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IAEA NUCLEAR SAFETY PROGRAMME Dr. Ugur Bezdeguemeli, Safety Officer Regulatory Activities Section Nuclear Safety IAEA NUCLEAR SAFETY PROGRAMME Dr. Ugur Bezdeguemeli, Safety Officer Regulatory Activities Section Nuclear Safety and Security Department

CONTENT Ø IAEA Safety Standards Ø IAEA Assistances for Embarking Countries Ø Fukushima Action CONTENT Ø IAEA Safety Standards Ø IAEA Assistances for Embarking Countries Ø Fukushima Action Items for Embarking Countries 2

International Atomic Energy Agency ü Established 1957 ü 154 MSs ü 2, 300 staff International Atomic Energy Agency ü Established 1957 ü 154 MSs ü 2, 300 staff (100 countries) • • • 3 pillars Nuclear Science and Technology Safety and Security Safeguards and Verification 3

IAEA Safety Standards IAEA Statute (Article III. A. 6) • “To establish or adopt… IAEA Safety Standards IAEA Statute (Article III. A. 6) • “To establish or adopt… [in consultation with…] standards of safety for the protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property” • “…and to provide for the application of these standards” 4

Status of the IAEA Safety Standards • • Safety Standards are: Non binding on Status of the IAEA Safety Standards • • Safety Standards are: Non binding on Member States, but may be adopted by them Binding for IAEA’s own activities Binding on States in relation to operations assisted by the IAEA or States wishing to enter into project agreements with IAEA Voluntarily binding for States that have embedded IAEA Safety Standards in their National Regulations 5

1958 1961 Ba Stasic S nd afe ard ty s 1962 Pr NU og 1958 1961 Ba Stasic S nd afe ard ty s 1962 Pr NU og SS ram me B Ra SS f Pr dia or ote tio cti n on Sa of fe T Ra ran Ma dioa spo ter ctiv rt ial e S of afe H Ra a dio nd iso ling top es Evolution of the Safety Standards 1974 1996 6

Un Fu ifie nd d S am af e e nt ty als Ac Un Fu ifie nd d S am af e e nt ty als Ac Plation n O Str ver uct all ure Co miss mm ion itte an es d Evolution (cont. ) CSS COMMISSION ON SAFETY STANDARDS NUSSC RASSC WASSC 1996 TRANSSC 2003 2004 2006 7

Hierarchy of the Safety Standards Safety Fundamentals Safety Requirements Safety Guides 8 Hierarchy of the Safety Standards Safety Fundamentals Safety Requirements Safety Guides 8

Hierarchy of the Safety Standards 9 Hierarchy of the Safety Standards 9

Coverage of the Safety Standards http: //www-ns. iaea. org/standards/ 10 Coverage of the Safety Standards http: //www-ns. iaea. org/standards/ 10

IAEA Safety Standards Fukushima Action Item Review and strengthen IAEA Safety Standards and improve IAEA Safety Standards Fukushima Action Item Review and strengthen IAEA Safety Standards and improve their implementation Ø The Commission on Safety Standards and the IAEA Secretariat: to review, and revise as necessary using the existing process in a more efficient manner, the relevant IAEA Safety Standards in a prioritised sequence. Ø Member States: to utilize as broadly and effectively as possible the IAEA Safety Standards in an open, timely and transparent manner. The IAEA Secretariat to continue providing support and assistance in the implementation of IAEA Safety Standards. 11

Revision of the Safety Standards Review areas: üregulatory structure, üemergency preparedness and response, ünuclear Revision of the Safety Standards Review areas: üregulatory structure, üemergency preparedness and response, ünuclear safety and engineering • site selection and evaluation, • assessment of extreme natural hazards, their combined effects, • management of severe accidents, • station blackout, • loss of heat sink, • accumulation of explosive gases, • nuclear fuel behaviour and ways to ensure the safety of spent fuel storage). 12

Application of the Safety Standards Notable use by MSs: • Formally adopted into a Application of the Safety Standards Notable use by MSs: • Formally adopted into a MSs legal framework (e. g. Brazil, China, Netherlands, Pakistan, etc. ). • Direct use of standards to establish regulations (i. e. Canada, Czech Republic, Germany, India, Korea Rep. of, Russian Federation) • Used as reference for review of national standards (by many other States also by Industry) and as benchmark for harmonization 13

Application of the Safety Standards • By the IAEA: • Safety reviews; • TC Application of the Safety Standards • By the IAEA: • Safety reviews; • TC missions; • Training activities. • Through the process of safety related conventions. • Cosponsoring organizations. 14

IAEA Assistances for Embarking Countries regarding establishment of nuclear regulatory framework 15 IAEA Assistances for Embarking Countries regarding establishment of nuclear regulatory framework 15

IAEA Assistance for Embarking Countries Specific Workshops • WS 1: Workshop on Developing National IAEA Assistance for Embarking Countries Specific Workshops • WS 1: Workshop on Developing National Infrastructure including Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Infrastructure for Safe Implementation of Nuclear Power Programme • WS 2: Workshop on Regulatory Framework • WS 3: Workshop on Safety Regulations • WS 4: Workshop on Licensing Process • WS 5: Workshop on Safety Review and Assessment by the Regulatory Body • WS 6: Workshop on Regulatory Inspection and Enforcement • WS 7: Workshop on Interactions with the Public and Other Interested Parties in Regulatory Activities • WS 8: Workshop on Management System for the Regulatory Body • WS 9: Workshop on Staffing the Regulatory Body and Development of the Competencies for the Conduct of Regulatory Functions, including the Use of External Support Organizations http: //www-ns. iaea. org/tech-areas/safety-infrastructure/ds 424 -module-1. asp? s=0&l=94 16

Workshop Syllabus Title Type of Assistance Duration Objective of Assistance Milestones Issues (based on Workshop Syllabus Title Type of Assistance Duration Objective of Assistance Milestones Issues (based on NG-G-3. 1 formulation) Safety Package Modules Elements of the Safety Infrastructure (based on SG 16 formulation) covered in Assistance Leading Division/Section Technical Support Target Country/Countries Target Audience/Participants Format and Content of Assistance Reference Documents Tutorial Materials Recent Examples 17

IAEA Assistance for Embarking Countries Expert Missions • licensing/authorization process for NPPs • development IAEA Assistance for Embarking Countries Expert Missions • licensing/authorization process for NPPs • development of safety regulations and guides • planning and conducting safety review and assessment of a nuclear installation by the regulatory body, including workforce planning • planning and performing regulatory oversight and regulatory enforcement • communication with public and involvement of interested parties in the regulatory process • management system of the regulatory body • staffing and competence building for the regulatory body http: //www-ns. iaea. org/tech-areas/safety-infrastructure/ds 424 -module-1. asp? s=0&l=94 18

Expert Missions • For countries that have no already existing system or implementation on Expert Missions • For countries that have no already existing system or implementation on the areas/subjects for which the expert mission is requested: The experts will help to develop/establish a national system by providing guidance and assistance on the areas/subjects listed. Ø If NPP technology and vendor has not been determined by the requesting embarking country yet, this guidance and assistance will be based on relevant IAEA safety standards and therefore it will be technology neutral. Ø If the requesting embarking country has already decided NPP technology and vendor, the guidance and assistance may also refer to/based on vendor country system, approach or method where appropriate. 19

Expert Missions • For countries that have an already existing system or implementation on Expert Missions • For countries that have an already existing system or implementation on the areas/subjects for which the expert mission is requested: - To explore the effectiveness, efficiency, adequacy and consistency of the existing national system or implementation concerning the areas/subjects listed above and to identify gaps and inconsistencies to fix and to identify opportunities for improvement • For this purpose, the expert mission will review existing system or implementation of the requesting embarking country to identify gaps, inconsistencies and opportunities for improvement and then will provide guidance, recommendations and/or assist the requesting embarking country for filling identified gaps, correcting identified inconsistencies and applying appropriate improvements. When conducting the initial preliminary review part of the expert mission, relevant parts of the IRRS Guidelines may be referenced. 20

IAEA Safety Review Services • Integrated Regulatory Review Services (IRRS) • Siting and External IAEA Safety Review Services • Integrated Regulatory Review Services (IRRS) • Siting and External Events Design review (SEED) • Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) • Generic Reactor Safety Reviews (GRSR) • Safety Assessment Capacity and Competency Review (SAC) • Periodic Safety Review Service (PSR) • Integrated Safety Review (ISR) • International Probabilistic Safety Assessment Review Team (IPSART) • Review of Accident Management Programmes (RAMP) • Peer Review of Operational Safety Performance Experience (PROSPER) • Safety Aspects of Long Term Operation of Water Moderated Reactors (SALTO) • Integrated Safety Assessment of Research Reactors (INSARR) • Emergency Preparedness Review Services (EPREV) http: //www-ns. iaea. org/reviews/default. asp? s=7&l=57 21

Safety Review Services for New Comers Safety peer reviews against the Safety Standards (to Safety Review Services for New Comers Safety peer reviews against the Safety Standards (to address the safety-related infrastructure) Siting Mission (SEED) Ph 1 Siting Mission (SEED) IRRS Mission Ph 2 INIR Mission Pre-OSART, EPREV, ISSAS, IPPAS… Ph 3 INIR Mission Holistic reviews against the Milestones (Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review) IAEA Operation INIR & IRRS Mission

“The Integrated Regulatory Review Service ” - IRRS Objective: to strengthen and enhance the “The Integrated Regulatory Review Service ” - IRRS Objective: to strengthen and enhance the effectiveness of the national regulatory infrastructure of States for nuclear, radiation, radioactive waste and transport safety and security of radioactive sources whilst recognizing the ultimate responsibility of each State to ensure safety in the above areas. - accomplished through consideration of regulatory, technical and policy issues, with comparisons against IAEA safety standards and where appropriate, good practices elsewhere. Vision/Outcome: “Effective and Sustainable Regulatory Bodies that fully apply IAEA safety standards, share regulatory experiences, knowledge and lessons learned among Regulators” 23

“The Integrated Regulatory Review Service ” - IRRS Romania, (Follow-up) 2006 UK, 2006 (Reduced “The Integrated Regulatory Review Service ” - IRRS Romania, (Follow-up) 2006 UK, 2006 (Reduced scope, 1 st Mission) France, 2006 (First Full Scope) Australia, Japan, Mexico, 2007 Spain, Ukraine, Germany, 2008 France (F), Canada, Vietnam, UK (2 nd Mission), Russia, 2009 Iran, China, Ukraine (F), USA, 2010 Spain (F), Romania, S. Korea, Slovenia, Canada (F), Switzerland, UAE, 2011 Poland (2012) Follow-ups: Sweden, Poland, Slovakia, Finland 2012 Follow-ups: Pakistan, Bulgaria, Czech Rep…. 2013 + Ongoing Requests from Smaller Programmes 24

“The Integrated Regulatory Review Service ” - IRRS Fukushima Action Item Strengthen the effectiveness “The Integrated Regulatory Review Service ” - IRRS Fukushima Action Item Strengthen the effectiveness of national regulatory bodies Ø Member States to conduct a prompt national review and thereafter regular reviews of their regulatory bodies, including an assessment of their effective independence, adequacy of human and financial resources and the need for appropriate technical and scientific support, to fulfill their responsibilities. Ø The IAEA Secretariat to enhance the Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) for peer review of regulatory effectiveness through a more comprehensive assessment of national regulations against IAEA Safety Standards. Ø Each Member State with nuclear power plants to voluntarily host, on a regular basis, an IAEA IRRS mission to assess its national regulatory framework. In addition, a follow-up mission to be conducted within three years of the main IRRS mission. 25

IAEA Assistance for Embarking Countries • Education and training • oriented towards sustainability of IAEA Assistance for Embarking Countries • Education and training • oriented towards sustainability of national programmes. • focus on train the trainers. • extensive collection of training packages for self learning and class room use developed and distributed world wide. • FEs and SVs 26

Education & Training on Nuclear Installation Safety NIS Training Categories Main webpage navigation Most Education & Training on Nuclear Installation Safety NIS Training Categories Main webpage navigation Most Recent Training Activities Main Page - goto. iaea. org/nis-training

Training Courses 1 - Basic Professional Training Course on Nuclear Safety (BPTC), and 2 Training Courses 1 - Basic Professional Training Course on Nuclear Safety (BPTC), and 2 - Training Course on Regulatory Control of Nuclear Power Plants DVD Training Materials E-Textbooks Dedicated page for every workshop http: //www-ns. iaea. org/training/ni/fund-bpc. asp 28

IAEA Assistance for Embarking Countries Delivery mechanisms • TC Projects • Other Extra Budgetary IAEA Assistance for Embarking Countries Delivery mechanisms • TC Projects • Other Extra Budgetary Programmes • Safety Networks/Forums (ANSN, RCF, etc. ) 29

Fukushima Action Items concerning Embarking Countries 30 Fukushima Action Items concerning Embarking Countries 30

Fukushima Action Items A number of measures proposed in the Action Plan including 12 Fukushima Action Items A number of measures proposed in the Action Plan including 12 main actions, each with corresponding sub-actions, focusing on: ü safety assessments in the light of the accident at TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station; ü IAEA peer reviews; ü emergency preparedness and response; ü national regulatory bodies; ü operating organizations; ü IAEA Safety Standards; ü international legal framework; ü MSs planning to embark on a nuclear power programme; ü capacity building; ü protection of people and the environment from ionizing radiation; ü communication and information dissemination; and ü research and development. S. M. Modro, July 2008

Fukushima Action Items MSs planning to embark on a nuclear power programme Facilitate the Fukushima Action Items MSs planning to embark on a nuclear power programme Facilitate the development of the infrastructure necessary for Member States embarking on a nuclear power programme • Member States to create an appropriate nuclear infrastructure based on IAEA Safety Standards and other relevant guidance, and the IAEA Secretariat to provide assistance as may be requested. • Member States to voluntarily host Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Reviews (INIR) and relevant peer review missions, including site and design safety reviews, prior to commissioning the first nuclear power plant. S. M. Modro, July 2008

Fukushima Action Items Capacity Building Strengthen and maintain capacity building • Member States with Fukushima Action Items Capacity Building Strengthen and maintain capacity building • Member States with nuclear power programmes and those planning to embark on such a programme to strengthen, develop, maintain and implement their capacity building programs, including education, training and exercises at the national, regional and international levels; to continuously ensure sufficient and competent human resources necessary to assume their responsibility for safe, responsible and sustainable use of nuclear technologies; the IAEA Secretariat……. . • Member States with nuclear power programmes and those planning to embark on such a programme, to incorporate lessons learned from the accident into their nuclear power programme infrastructure; the IAEA Secretariat to assist as requested. S. M. Modro, July 2008

Fukushima Action Items Ø The success of this Action Plan in strengthening nuclear safety Fukushima Action Items Ø The success of this Action Plan in strengthening nuclear safety is dependent on its implementation through the full cooperation and participation of Member States and will require also the involvement of many other stakeholders. Ø MSs are encouraged to work cooperatively to implement the Action Plan to maximize the benefit of the lessons learned from the accident and to produce concrete results as soon as possible. S. M. Modro, July 2008

CONCLUSION “The Agency has a key role to play in ensuring that this expansion CONCLUSION “The Agency has a key role to play in ensuring that this expansion in nuclear power takes place in an efficient, responsible and sustainable manner. “ 35

International Atomic Energy Agency Thank you for your attention!!! u. bezdeguemeli@iaea. org 36 International Atomic Energy Agency Thank you for your attention!!! u. bezdeguemeli@iaea. org 36