and IBM i No Cross systems management for WPARs and enablement for Live Application Mobility AIX 6 No (AIX) (PM for Power Systems) Power. VM Workload Partitions Manager for AIX (WPAR Manager) 77 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Operating System Release / Service Strategy 78 © 2009 IBM Corporation IBM Power Systems Operating System Release / Service Strategy 78 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems New Service and Release Strategy The principal changes planned are: • IBM Power Systems New Service and Release Strategy The principal changes planned are: • Twenty four months of support for each Technology Level • Service for entire period is provided by PTF, Interim Fix, and/or Service Pack • New hardware within the same family will be supported on previous Technology Levels for ease of migration. Announcement in 2 Q 06 for AIX V 5. 3 Technology Level 6 and later releases New hardware support for old TLs is only possible within the same processor and technology family Exploitation of new HW may require the latest TL or even a new release Degree of hardware change Processor Speed Increase Only ( No AIX Code Changes) New Processor in Compatibility Mode ( N 0 AIX Code Changes) New Processor in Family ( Recognize New processor ) 79 New IO ( New Device Driver ) On prior TLs plus latest Service Packs On the latest Technology Level Yes Support ed Support Yes ed © 2009 IBM Corporation Yes

IBM Power Systems Release Strategy Transition* AIX 2006 2007 Spring Fall V 5. 3 IBM Power Systems Release Strategy Transition* AIX 2006 2007 Spring Fall V 5. 3 only 2008 Spring Fall 2009 Spring Fall Spring 2010 Fall Spring The new release strategy goes into effect starting with AIX 5. 3 TL 6 in 1 H 07*. CSP SP Technology Level 4 AIX V 5. 3 TL 4 and TL 5 will be supported under the previous strategy. CSP AIX V 5. 2 will only be supported under the previous strategy. SP Technology Level 5 SP SP SP HP Technology Level 6 Legend: SP HP SP Service Pack – may include new HW Service Pack – AIX fixes only SP Concluding Service Pack – Last Service Pack CSP SP SP HP 80 SP SP HP SP SP Support via Interim Fix, PTF, or Service Pack New Technology Level - New HW/SW support and hardware exploitation) SP HP SP Technology Level 7 Interim Fix Support via CSP + Interim Fix SP SP HP SP SP SP HP Technology Level 8 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Differences From Previous Release Strategy 2007 Spring 2008 Spring Fall 2009 IBM Power Systems Differences From Previous Release Strategy 2007 Spring 2008 Spring Fall 2009 Spring Fall 2010 Spring 2011 Spring Fall CSP Previous Release Strategy SP Technology Level 6 SP New Release Strategy SP SP HP Technology Level 6 Difference Previous New* Length of Service for a TL Extended service via … Concluding Service Pack? 12 months CSP + Interim Fix only Yes, start of extended service 4 -6 weeks AIX V 5. 2 & AIX V 5. 3 24 months PTF, Interim fix or Service Pack No longer used Fixes + new HW support within same Family 8 -12 weeks AIX V 5. 3 and future releases Policy started with. . . AIX V 5. 2 TL 8, AIX V 5. 3 TL 4 AIX V 5. 3 TL 6 Hardware support via… Latest Technology Level only Exploitation via latest TL. Some hardware support available via prior TLs plus a SP 5. 3. 0. 0040 5. 3. 7. 0040 Service Packs include… Service Packs ship every… AIX releases supported… Version Release Mod. Fix 81 Only fixes © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems New Hardware Supportability* On prior TLs plus latest Service Pack On IBM Power Systems New Hardware Supportability* On prior TLs plus latest Service Pack On the latest Technology Level Processor Speed Increase Only (No AIX Code Changes) Yes Supported New Processor in Compatibility Mode (No AIX Code Changes) Yes Supported New Processor in Family (Recognize New Processor) Yes Supported New I/O (New Device Drivers) Yes Supported No Yes Degree of hardware change New Technology (Significant/pervasive) Note: Exploitation of new hardware features will require moving up to the latest TL or in some cases, moving up to the next AIX release 82 *All statements regarding IBM's future direction and intent are subject to change or withdrawal without notice, and represent goals and objectives only. © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems IBM Systems Director 83 © 2009 IBM Corporation IBM Power Systems IBM Systems Director 83 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems IT organizations face multiple challenges getting the value of virtualization Q. IBM Power Systems IT organizations face multiple challenges getting the value of virtualization Q. What are the major hurdles you faced in implementing virtualized servers at your organization? Source: IDC Virtualization Study, 2007 84 n=410 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems End-to-end Management Approach IBM Director Enterprise Management AIX Management IBM Systems IBM Power Systems End-to-end Management Approach IBM Director Enterprise Management AIX Management IBM Systems Director Physical and virtual platforms Server, Storage, Networking Foundation Active Energy Manager Extension Groups Deployment Health Virtualization Optimization Configuration Maintain Advanced Monitoring Replication Platform-specific capabilities Managed environments Virtualization software Hardware 85 System Storage™ Other And more. . . Operating systems System x, i, z, p 3 rd Party, Custom © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems IBM Systems Director for Power Topology IBM Systems Director Console IBM IBM Power Systems IBM Systems Director for Power Topology IBM Systems Director Console IBM Systems Director Foundation Management Inventory Health Config Physical and virtual platforms Server, Storage, Networking Advanced Management Availability Workload Update Image AIX MM WPAR IBM i WPAR AIX SLES RHEL VIOS AIX SLES RHEL IBM i WPAR PHYP FSP IVM (VIOS) AIX (SMP) JS 21 HS 21 SLES RHEL AIX Win WPAR HMC Energy Mgt POWER 6 System PHYP Blade Center BMC/ FSP PHYP FSP POWER 5 System HMC: Hardware Management Console WPAR: Workload Partition (Container) IVM: Integrated Virtualization Manager PHYP: POWER Hypervisor VIOS: Virtual IO Server (virtual IO and Layer 2 bridge) BMC: Baseboard Management Controller MM: Management Module SMP: Symmetric Multi Processor FSP: Flexible Service Processor 86 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Director 6. 1 Power Capabilities § Automatic Discovery and Inventory: § IBM Power Systems Director 6. 1 Power Capabilities § Automatic Discovery and Inventory: § POWER resources and connected storage which includes the collection of both hardware and software inventory. § HMC, CEC, LPAR, AIX, p. Linux, HMC, VIOS, FSP, and Virtual Networking components – bridges and VLANS) § Visualize various POWER resource: § Topologies and relationship across physical server and virtual servers v CEC, HMC, VIOS, LPAR, devices, AIX, p. Linux and Virtual Networking components, virtual disks, logical volumes and associated volume groups. § Discovery and documentation of full system configuration § Physical and virtual IO resources and association/relationship (for configuration recovery – i. e. System plan). 87 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Director 6. 1 Power Capabilities § Show Health and Status of IBM Power Systems Director 6. 1 Power Capabilities § Show Health and Status of Physical and Virtual Servers § HMC and VIOS. § Show Alerts: Hardware failures and system logs from VIOS, HMC and the operating systems. § Base Monitoring: § OS Metrics: CPU and memory utilization § File system metrics across hosts and virtual servers. § Historical and OS events monitoring. § View CPU utilization metrics for environments that contain both shared and dedicated processors for both host and virtual servers. 88 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Director 6. 1 Power Capabilities § Download, Manage, and apply recommended IBM Power Systems Director 6. 1 Power Capabilities § Download, Manage, and apply recommended Updates § AIX, p. Linux, i 5 OS, HMC and System Firmware § Deployment/Provisioning/Planning § Ability to configure new systems or clone systems using system plans Deployment of OS and VIOS on a LPAR via HMC. § Base Virtualization Management § Support key lifecycle LPAR and mobility operations v Within single HMC domain) operations. § Consolidated Interface § Integration of tasks for Key Power Resource Managers v HMC, IVM/VIOS, AIX and i 5 OS management consoles 89 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Director 6. 1 Power Capabilities § Comprehensive CLI interface § Discovery/Health/Update/Deployment, IBM Power Systems Director 6. 1 Power Capabilities § Comprehensive CLI interface § Discovery/Health/Update/Deployment, LPAR virtualization lifecycle and mobility, power control and management § Energy Management – Active Energy Manager § Monitoring, reporting, capping (both a server and group), and controlling power consumption. § Receive power status and alerts. § Energy Thresholding - Allow a user to set a power or temperature threshold, and be notified when it is reached (or allow an action to automatically be taken). § Full CLI for all key AEM functionality. Support of AEM Server on AIX. § Enterprise Integration and Manageability § Out-of-the box management utilizing standard CIM profiles for AIX, p. Linux, i 50 S, HMC, and VIOS resources 90 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems WPAR Manager V 2. 1 Fully integrated as an IBM Systems IBM Power Systems WPAR Manager V 2. 1 Fully integrated as an IBM Systems Director plug-in Support for Live Application Mobility with SAN Devices 91 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Challenge: Virtualization Flexibility vs Complexity Widespread enterprise virtualization has led to IBM Power Systems Challenge: Virtualization Flexibility vs Complexity Widespread enterprise virtualization has led to increased management complexity 4 Physical server sprawl replaced by virtual image sprawl sysadmin skill sets required to manage virtualized infrastructure Spending (US$B) Installed Base (M Units) $300 50 $200 45 Server mgmt and admin costs $250 Power and cooling costs 40 New server spending 35 30 4 Multiple 4 IT $150 25 20 $100 15 costs shifting from hardware to energy, virtualization $50 infrastructure and management 10 5 $0 19 9 19 6 9 19 7 98 19 9 20 9 0 20 0 0 20 1 0 20 2 0 20 3 0 20 4 05 20 0 20 6 0 20 7 08 20 0 20 9 10 0 Source: IDC, 2008 92 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Solution: VMControl Unifies Virtualization Management Enabling consistent multi-platform management for IBM IBM Power Systems Solution: VMControl Unifies Virtualization Management Enabling consistent multi-platform management for IBM Systems 4 4 Manages Power Systems, System z®, System x®, storage and network resources Integrates management of virtual servers, appliances, storage, networks and clouds Provides seamless integration into Tivoli enterprise service management solutions 93 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems System Pools: Next Step in Evolution of Virtualization Managing a pool IBM Power Systems System Pools: Next Step in Evolution of Virtualization Managing a pool of server resources with single systems simplicity Combines multiple virtual resources into one manageable entity Automates virtual image mobility for optimal utilization and resilience Optimizes virtual assets for performance, availability and energy use Integrates server, storage and network virtualization Mobility Virtualization Compute Memory Network Storage IT Resources 94 Compute Memory Network Optimized for Storage Virtual Images § Availability § Performance § Energy System Pools © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems IBM delivers end-to-end visibility, control, and automation for virtual machines and IBM Power Systems IBM delivers end-to-end visibility, control, and automation for virtual machines and system images § Orchestrate composite image processes across the enterprise aligned with business service requirements § Manage virtual images - capture, configure, catalog and deploy Optimize • Automate business service delivery § Standardize and centralize the management of virtualization technologies to gain operational efficiencies § Manage virtualization across all IBM Manage • Centralize enterprise image management and deployment Systems § Support for Power. VM™, z/VM®, Hyper-V and KVM virtualization VMware, Virtualize • Create, manage and migrate virtual machines (physical-tovirtual, virtual-to-virtual) . . . reducing the time to deploy applications from days to minutes. 95 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Director VMControl provides consistent, cross-platform management for virtualized environments IBM Systems IBM Power Systems Director VMControl provides consistent, cross-platform management for virtualized environments IBM Systems Director Optimize Manage Virtualize 96 VMControl Enterprise Edition Optimize With System Pools § Create, modify, delete § Automate resource mobility § Manage utilization and availability VMControl Standard Edition Manage Virtual Image Libraries § Create, capture, import, deploy § Centralize image management § Migrate virtual-to-virtual images VMControl Express Edition Virtualize Workloads § Create, modify, delete VMs § Manage multiple hypervisors § Relocate VMs © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems VMControl Editions and Power. VM VMControl Express Edition Virtualization Capabilities Virtualize IBM Power Systems VMControl Editions and Power. VM VMControl Express Edition Virtualization Capabilities Virtualize resources 60 -day Free Trial! VMControl Standard Edition VMControl Enterprise Edition Manage virtual images Optimize system pools Power. VM Create/manage virtual machines (x 86, Power. VM and z/VM) Virtual machine relocation Capture/import, create/remove standardized virtual images Deploy standard virtual images Maintain virtual images in a centralized library Create/remove system pools and manage resources in system pools Add/remove physical servers within system pools 97 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems IBM Platform and Enterprise Service Management Enterprise service management Align IT IBM Power Systems IBM Platform and Enterprise Service Management Enterprise service management Align IT operations with the business Govern and control the business Optimize the business Platform management of IBM systems Consolidated management across systems Integrated physical and virtual management Automated physical and virtual provisioning The unique integration of IBM Systems Director and Tivoli® provides a centralized platform for consolidated data center service management. 98 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems IBM Director and Tivoli IBM Director Application Middleware Network Operating System IBM Power Systems IBM Director and Tivoli IBM Director Application Middleware Network Operating System Hardware IBM Tivoli • “Care and feeding” of the hardware • Detailed hardware inventory, alerts and tools for IBM Systems • Basic patch management • Allows for upward integration into the Tivoli environment • Advanced, predictive server hardware management • System performance and power measurement 99 IBM Tivoli Resources • Real-time ultra-scalable, cross platform enterprise service management solutions • Business service management with robust analytics, enhanced service impact analysis and Key Performance Indicators • Sophisticated Layer 1 -3 network management with advanced root cause analysis • Robust application discovery, change and configuration management and monitoring • Advanced security operations management, provisioning, software distribution and inventory © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems IBM Systems Director Active Energy Manager 3. 1 Exploit Energy Scale IBM Power Systems IBM Systems Director Active Energy Manager 3. 1 Exploit Energy Scale capabilities in POWER 6 processor-based servers 4 Power Trending 4 Thermal Trending 4 Effective CPU Trending 4 Power Savings 4 Power Capping Support power savings for new POWER 6 processor-based models Discover and monitor legacy and select non-IBM systems through the intelligent Power Distribution Unit (i. PDU) 4 Display trending information per load group 4 Allows management of POWER 6 legacy systems 4 Support low- to mid-range storage devices Enhancements above Power. Executive™ V 2 (Windows®, x. Linux) 4 Support for new x 86 Systems 4 Cross-system monitoring and management 4 i. PDU support 4 System polling enhancements support AEM application supported on: Windows, x 86 Linux, Linux on p 100 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Active Energy Manager Monitoring Functions “No Charge” Monitor Functions Power Trending IBM Power Systems Active Energy Manager Monitoring Functions “No Charge” Monitor Functions Power Trending 4 Displays power usage for individual systems over time (in a graph or in table format) to understand power usage trends within and across their systems Thermal Trending 4 Displays information on the inlet and exhaust temperatures for individual systems one at a time to understand thermal characteristics of systems so that temperature adjustments can be made within the IT shop i. PDU (intelligent Power Distribution Units) 4 Enables support for power trending for older systems, low- and mid-range storage devices as well as non-IBM systems. By plugging these systems into an intelligent PDU (a smart power strip) AEM can collect power information from I/O drawers within the i. PDU thereby giving a more complete view of power used within a data center Native Support 4 Extends power management functions such as power trending, thermal trending, and power capping, originally available on System x™, to multiple IBM platforms enabling power management functions on all IBM systems from a single console which reduces complexity 101 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Active Energy Manager Management Functions “Priced” Management Functions Power Capping 4 IBM Power Systems Active Energy Manager Management Functions “Priced” Management Functions Power Capping 4 Allocates a maximum power level a system can use without having to worry about power usage above the maximum point 4 AEM will throttle the processor to use less power, which slows down the server, if the system starts to consume more than the maximum level set 4 This feature can come into play if it gets too warm in the data center as setting the cap will ensure that the system will not use more than that cap value thus reducing power and thermal usage Power Savings Mode 4 Enables a system to save up to 30% of normal CPU power usage 4 Power savings is enabled via an on/off switch which can be scheduled during times of low utilization 4 Occurs automatically based on processor utilization if the function is supported on the system 4 Allows management of power usage as work activity shifts across various demands 102 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Implementing Active Energy Manager How does it work? Hardware, firmware, and IBM Power Systems Implementing Active Energy Manager How does it work? Hardware, firmware, and systems management software in servers and blades can take inventory of components 4 No agents are required on the endpoint servers Active Energy Manager totals up the power draw for each server/blade and tracks that usage over time When power is constrained, Active Energy Manager allows power to be allocated on a server by server 4 Care taken that limiting power consumption does not affect performance 4 Sensors and alerts can warn the user if limiting power to this server could affect performance In the future group power policies may be developed across groups of servers and reallocated dynamically based on past history 103 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems IBM Software 104 © 2009 IBM Corporation IBM Power Systems IBM Software 104 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Power. HA – Power High Availability Leadership AIX High Availability and IBM Power Systems Power. HA – Power High Availability Leadership AIX High Availability and Disaster Recovery Product An Industry-leading UNIX® High Availability and Disaster Recovery Product for L vailable A inux! Protect your critical business applications through reliable monitoring, failure detection and automated recovery of business applications Linux Support 4 SLES 9 and RHEL 4 and above support Ease of Use Enhancements 4 Configure Server A Workload failover Shared Disk Server B an Power. HA cluster or upgrade Power. HA on a node without disrupting the target application 4 Fast Failover Detection through enhanced AIX integration improves failover time 4 Recognize Application and Resource presence 4 Resource Dependency Graph 4 Adjustable preferences Power. HA 105 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Data Center versus Multi-Site HA/DR Solutions Data Center Solution Strategy: 4 IBM Power Systems Data Center versus Multi-Site HA/DR Solutions Data Center Solution Strategy: 4 4 4 Deliver near continuous application service Eliminate the affects of planned outages Minimize unplanned outages Plan for regular and sustained role swap operations Primary focus is recovery time (RTO) & recovery point (RPO) Offering: HACMP™ → Power. HA → now Power. HA System Mirror Standard Edition Multi-Site Solution Strategy: 4 4 Recover operations at a remote location after a system or data center failure Establish or strengthen a business recovery plan Provide separate recovery location Primary focus is recovery point (RPO) Offering: HACMP XD → Power. HA XD → now Power. HA System Mirror Enterprise Edition 106 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Positioning Power. HA Technologies Power Systems Availability Solutions Power. HA System. IBM Power Systems Positioning Power. HA Technologies Power Systems Availability Solutions Power. HA System. Mirror for AIX Power. HA pure. Scale Power. HA System. Mirror for i ……. future products * Planned 2010 Power. HA System. Mirror for AIX Standard Edition Power. HA System. Mirror for AIX Enterprise Edition 107 Power. HA System. Mirror for i Standard Edition Power. HA System. Mirror for i Enterprise Edition © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Positioning Power. HA Technologies Power Systems Availability Solutions Power. HA System. IBM Power Systems Positioning Power. HA Technologies Power Systems Availability Solutions Power. HA System. Mirror Power. HA pure. Scale Active/Standby HA/DR Clustering Cluster Management/Interconnect 4 Data Center high availability Technology 4 Multi site capability for disaster recovery Power. HA System. Mirror for AIX Power. HA System. Mirror for IBM i 108 4 Low latency high performance data transfer 4 Distributed cluster coordination 4 Centralized locking Included with DB 2 pure. Scale © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Power. HA System. Mirror for AIX V 6. 1 Highlights Power. IBM Power Systems Power. HA System. Mirror for AIX V 6. 1 Highlights Power. HA System. Mirror Standard Edition targeted at data center high availability solutions Power. HA System. Mirror Enterprise Edition adds support for multi-site high availability and disaster recovery solutions Enterprise Edition extends options for multi-site storage resiliency 4 Today: IBM DS 8000® & SVC, Metro Mirror & Global Mirror 4 Now: Adding new support for EMC SRDF GLVM configuration wizard 4 Easier to set up a cross site DR configuration Power. HA with Dynamic LPAR 4 Automatically rebalances processor resources after failover to partitioned backup system 109 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Power. HA System. Mirror for AIX Editions Power. HA System. Mirror IBM Power Systems Power. HA System. Mirror for AIX Editions Power. HA System. Mirror for AIX § Standard Edition targeted at datacenter HA § Enterprise Edition targeted at multi-site HA/DR § New Editions packaging makes multi-site DR solutions more affordable Standard Edition Enterprise Edition Datacenter cluster management Application service HA stack Shared storage management Automated cluster validation Integrated disk heartbeat Fast disk failover DLPAR management for HA Cluster wide file symc Smart Assists Power. HA GLVM async mode Host based geographic mirroring Host based deployment wizard Supports IBM Metro Mirror Supports EMC SRDF sync/async 110 Multi Site HA Management Supports IBM Global Mirror (SVC) § New tiered pricing structure lowers costs of HA/DR solutions for mid-sized businesses © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems IBM Tivoli Access Manager Defend against the top security threats Protects IBM Power Systems IBM Tivoli Access Manager Defend against the top security threats Protects against misuse by employees and internal users Prevents most hacking exposures Increased security through fine-grained user authorization Secure control of all root user privileges Comprehensive audit records of all root user activity Document regulation compliance Available at no additional charge on Power Systems 111 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems GPFS: High-performance, Highly Reliable File Access § GPFS™ allows a cluster IBM Power Systems GPFS: High-performance, Highly Reliable File Access § GPFS™ allows a cluster of nodes to read/write to a set of disks in parallel at very high speed § GPFS recently set a world record of 100 GBps sustained! § Redundant data paths and extensive failure recovery ensure reliability § Some commercial clients use GPFS entirely for its reliability § § New data management capabilities increase efficiency and ease! Multi-cluster capability enables data sharing across sites Simultaneous file access eliminates the overhead of multiple copies Powers many of the world’s most powerful supercomputers § Now increasingly used in commercial applications 4 Business intelligence § Digital media 4 Engineering design § Medical imaging 4 Geographic information systems § Life sciences 4 Data sharing § Financial analysis 112 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Business Change is Constant Ø Can you support growing application workloads? IBM Power Systems Business Change is Constant Ø Can you support growing application workloads? Ø Can you add extra capacity as you need it? Ø Can you ensure business continuity at all times? Ø Can you do it without changes to your applications? Ø Can you do it efficiently and economically? 113 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems DB 2 pure. Scale Unlimited Capacity 4 Buy only what you IBM Power Systems DB 2 pure. Scale Unlimited Capacity 4 Buy only what you need, add capacity as your needs grow Application Transparency 4 Avoid the risk and cost of application changes Continuous Availability 4 Deliver uninterrupted access to your data with consistent performance Leverages the architecture of z/OS: the Gold Standard of reliability and scalability Built on Power Systems and AIX 114 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems DB 2 pure. Scale Architecture Automatic workload balancing Cluster of DB IBM Power Systems DB 2 pure. Scale Architecture Automatic workload balancing Cluster of DB 2 nodes running on Power servers: Power 550 or Power 595 s Power. HA pure. Scale technology drives the clustering Runs on an LPAR or a stand alone server Infini. Band network Shared Data – IBM Storage supported 115 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Application Transparency Avoid the risk and cost of application changes Take IBM Power Systems Application Transparency Avoid the risk and cost of application changes Take advantage of extra capacity instantly 4 No need to modify your application code 4 No need to re-tune your infrastructure 4 Run applications written for other database software with little or no changes Native support for commonly used Oracle Database syntax and procedure language DBAs can add capacity without re-tuning or re-testing 116 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Unlimited Capacity: Scale with the Business Needs Ø Designed to grow IBM Power Systems Unlimited Capacity: Scale with the Business Needs Ø Designed to grow to whatever capacity your system requires Ø Flexible licensing designed for minimizing costs of peak times Ø Reduce cost with efficient use of system resources Process higher transactional workload with minimal system overhead Add/remove capacity as needed Flexible software licensing to accommodate peak workloads Ø Provide capacity for any transactional workload In architecture validation testing, scales to more than one hundred DB 2 servers* Leverage highest performing database systems in the industry; over 6 M tpmc per single system image** Solution: Use DB 2 pure. Scale and add another server for those two days, and only pay software license fees for the days you use it. * Validation testing includes capabilities to be available in future releases. ** TPC/C results. tpm. C: 6, 085, 166; Price/tpm. C: 2. 81 USD; System Available: 12/10/08; Processors: 32; Cores: 64; Threads: 128. DB 2 pure. Scale helps CIOs handle business critical peak periods & save costs 117 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Continuous Availability Protect from infrastructure outage 4 Architected for no single IBM Power Systems Continuous Availability Protect from infrastructure outage 4 Architected for no single point of failure 4 Redundant architecture Continuous processing during node failure 4 All surviving nodes continue to process transactions during node failure 4 Data being modified by failing node is available in less than 20 seconds 4 Redistribute workload to available nodes immediately Highly scalable and resilient infrastructure with IBM Power Systems 4 Exploits new Power. HA pure. Scale technology 4 Based on the most reliable UNIX platform according to ITIC* Over 100+ node architecture validation has been run by IBM 118 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Power. HA pure. Scale Technology Enables Efficient and Continuous Operations DB IBM Power Systems Power. HA pure. Scale Technology Enables Efficient and Continuous Operations DB 2 pure. Scale includes Power. HA pure. Scale technology to. . . Reduce system overhead by minimizing inter-node communications 4 Centralized database locking and caching minimizes inter-node communications, maximizing productive use of computing power Reduce cost of systems communication with direct memory access 4 Remote Direct Memory Accesses virtually eliminates processor context switching for IP network communications within the system Maintain business continuity by minimizing impact of node failure 4 Data and lock status are immediately accessible to all nodes, ensuring consistent application performance Also exploits Power Systems 12 X GX adapters to deliver low latency & high performance interconnect Power 595 Supported on Power 550 & Power 595 Power 550 Express 119 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Power. HA pure. Scale Technology Enables Efficient and Continuous Operations DB IBM Power Systems Power. HA pure. Scale Technology Enables Efficient and Continuous Operations DB 2 pure. Scale includes Power. HA pure. Scale technology to. . . Reduce system overhead by minimizing inter-node communications 4 Centralized database locking and caching minimizes inter-node communications maximizing productive use of computing power Reduce cost of systems communication with direct memory access 4 Remote Direct Memory Accesses virtually eliminates processor context switching for IP network communications within the system Maintain business continuity by minimizing impact of node failure 4 Data and lock status are immediately accessible to all nodes, ensuring consistent application performance 120 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Power. HA Technologies Power Systems Availability Solutions Power. HA System. Mirror IBM Power Systems Power. HA Technologies Power Systems Availability Solutions Power. HA System. Mirror Active/Standby HA/DR Clustering 4 Data Center high availability 4 Multi site capability for disaster recovery Power. HA System. Mirror for AIX Power. HA System. Mirror for IBM i 121 Power. HA pure. Scale Cluster Management/Interconnect Technology 4 Low latency high performance data transfer 4 Global Lock management 4 Global Buffer Pool 4 Shared Communications 4 Distributed cluster coordination 4 Centralized locking Included with DB 2 pure. Scale © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Achieving Efficient Scaling : Key Design Points Deep RDMA exploitation over IBM Power Systems Achieving Efficient Scaling : Key Design Points Deep RDMA exploitation over low latency fabric 4 Enables round-trip response time ~10 -15 microseconds Silent Invalidation 4 Informs members of page updates requires no Buffers CPU cycles on those members 4 No interrupt or other message processing required 4 Increasingly important as cluster grows Hot pages available without disk I/O from Global Buffer Pool memory 4 RDMA and dedicated threads enable read page operations in ~10 s of microseconds §Global Buffer Pool §Global Lock Manager §Shared Cache 122 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Scalability : Example Clients (2 -way x 345) Transaction processing workload IBM Power Systems Scalability : Example Clients (2 -way x 345) Transaction processing workload modeling warehouse & ordering process 4 Write transactions rate to 20% 4 Typical read/write ratio of many OLTP workloads No cluster awareness in the application 4 4 No affinity No partitioning No routing of transactions to members Testing key DB 2 pure. Scale design point Configuration 4 12 8 -core p 550 members § 64 GB, 5 GHz each 4 Duplexed Power. HA pure. Scale across 2 p 550 members p 550 power. HA pure. Scale 1 Gb Ethernet Client Connectivity 20 Gb IB pure. Scale Interconnect 7874 -024 Switch additional 8 -core p 550 s § 64 GB, 5 GHz each 4 DS 8300 storage § 576 15 K disks, Two 4 Gb FC Switches 4 IBM 20 Gb/s IB HCAs § 7874 -024 IB Switch Two 4 Gb FC Switches DS 8300 Storage 123 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Scalability : Example Throughput vs 1 member 10. 4 x @ IBM Power Systems Scalability : Example Throughput vs 1 member 10. 4 x @ 12 members 7. 6 x @ 8 members 3. 9 x @ 4 members 1. 98 x @ 2 members # Members 124 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Continues a 8+ Year Run of Growth Sun SPARC and HP/Itanium IBM Power Systems Continues a 8+ Year Run of Growth Sun SPARC and HP/Itanium continue to decline UNIX® Server Rolling Four Quarter Average Revenue Share Source: IDC Quarterly Server Tracker Q 309 release, December 2009 125 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems What Drives IBM Power Systems Growth? Power Systems leadership in Scale-up, IBM Power Systems What Drives IBM Power Systems Growth? Power Systems leadership in Scale-up, Scale-out and Scale-within • Power Systems provide scalable, predictable, consistent and balanced system performance Power Virtualization leadership • For over 10 years, Power Systems has been fine-tuning highly integrated systems designed from the ground up for industrial strength virtualization SPARC, PA-RISC, Itanium and x 86 users are moving to Power™ • Clients trust the migration experience of IBM and the proven capability of Power Systems to handle their toughest workloads 126 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Virtualization § 60 -80% utilization § In 65% of systems shipped IBM Power Systems Virtualization § 60 -80% utilization § In 65% of systems shipped in 2008 Energy Efficiency § 70 -90% energy cost reduction § More work per watt with POWER 6 High Performing, Scalable, Modular Business Resiliency § Exploit Power. HA™ 127 technologies § Roadmap to Management § Increase deployment speed © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Consolidating with AIX on Power Systems enables clients to… REDUCE COST IBM Power Systems Consolidating with AIX on Power Systems enables clients to… REDUCE COST Server consolidation with shared resources enables high system utilization, which lowers the cost of ownership by reducing networking, energy, floor space, and software costs. IMPROVE SERVICE Server consolidation improves service to clients by delivering flexible performance, dynamic provisioning and enabling clients to avoid disruption MANAGE RISK Server consolidation manages IT risk by improving security, increasing business resiliency and simplifying operations. AIX, Power™ Systems and Power. VM™ are designed to deliver effective consolidation in the most demanding data centers 128 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Take The Steps to a Dynamic Infrastructure with the New Power IBM Power Systems Take The Steps to a Dynamic Infrastructure with the New Power Equation 129 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems References 1. IBM AIX 6. 1 Differences Guide SG 24 -7559 IBM Power Systems References 1. IBM AIX 6. 1 Differences Guide SG 24 -7559 http: //www. redbooks. ibm. com/abstracts/sg 247559. html 2. AIX, VIOS and HMC Facts and Features http: //www. ibm. com/support/techdocs/atsmastr. nsf/Web. Index/TD 103130 3. IBM Infocenter http: //www-03. ibm. com/systems/p/support/index. html 4. Business Value of Power Systems http: //w 3. ibm. com/support/techdocs/atsmastr. nsf/Web. Index/PRS 3655 http: //cattail. cambridge. ibm. com/cattail/? source=v#[email protected] ibm. com 5. IBM STG Sales Presentations 130 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems 131 © 2009 IBM Corporation IBM Power Systems 131 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Special Notices This document was developed for IBM offerings in the IBM Power Systems Special Notices This document was developed for IBM offerings in the United States as of the date of publication. IBM may not make these offerings available in other countries, and the information is subject to change without notice. Consult your local IBM business contact for information on the IBM offerings available in your area. Information in this document concerning non-IBM products was obtained from the suppliers of these products or other public sources. Questions on the capabilities of non-IBM products should be addressed to the suppliers of those products. IBM may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter in this document. The furnishing of this document does not give you any license to these patents. Send license inquires, in writing, to IBM Director of Licensing, IBM Corporation, New Castle Drive, Armonk, NY 10504 -1785 USA. All statements regarding IBM future direction and intent are subject to change or withdrawal without notice, and represent goals and objectives only. The information contained in this document has not been submitted to any formal IBM test and is provided "AS IS" with no warranties or guarantees either expressed or implied. All examples cited or described in this document are presented as illustrations of the manner in which some IBM products can be used and the results that may be achieved. Actual environmental costs and performance characteristics will vary depending on individual client configurations and conditions. IBM Global Financing offerings are provided through IBM Credit Corporation in the United States and other IBM subsidiaries and divisions worldwide to qualified commercial and government clients. Rates are based on a client's credit rating, financing terms, offering type, equipment type and options, and may vary by country. Other restrictions may apply. Rates and offerings are subject to change, extension or withdrawal without notice. IBM is not responsible for printing errors in this document that result in pricing or information inaccuracies. All prices shown are IBM's United States suggested list prices and are subject to change without notice; reseller prices may vary. IBM hardware products are manufactured from new parts, or new and serviceable used parts. Regardless, our warranty terms apply. Any performance data contained in this document was determined in a controlled environment. Actual results may vary significantly and are dependent on many factors including system hardware configuration and software design and configuration. Some measurements quoted in this document may have been made on development-level systems. There is no guarantee these measurements will be the same on generallyavailable systems. Some measurements quoted in this document may have been estimated through extrapolation. Users of this document should verify the applicable data for their specific environment. Revised September 26, 2006 132 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Special Notices (Cont. ) The following terms are registered trademarks of IBM Power Systems Special Notices (Cont. ) The following terms are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States and/or other countries: AIX, AIX/L (logo), AIX 6 (logo), alpha. Works, AS/400, Blade. Center, Blue Gene, Blue Lightning, C Set++, CICS/6000, Cluster. Proven, CT/2, Data. Hub, Data. Joiner, DB 2, DEEP BLUE, developer. Works, Direct. Talk, Domino, DYNIX/ptx, e business (logo), e(logo)business, e(logo)server, Enterprise Storage Server, ESCON, Flash. Copy, GDDM, i 5/OS (logo), IBM (logo), ibm. com, IBM Business Partner (logo), Informix, Intelli. Station, IQ-Link, LANStreamer, Load. Leveler, Lotus Notes, Lotusphere, Magstar, Media. Streamer, Micro Channel, MQSeries, Net. Data, Netfinity, Net. View, Network Station, Notes, NUMA-Q, Open. Power, Operating System/2, Operating System/400, OS/2, OS/390, OS/400, Parallel Sysplex, Partner. Link, Partner. World, Passport Advantage, POWERparallel, Power PC 603, Power PC 604, Power. PC (logo), Predictive Failure Analysis, p. Series, PTX, ptx/ADMIN, Quick Place, Rational, RETAIN, RISC System/6000, RS/6000, RT Personal Computer, S/390, Sametime, Scalable POWERparallel Systems, Secure. Way, Sequent, Server. Proven, Space. Ball, System/390, The Engines of e-business, THINK, Tivoli (logo), Tivoli Management Environment, Tivoli Ready (logo), TME, Total. Storage, TURBOWAYS, Visual. Age, Web. Sphere, x. Series, z/OS, z. Series. The following terms are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States and/or other countries: Advanced Micro-Partitioning, AIX 5 L, AIX PVMe, AS/400 e, Calibrated Vectored Cooling, Chiphopper, Chipkill, Cloudscape, Data. Power, DB 2 OLAP Server, DB 2 Universal Database, DFDSM, DFSORT, DS 4000, DS 6000, DS 8000, e-business (logo), e-business on demand, Energy. Scale, Enterprise Workload Manager, e. Server, Express Middleware, Express Portfolio, Express Servers and Storage, General Purpose File System, Giga. Processor, GPFS, HACMP/6000, IBM Systems Director Active Energy Manager, IBM Total. Storage Proven, IBMLink, IMS, Intelligent Miner, i. Series, Micro-Partitioning, NUMACenter, On Demand Business logo, POWER, Power. Executive, Power. VM (logo), Power Architecture, Power Everywhere, Power Family, POWER Hypervisor, Power PC, Power Systems (logo), Power Systems Software (logo), Power. PC Architecture, Power. PC 603 e, Power. PC 604, Power. PC 750, POWER 2 Architecture, POWER 3, POWER 4+, POWER 5+, POWER 6+, pure XML, Quickr, Redbooks, Sequent (logo), Sequent. LINK, Server Advantage, Serve. RAID, Service Director, Smooth. Start, SP, System i 5, System p 5, System Storage, System z 9, S/390 Parallel Enterprise Server, Tivoli Enterprise, TME 10, Total. Storage Proven, Ultramedia, Video. Charger, Virtualization Engine, Visualization Data Explorer, Workload Partitions Manager, X-Architecture, z/9. A full list of U. S. trademarks owned by IBM may be found at: http: //www. ibm. com/legal/copytrade. shtml. The Power Architecture and Power. org wordmarks and the Power and Power. org logos and related marks are trademarks and service marks licensed by Power. org. UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States, other countries or both. Linux is a trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, other countries or both. Microsoft, Windows NT and the Windows logo are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States, other countries or both. Intel, Itanium, Pentium are registered trademarks and Xeon is a trademark of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States, other countries or both. AMD Opteron is a trademark of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. Java and all Java-based trademarks and logos are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States, other countries or both. TPC-C and TPC-H are trademarks of the Transaction Performance Processing Council (TPPC). SPECint, SPECfp, SPECjbb, SPECweb, SPECj. App. Server, SPEC OMP, SPECviewperf, SPECapc, SPEChpc, SPECjvm, SPECmail, SPECimap and SPECsfs are trademarks of the Standard Performance Evaluation Corp (SPEC). Net. Bench is a registered trademark of Ziff Davis Media in the United States, other countries or both. Alti. Vec is a trademark of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. Cell Broadband Engine is a trademark of Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. Infini. Band, Infini. Band Trade Association and the Infini. Band design marks are trademarks and/or service marks of the Infini. Band Trade Association. Other company, product and service names may be trademarks or service marks of others. Revised January 15, 2008 133 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Notes on Benchmarks and Values The benchmarks and values shown herein IBM Power Systems Notes on Benchmarks and Values The benchmarks and values shown herein were derived using particular, well configured, development-level computer systems. Unless otherwise indicated for a system, the values were derived using external cache, if external cache is supported on the system. Buyers should consult other sources of information to evaluate the performance of systems they are considering buying and should consider conducting application oriented testing. For additional information about the benchmarks, values and systems tested, contact your local IBM office or IBM authorized reseller or access the following on the Web: TPC http: //www. tpc. org Linpack http: //www. netlib. no/netlib/benchmark/performance. ps Pro/E http: //www. proe. com SPEC http: //www. spec. org GPC http: //www. spec. org/gpc Notes. Bench Mail http: //www. notesbench. org Volano. Mark http: //www. volano. com STREAM http: //www. cs. virginia. edu/stream/ Unless otherwise indicated for a system, the performance benchmarks were conducted using AIX V 4. 3 or AIX. IBM C Set++ for AIX and IBM XL FORTRAN for AIX with optimization were the compilers used in the benchmark tests. The preprocessors used in some benchmark tests include KAP 3. 2 for FORTRAN and KAP/C 1. 4. 2 from Kuck & Associates and VAST-2 v 4. 01 X 8 from Pacific-Sierra Research. The preprocessors were purchased separately from these vendors. Other software packages like IBM ESSL for AIX and MASS for AIX were also used in some benchmarks. The following SPEC and Linpack benchmarks reflect microprocessor, memory architecture, and compiler performance of the tested system (XX is either 95 or 2000): –SPECint. XX - SPEC component-level benchmark that measures integer performance. Result is the geometric mean of eight tests comprising the CINTXX benchmark suite. All of these are written in the C language. SPECint_base. XX is the result of the same tests as CINTXX with a maximum of four compiler flags that must be used in all eight tests. –SPECint_rate. XX - Geometric average of the eight SPEC rates from the SPEC integer tests (CINTXX). SPECint_base_rate. XX is the result of the same tests as CINTXX with a maximum of four compiler flags that must be used in all eight tests. –SPECfp. XX - SPEC component-level benchmark that measures floating-point performance. Result is the geometric mean of ten tests, all written in FORTRAN, included in the CFPXX benchmark suite. SPECfp_base. XX is the result of the same tests as CFPXX with a maximum of four compiler flags that must be used in all ten tests. –SPECfp_rate. XX - Geometric average of the ten SPEC rates from SPEC floating-point tests (CFPXX). SPECfp_base_rate. XX is the result of the same tests as CFPXX with a maximum of four compiler flags that must be used in all ten tests. –SPECweb 96 - Maximum number of Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) operations per second achieved on the SPECweb 96 benchmark without significant degradation of response time. The Web server software is ZEUS v. 1. 1 from Zeus Technology Ltd. –SPECweb 99 - Number of conforming, simultaneous connections the Web server can support using a predefined workload. The SPECweb 99 test harness emulates clients sending the HTTP requests in the workload over slow Internet connections to the Web server. The Web server software is Zeus from Zeus Technology Ltd. –SPECweb 99_SSL - Number of conforming, simultaneous SSL encryption/decryption connections the Web server can support using a predefined workload. The Web server software is Zeus from Zeus Technology Ltd. –SPEC OMP 2001 - Measures performance based on Open. MP applications. –SPECsfs 97_R 1 - Measures speed and request-handling capabilities of NFS (network file server) computers. Revised September 24, 2003 134 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Notes on Benchmarks and Values (Cont. ) –SPECj. App. Server 200 IBM Power Systems Notes on Benchmarks and Values (Cont. ) –SPECj. App. Server 200 X (where X is 1 or 2) - Measures the performance of Java Enterprise Application Servers using a subset of J 2 EE APIs in a complete end-to-end Web application. The Linpack benchmark measures floating-point performance of a system. –Linpack DP (Double Precision) - n=100 is the array size. The results are measured in megaflops (MFLOPS). –Linpack SP (Single Precision) - n=100 is the array size. The results are measured in MFLOPS. –Linpack TPP (Toward Peak Performance) - n=1, 000 is the array size. The results are measured in MFLOPS. –Linpack HPC (Highly Parallel Computing) - solves the largest system of linear equations possible. The results are measured in GFLOPS. STREAM measures sustainable memory bandwidth in high performance computers. Volano. Mark is a 100% pure Java server benchmark that creates long-lasting network client connections in groups of 20 and measures how long it takes for the clients to take turns broadcasting their messages to the group. The benchmark reports a score as the average number of messages transferred by the server per second. –The following Transaction Processing Performance Council (TPC) benchmarks reflect the performance of the microprocessor, memory subsystem, disk subsystem, and some portions of the network: –tpm. C - TPC Benchmark C throughput measured as the average number of transactions processed per minute during a valid TPC-C configuration run of at least twenty minutes. –$/tpm. C - TPC Benchmark C price/performance ratio reflects the estimated five year total cost of ownership for system hardware, software, and maintenance and is determined by dividing such estimated total cost by the tpm. C for the system. –Qpp. H is the power metric of TPC-H and is based on a geometric mean of the 17 TPC-H queries, the insert test, and the delete test. It measures the ability of the system to give a single user the best possible response time by harnessing all available resources. Qpp. H is scaled based on database size from 30 GB to 10 TB. –Qth. H is the throughput metric of TPC-H and is a classical throughput measurement characterizing the ability of the system to support a multiuser workload in a balanced way. A number of query users is chosen, each of which must execute the full set of 17 queries in a different order. In the background, there is an update stream running a series of insert/delete operations. Qth. H is scaled based on the database size from 30 GB to 10 TB. –$/Qph. H is the price/performance metric for the TPC-H benchmark where Qph. H is the geometric mean of Qpp. H and Qth. H. The price is the fiveyear cost of ownership for the tested configuration and includes maintenance and software support. Revised January 9, 2003 135 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Notes on Benchmarks and Values (Cont. ) The following graphics benchmarks IBM Power Systems Notes on Benchmarks and Values (Cont. ) The following graphics benchmarks reflect the performance of the microprocessor, memory subsystem, and graphics adapter: –SPECxpc results - Xmark 93 is the weighted geometric mean of 447 tests executed in the x 11 perf suite and is an indicator of 2 D graphics performance in an X environment. Larger values indicate better performance. –SPECplb results (gra. PHIGS) - PLBwire 93 and PLBsurf 93 are geometric means of literal and optimized Picture Level Benchmark (PLB) tests for 3 D wireframe and 3 D surface tests, respectively. Larger values indicate better performance. –SPECopc results - Viewperf 7 (3 dsmax-01, DRV-08, DX-07, Light-05, Pro. E-01, UGS-01) and Viewperf 6. 1. 2 (AWadvs-04, DRV-07, DX 06, Light-04, med. MCAD-01, Pro. CDRS-03) are weighted geometric means of individual viewset metrics. Larger values indicate better performance. The following graphics benchmarks reflect the performance of the microprocessor, memory subsystem, graphics adapter and disk subsystem. –SPECapc Pro/Engineer 2000 i 2 results - PROE 2000 I 2_2000370 was developed by the SPECapc committee to measure UNIX and Windows workstations in a comparable real-world environment. Larger numbers indicate better performance. The Notes. Bench Mail workload simulates users reading and sending mail. A simulated user will execute a prescribed set of functions 4 times per hour and will generate mail traffic about every 90 minutes. Performance metrics are: –Notes. Mark - transactions/minute (TPM). –Notes. Bench users - number of client (user) sessions being simulated by the Notes. Bench workload. –$/Notes. Mark - ratio of total system cost divided by the Notes. Mark (TPM) achieved on the Mail workload. –$/User - ratio of total system cost divided by the number of client sessions successfully simulated for the Notes. Bench Mail workload measured. Total system cost is the price of the server under test to the customer, including hardware, operating system, and Domino Server licenses. Application Benchmarks –SAP - Benchmark overview information: http: // www. sap-ag. de/solutions/technology/bench. htm; Benchmark White Paper September, 2000; – http: //www. sap-ag. de/solutions/technology/pdf/50020428. pdf –People. Soft - To get information on People. Soft benchmarks, contact People. Soft directly or the People. Soft/IBM International Competency Center in San Mateo, CA. –Oracle Applications - Benchmark overview information: http: //www. oracle. com/apps_benchmark/ –Baan - The Baan benchmark demonstrates the scalability of Baan ERP solutions. The test results provide the number of Baan Reference Users (BRUs) that can be supported on a specific system. BRU is a single on-line user or a batch unit workload. These metrics are consistent with those used internally by both IBM and Baan to size systems. To get information on Baan benchmarks, contact Baan directly or the IBM/Baan International Competency Center in San Mateo, CA. Revised May 28, 2003 –J. D. Edwards Applications - Product overview information at http: //www. jdedwards. com 136 © 2009 IBM Corporation

IBM Power Systems Notes on Performance Estimates r. Perf (Relative Performance) is an estimate IBM Power Systems Notes on Performance Estimates r. Perf (Relative Performance) is an estimate of commercial processing performance relative to other p. Series systems. It is derived from an IBM analytical model which uses characteristics from IBM internal workloads, TPC and SPEC benchmarks. The r. Perf model is not intended to represent any specific public benchmark results and should not be reasonably used in that way. The model simulates some of the system operations such as CPU, cache and maximum memory available. However, the model does not simulate disk or network I/O operations. r. Perf estimates are calculated based on systems with maximum memory and the latest levels of AIX and other pertinent software. Actual performance will vary based on configuration details. The p. Series 640 is the baseline reference system and has a value of 1. 0. Although r. Perf may be used to compare estimated IBM UNIX commercial processing performance, actual system performance may vary and is dependent upon many factors including system hardware configuration and software design and configuration. All performance estimates are provided "AS IS" and no warranties or guarantees are expressed or implied by IBM. Buyers should consult other sources of information, including system benchmarks, to evaluate the performance of a system they are considering buying. For additional information about r. Perf, contact your local IBM office or IBM authorized reseller. Revised June 25, 2003 137 © 2009 IBM Corporation