- Количество слайдов: 109
I. FIRST AMERICANS The First Americans came from Asia (Siberia, Mongolia) across a land bridge. The Ice Age lowered water levels, and when it ended the Bering Strait emerged
MIGRATION These people were able to migrate south as the ice melted. Eventually reached southern tip of South America, as many as 54 million in the Americas total; 2, 000 languages
ADVANCED CIVILIZATION Incas – Peru; Aztecs – Mexico; Mayas – Central America Human sacrifice – 5, 000 to crown one chieftain
REVIEW How did first Americans get here, from where? What was the key factor in the migration? How many with how many languages? Name and locate 3 Native American civilizations. What was the troubling Aztec practice?
II. SETTLING Corn/maize cultivation spread from Mexico across the Americas. Allowed people to settle – Pueblo first in North America; more advanced
OTHERS No North American tribes compared to the Aztecs (Mexicas) Mound Builders of Ohio Valley; Mississippian of midwest (St. Louis), and Anasazi of Southwest – fairly advanced
MORE TRIBES Cherokee, Creeks, and Choctaw grew corn, beans, and squash at same time Iroquois confederacy – NE – MOOKS – Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca
REVIEW - What started in Mexico and spread across Americas? Who settled first in North America, and to what effect? What tribe in: Ohio Valley? Midwest? SW? SE? Name the five tribes of the Iroquois. What is a confederation?
I. EUROPEANS COME TO AMERICAS Leif Erikson, Norse seaman, came in A. D. 1000 to Newfoundland, but no settlement Europeans wanted Asian silk, drugs, perfumes, draperies, and spices after the Crusades failed
WHY SAILING? Cuts out Middle Men of Arabian Peninsula or Mediterranean Sea. Marco Polo’s descriptions of China egged them on. (Put in more formal terms on an essay)
HOW SAILING Portuguese used compass, astrolabe, and caravel to explore west coast of Africa. They bought gold and slaves for sugar plantations on African coastal islands.
REVIEW What Scandinavian came to Newfoundland in 1000? What did Europeans want from Asia? Why sail? Who first? Why were they able to sail? What did Portugal buy from West Africa?
II. FAMOUS EXPLORERS Bartolomeu Dias reached Southern tip of Africa 1488. Vasco Da Gama – around Africa to India – all of Asia was called Indies
SPAIN Spain united under Ferdinand Isabella, and expelled the Muslim Moors. National power and wealth, Renaissance, the printing press all spurred Spanish exploration.
COLUMBUS Italian, Genoan Columbus convinced King & Queen to give him 3 ships. Reached Bahamas within 6 weeks, just before mutiny
REVIEW Who reached southern tip of Africa? Who sailed all the way to India and back? What was all of Asia called? Under whom did Spain unite? Who got kicked out of Spain? Name 4 causes of Spanish exploration. Where was Columbus from? How long did it take him to get there?
III. EFFECT OF COLUMBUS He thought world was smaller, Asia was closer, and that he had found some part of Asia. America named after Amerigo Vespucci, who called it a “new world. ”
COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE His voyage resulted in globalization: Americas, Africa, Europe profoundly affected Columbian Exchange – Europe and Americas brought much to each other
DETAILS OF THE EXCHANGE Europe to Americas – sugar, coffee, wheat, rice, livestock, lots of disease Americas to Europe – corn, potatoes, tomatoes, tobacco, vanilla, chocolate, gold, silver Africa to Americas slaves
REVIEW What was Columbus’ mistake? Whom are we named after? How did globalization result? What was the Columbian Excange? Europe to Americas? Americas to Europe? Africa to America?
I. SPAIN’S SUCCESS Lots of gold and silver in Mexico, Peru. Treaty of Tordesillas – Spain and Portugal divided the New World, with Portugal getting African/Asian land Brazil.
CONQUISTADORS Conquistadors’ motives: God, gold, and glory, and escape from bad past. Balboa (1513) crossed Panama claimed the South Sea (Pacific Ocean) for Spain.
OTHERS Ferdinand Magellan (1519 -1522) crossed Strait of Magellan with 5 ships, was killed in Philipines; 1 ship circumnavigated entire globe. Juan Ponce de Leon’ died in search of fountain of youth in Florida
REVIEW What did the Spanish find in Mexico and Peru? What were the 3 motives of conquistadors? Who called the Pacific Ocean the South Sea? Whose crew circumnavigated the world? Where was Magellan killed? Who died searching for the fountain of youth? Where and how?
II. THE LAST CONQUISTADORS 1540 -1542 Francisco Coronado searched for golden cities in Southwest; found adobe Pueblos, Grand Canyon and a zillion buffalo. Hernando de Soto searched for gold from Florida to Arkansas; used mastiffs on N. Americans
PIZARRO AND ECONOMICS 1532 Pizarro crushed the Incas. Lots of silver caused huge inflation in Spain
EFFECTS Banks in Spain and Italy, merchants in France and Holland flourished. Trade with Asia grew and was affordable.
REVIEW Who searched for what in the Southwest? What did he find? Tell about De Soto. Explain Pizarro’s conquest and its effect. What happened to prices, banking, and trade?
III. CORTES Cortes left from Cuba and landed on Cozumel off Yucatan Peninsula, then to Tenochtitlan. Taught Mayan by Spanish slave and Native slave Malinche (“malinchista” means “traitor” in Spanish)
TACTICS Burned his ships, got 20, 000 Native allies. Montezuma’s gifts made Cortes (Quetzalcoatl? ) want gold more.
FALL OF THE AZTECS Cortes laid siege to Tenochtitlan, which fell in 1521. Smallpox reduced Aztec population from 20 million to 2 million within a century.
REVIEW Describe Cortes’ route. Who helped him? The ships? Tell about Montezuma. Explain the siege and disease.
IV. SPANISH AMERICA Produced lots of gold and silver, missions, Lima and Mexico City universities 85 years before Harvard Challenged by English John Cabot, Frenchmen Verrazano and Cartier.
SPANISH NORTH AMERICA Spanish founded St. Augustine 1565, first European colony in North America, for protection and conversion Catholic missions set up in SW, Texas at Alamo, From San Diego to San Francisco by late 1700 s
WEST Missions – lost culture and legs; Pueblo uprising 1680 s temporarily expelled Spanish Las Casas and the Black Legend – awful treatment of natives
REVIEW Spanish America’s major achievements? What English and French explorers came first? First North American colony? What and where were most missions? What problems were at the missions? What was the Black Legend?
V. NORTH AMERICAN COMPETITION North America 1600 largely untouched. English Jamestown 1607; French Quebec 1608; Spanish Santa Fe 1610.
ENGLAND Henry VIII broke from Catholic Church to get divorce. Queen Elizabeth established Church of England ruled 1558 -1603
IRELAND Elizabeth suppressed Irish Catholic uprising 1570 s/80 s. Protestant landlords treated Irish native “savages” ruthlessly.
REVIEW Name 3 new colonies early 1600 s. Explain English church conflict When did Elizabeth reign? Where was the first native revolt?
I. AAARRRGGHH! AAIIIEEEEE! English Sea Dogs/privateers (pirates) led by Sir Francis Drake plundered Spanish shipping. Drake circumnavigated the world and was knighted by Elizabeth.
LOST COLONY OF ROANOKE Sir Walter Raleigh persuaded Elizabeth to fund an expedition landing on Roanoke Island, off North Carolina. 1 st try – everyone left; 2 nd try – disappeared Croatoan
ENGLAND DEFEATS SPANISH ARMADA 1588 Phillip II wants gold back and attacked England with Spanish Armada Sea Dogs and “Protestant wind” defeated the Armada; decline of Spain/rise of England
REVIEW Who led the sea dogs? What did Elizabeth do? Roanoke – who and where? What happened at/to Roanoke? How did England beat Spain?
II. READY FOR ENGLISH COLONIES 1600 – 4 million pop; enclosure movement for sheep/wool industry Who’s leaving? Unemployed farmers, primogeniture/younger sons, and those seeking religious freedom
VIRGINIA 1606 – King James I granted a charter to the Virginia Company (named after Queen Elizabeth 1558 -1603) to explore North America. Va Company was a jointstock company, investors wanting gold (not colonies) and passage to Asia
FIRST SUCCESSFUL COLONY First successful colony, Jamestown, after James I, in 1607. After being attacked inland, 100 men settled on banks of James River, easy to defend but malarial
DEATH Original settlers wouldn’t work; mass starvation and disease, ate dogs, cats, rodents, corpses, and one wife. 60/400 survived starving time; 1000/5500 first few years
REVIEW Who wanted to come to the New World? What joint-stock company? Named after whom and why? Advantage and disadvantage of Jamestown’s location? Why so much suffering? Describe starving time.
III. JOHN SMITH AND POWHATAN Captain John Smith took over Jamestown in 1608: “Don’t work, don’t eat. ” Chief Powhatan allowed Pocahontas to “save” John Smith in a mock execution to show power.
POWHATAN WARS Jamestown fought two major wars against the Powhatan, who were considered extinct by 1689. The first war ended with the marriage of Pocahontas to John Rolfe, who would be killed in the second war.
NATIVE STRUGGLES Powhatan problems: disease, disorganization, disposability. Tribes disintegrated and fought each over trade with colonists; Algonquians and Lakota benefited
REVIEW Who saved Jamestown politically, how? How did Powhatan, Smith, and Pocahontas interact? What was John Rolfe’s role in the wars? What did in the Powhatan? How did natives try to adapt to colonists? Which tribes benefited?
I. GOVERNMENT AND ECONOMICS John Rolfe introduced tobacco to Virginia Saved colony, ruined natives, caused slavery.
WORKERS The first workers on tobacco plantations were indentured servants – worked for 7 years (their indenture) 1619 the first Africans arrived to work on plantations; 14% of colony by 1700.
VIRGINIA HOUSE OF BURGESSES 1619 - The colonies’ first instance of selfgovernment was Virginia House of Burgesses. 1624 – King James revoked Virginia Company’s charter, making it royal colony
REVIEW Who saved Jamestown economically? What was the effect of tobacco? What two groups worked on tobacco plantations? What’s ironic about the year 1619? What did King James do to Jamestown?
II. OTHER SOUTHERN COLONIES: MARYLAND Maryland was 4 th colony, second plantation colony Lord Baltimore – George Calvert – founded it as a Catholic haven.
PROTESTANTS AND TOBACCO Large estates for Catholics, but small Protestant farmers rebelled. Tobacco plantations were worked by indentured servants first, slaves later
TOLERATION? Catholics supported 1649 Act of Toleration – toleration for all Christians. Death penalty for Jews and atheists; Maryland had most Catholics
REVIEW What was the second plantation colony? Who founded it, for whom? What crop? Who dominated? Who worked the crop? What did the Toleration Act say?
III. WEST INDIES England claimed several West Indian islands, including Jamaica in 1655. Sugar was the tobacco of West Indies – required wealthy planters and lots of work.
SLAVES Quarter million in 1600 s, outnumbered whites 4: 1. Worst slave codes/treatment of the African diaspora here – no punishment for killing a slave
SLAVE CODES ELSEWHERE Carolinas imported slave codes of West Indies served as staging ground for encomienda and slave code system.
REVIEW Name an English W. Indian claim. What crop? How was it different from tobacco? How many slaves? How did this affect the slave codes? Who imported the slave codes? What was the encomienda?
IV. OTHER SOUTHERN COLONIES Carolina – named after Charles II, founded 1670 Founded to supply W. Indies with food; rice became main export
NATIVES AND SLAVES Colonists and Savannah Indians caught native slaves; sent to W. Indies and New England Carolinians killed most of the Savannah before they could leave for Pennsylvania
ECONOMICS AND CULTURE W. African slaves had experience growing rice in swampy areas. Charlestown, the seaport, practiced religious toleration, was thriving and diverse
REVIEW Carolina – when and named for whom? Main export? Tell the short sad story of the native slave trade. Why African slaves? Why the diversity?
V. OTHER SOUTHERN COLONIES Poverty-stricken discontents left Virginia for N. Carolina, est. 1712; tobacco farmers w/few slaves (RI South) Carolinians defeated and dispersed Tuscarorans and Yamassee tribes.
GEORGIA Last colony founded 1733 by James Oglethorpe for debtors, no slavery Named for George II, Buffer against Spanish Florida and Fr. Louisiana
GEORGIA CULTURE Savannah was melting pot like Charlestown Tolerated all Christians but Catholics; Methodist founder John Wesley was missionary
REVIEW What Church did Queen Elizabeth create? What’s the difference between a Puritan and a Pilgrim? What did the Pilgrims sail on, where did they land, and what colony did they establish? What colony did the Puritans establish, and what happened to the Plymouth colony?
I. NORTH Each region had different government, economies, and values. South settle for $; North for religious devotion
CALVINISTS Martin Luther – Calvin – predestination - The “elect” were going to heaven, and did good works to prove it. Puritans wanted only the visible saints allowed into the church.
PROBLEMS WITH JAMES Church of England let in anyone, so Separatists vowed to start a new church. James – spiritual defiance leads to political defiance – harassed the Separatists.
REVIEW What was the difference in goals of southern and northern settlement? How did Martin Luther effect us? How did Calvin’s teachings affect his followers? What did Puritans want to change about the Church of England? What did Separatists want to do, and how did King James react?
II. PILGRIMS Separatists in Holland 12 years, then Mayflower. Landed on Plymouth, outside Va. Company domain – “squatters. ”
MAYFLOWER COMPACT/GOVT Mayflower Compact – agreement to form government and obey it. Gov. William Bradford elected 39 times
THANKSGIVING 58/102 died the first winter, but nobody went home. Good fall harvest – first Thanksgiving/Squanto and Massasoit– fur, fish and lumber
REVIEW Where did the Separatists live first? How did they get here? Why sign the Mayflower Compact? Explain William Bradford politics. How bad was first winter? What celebration? What was Plymouth economy based on?
III. MASSACHUSSETTS BAY Non-Separatists Puritans secured royal charter for Massachusetts Bay Colony, est. 1630 20, 000 to Mass. Bay in 1630 s; 50, 000 to Barbados sugar plantations.
THE NEW ENGLAND First Governor John Winthrop – “city on a hill” – Protestant work ethic/calling Prospered – fishing, timber, shipbuilding industries
DEMOCRATIC AND THEOCRATIC? All freemen (2/5) could vote for leaders; at town governments/town meetings – all property owners could discuss issues and vote. Purpose – enforce God’s laws, but Clergymen couldn’t hold political office.
REVIEW Mass. Bay – when and by whom? Where else did Puritans go? Who was the first Governor? What were some Mass. Bay ideals? How democratic? How theocratic?
IV. PURITAN INTOLERANCE Quakers flogged or killed; Anne Hutchinson expelled after bamboozling her clerical inquisitors. Hutchinson left for Rhode Island, killed in New York
RHODE ISLAND Roger Williams wanted separation from Church of England, separation of church and state, and Indian compensation. In “Rogue’s Island” (1636, 1644) he allowed complete religious freedom and universal manhood suffrage.
OTHER PLACES Thomas Hooker and other Boston Puritans settled Connecticut 1639. Maine absorbed by Massachusetts Bay 1677. Fishing, trading, desire for land led to NH 1679.
REVIEW What was the problem of: The Quakers? Anne Hutchinson? Roger Williams? How was Rhode Island different? Who and why: Connecticut? New Hampshire? Maine - why not?
V. NEW ENGLAND TROUBLES Pequot War 1637 – English/Narragansett burned/slaughtered Pequot village. 1675 – King Phillip’s War – Metacom/King Phillip attempted Native unity – hundreds dead, Metacom beheaded and piked.
NEW ENGLAND CONFEDERATION/UNITY 1643 Puritan NE colonies – not RI or Maine – cooperated on defense, extradition. Restoration – Charles II – Ct and RI charter, Mass charter revoked 1684
DOMINION OF NEW ENGLAND By crown, for defense and Navigation laws – trade only with England; smuggling resulted. Gov. Edmund Andros suppressed town meetings, enforced Navigation laws, taxation w/o rep. until Glorious Revolution brought salutary neglect
REVIEW What happened in Pequot War? How was Metacom/King Phillip different? What resulted? What was the difference between New England Confederation and Dominion of New England? Who was Sir Edmund Andros? What were the Navigation Acts? What was salutary neglect?
I. MIDDLE COLONIES With English help, Netherlands got independence from Spain late 1500 s. Dutch fought 3 wars with England 1600 s.
HENRY HUDSON Dutch East India company sent Henry Hudson to New World 1609. Explored Hudson River, which wasn’t a Northwest Passage.
DUTCH COLONY Dutch W. India Company established New Netherland around Hudson River 16231624. Bought Manhattan Island for pennies an acre.
REVIEW Dutch independence when? Dutch wars with whom? Dutch E. India Company sent who to look for what? Dutch West India Company bought what, for how much? Original name of colony?
II. NEW AMSTERDAM Illiberal government , no religious dissent, patroonships – feudal estates on the Hudson. Cosmopolitan/diverse population – 18 languages heard
CONFLICT Wall against Indian attack built around Manhattan Island (Wall Street). Director-General Peter Stuyvesant pushed Swedes out of area in 1655, but surrendered to James, Duke of York (Charles II’s brother) in 1664
RENAMED NEW YORK England removed Dutch Wedge and controlled from Maine to Carolinas. Dutch contributions: Harlem, Brooklyn, Easter eggs, Santa Claus, waffles, bowling skating, sleighing, golf
REVIEW What was attractive and unattractive about New Netherlands? Dutch v. Indians? Dutch v. Swedes? Dutch lost to what Englishman? New name? Dutch contribution?
III. QUAKERS OF PENNSYLVANIA Quakers – society of friends – no titles, preachers, all equal, “quaked” with emotion Pacifist, passive resistance, turn the other cheek; often persecuted in England
WILLIAM PENN Flogged by father (whom the King owed money) for his faith Pennsylvania – “Penn’s woodland” – wanted name change, 1681
QUAKER IDEALISM Philadelphia – “city of brotherly love” - Treaty with Indian Chief Tammany– used as babysitters. Tolerated warlike Scotch -Irish, undermining Indian policy
REVIEW Tell about Quakers. How did Dad help and hurt William Penn? Meaning of “Philadelphia? ” What was the Indian policy, and what undermined it?
IV. PENNSYLVANIA SHAPES MIDDLE COLONIES Religious toleration, but Catholics and Jews couldn’t vote or hold office. No military, slavery, or immigration restrictions, and 3 rd largest population (Mass, VA)
PENNISH COLONIES West and East Jersey settled partially by Quakers, combined 1702 into New Jersey. Delaware, with many Quakers named for De La Warr but assembly was under Governor of Pennsylvania
BREAD BASKET COLONIES Exported food/grain, lumbering, shipbuilding Tolerant governments, diverse populations (seaports NY Philly), medium sized landholding (except aristocratic NY)
REVIEW How tolerant was Pennsylvania? How big was Pennsylvania? How did New Jersey come to be? Who settled in Delaware? Compare the Middle Colonies to New England the South.