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I. Background and Procedure II. Colonial Literature III. The Crucible IV. Nonfiction: Revolutionary Texts
Tuesday, Sept 2 • Edit and Revise your essay. • Check spelling, punctuation, and sentence structure. • Check grammar. • Make sure it is in MLA Format • Make sure you used Parenthetical Citations. • Once you are finished and ready for me to grade, print, place in your folder and turn your folder into me.
Essential Questions How do the authors and works I will study in this class relate to American history and society at the time? How do I properly format a formal essay? How do I create a works cited page in MLA format? How do I use in-text citations effectively and appropriately to avoid "accidental plagiarism"? How does the literature in early Colonial America reflect the customs and beliefs of the Native Americans and Puritans? What kind of literary styles did the earliest writers contribute to American Literature? How did history have an effect on the types of literature being written? How did Mc. Carthyism influence Arthur Miller to write The Crucible? What was Miller's purpose in writing about the Salem Witch Trials? What are the major themes found in the play? Is Miller's portrayal of the Puritans accurate? What were the primary types of literature during the Revolutionary period? What written and oral language conventions can be found in Revolutionary era literature? How does the literature of the Revolutionary period relate to the state of the colony and the turmoil faced by the colonists?
Group Assignments • Please line up, starting in the back of the room by birthdate. January will begin at the back door. • Count off by 6. Find your group’s desks, sit down, and prepare to start class.
Monday • • Introduction to Colonial Literature Overview Journal Group Activity
Wednesday, Sept. 3 • Iroquois Constitution • Mayflower Compact
Colonial Literature Overview A. Societies and Leaders: Iroquois and Bradford B. Puritan Poetry and Prose
Journal What qualities make a good leader? What qualities make a good follower? 5 -7 complete sentences. Keep your paper out for the next activity.
Societies and Leaders • View The Iroquois Nation and take notes • Read about their society---page 41 and take notes • Summarize the info from the book and the video. • With your table, write one well developed paragraph. Each person will write on the same paper as their journal to put in their folder.
Read Iroquois Constituion (42 -44) or Hodenosaunee Nation: ("people of the longhouse") 1. The Tree of the Great Peace has both literal and figurative meanings. Discuss some of the things it might symbolize to the Iroquois. 2. What advantages do you think the Iroquois gained by establishing the constitution? What disadvantages, if any, might there have been?
The Mayflower Compact • Old English • First “American” document that spelled out governmental procedure. • The Mayflower Compact was drawn up in 1629 with fair and equal laws, for the general good of the settlement and with the will of the majority • Being the first written laws for the new land, the Compact determined authority within the settlement and was the observed as such until 1691.
The Mayflower Compact In ye name of God Amen· We whose names are vnderwriten, the loyall subjects of our dread soueraigne Lord King James by ye grace of God, of great Britaine, franc, & Ireland king, defender of ye faith, &c Haueing vndertaken, for ye glorie of God, and aduancemente of ye christian ^faith and honour of our king & countrie, a voyage to plant ye first colonie in ye Northerne parts of Virginia· doe by these presents solemnly & mutualy in ye presence of God, and one of another, couenant, & combine our selues togeather into a ciuill body politick; for ye our better ordering, & preseruation & fur= therance of ye ends aforesaid; and by vertue hearof, to enacte, constitute, and frame shuch just & equall lawes, ordinances, Acts, constitutions, & offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meete & conuenient for ye generall good of ye colonie: vnto which we promise all due submission and obedience. In witnes wherof we haue herevnder subscribed our names at Cap= Codd ye · 11· of Nouember, in ye year of ye raigne of our soueraigne Lord king James of England, france, & Ireland ye eighteenth and of Scotland ye fiftie fourth. Ano: Dom · 1620·|
The Mayflower Compact • In the name of God, Amen. We whose names are underwritten, the loyal subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord King James, by the Grace of God of Great Britain, France, and Ireland King, Defender of the Faith, etc. • Having undertaken for the Glory of God and advancement of the Christian Faith and Honour of our King and Country, a Voyage to plant the First Colony in the Northern Parts of Virginia, do by these presents solemnly and mutually in the presence of God and one of another, Covenant and Combine ourselves together in a Civil Body Politic, for our better ordering and preservation and furtherance of the ends aforesaid; and by virtue hereof to enact, constitute and frame such just and equal Laws, Ordinances, Acts, Constitutions and Offices from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the general good of the Colony, unto which we promise all due submission and obedience. In witness whereof we have hereunder subscribed our names at Cape Cod, the 11 th of November, in the year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord King James, of England, France and Ireland the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fifty-fourth. Anno Domini 1620.
Questions 1. What reasons were given for the creation of the document? 2. What did they agree to do? 3. What words in the document show the seriousness of the persons who signed it? 4. What was so important about the Mayflower Compact that it is still studied as part of our history? (first agreement to create self-government in America) 5. Did it help or hurt them? 6. Would the new colony have survived just as well without it? 7. Could the signing of the Mayflower Compact be considered an act that contributed to the "common good? " How? 8. What was the benefit in this historical situation of group cooperation?
Thursday Review of Iroquois and Mayflower Complact Vocabulary Journal Group Activity
• The United States of America began as a land of voyagers. Several hundred Native American tribes inhabited the United States long before the Puritans came here for religious freedom. The Native American literature was entirely oral, for these tribes had not yet created a writing system of their own. • The New England Puritans also played a vital role in shaping American values. The 17 th century Puritans contributed to our country's mission, work ethic, and its moral sensibility. Along with the Native Americans, the colonists helped to shape the beginning of our literary heritage.
Vocabulary • Puritan Plain: A way of writing that expresses simplicity and clarity of expression • Anachronism: Words that are no longer in general use • Allusion: A reference to someone or something that is known from history, literature, religion, sports, politics, science, or some other branch of culture • Inversion: A reversal of the normal word order in a sentence or phrase • Anaphora: The repetition of a word or words at the beginning of a line, clause, or sentence • Conceit: An elaborate, extended metaphor • Apostrophe: A figure of speech in which a speaker directly address a person who is not there or a personified object, quality, or idea
Journal: Read the Following “So lamentable was our scarcity that we Respond were constrained to eat dogs, cats, rats, • Obviously, it was very snakes, toadstools, horsehides, and what difficult to make it in the “new” world. Life not. One man out of the misery he endured, killing his wife, powdered her was hard, food was scarce, and a lot of up to eat her, for which he was burned. people died. • Many besides fed on the corpses of dead What made those that men, and one who had gotten insatiable survived different? Was it just “luck” or out of custom to that food could not be survival of the fittest (Darwin). Would you restrained until such time as he was have survived? executed for it. ” The Starving Time Respond in a paragraph.
Journal: Response • Obviously, it was very difficult to make it in the “new” world. Life was hard, food was scarce, and a lot of people died. • What made those that survived different? Was it just “luck” or survival of the fittest (Darwin). Would you have survived? Respond in a paragraph.
Basic Puritan Beliefs 1. Total Depravity - through Adam and Eve's fall, every person is born sinful - concept of Original Sin. 2. Unconditional Election - God "saves" those he wishes - only a few are selected for salvation - concept of predestination. 3. Limited Atonement - Jesus died for the chosen only, not for everyone. 4. Irresistible Grace - God's grace is freely given, it cannot be earned or denied. Grace is defined as the saving and transfiguring power of God. 5. Perseverance of the "saints" - those elected by God have full power to interpret the will of God, and to live uprightly. If anyone rejects grace after feeling its power in his life, he will be going against the will of God - something impossible in Puritanism.
Day 8 • Social Contract • Puritan Poetry • Terms: conceit, anaphora, and apostrophe • Quiz on Friday on all literature from this week.
As you read the poem, pay close attention to the use of conceit and apostrophe. How are these literary terms effectively used in the poem? What do you think the spinning wheel really represents? In addition to the spinning wheel, try to identify the metaphors for the following objects: loom, clothing, and apparel. “Huswifery” (82) By: Edward Taylor “Make me, O Lord, Thy spinning-wheel complete. Thy holy word my distaff make for me. Make mine affections Thy swift flyers neat And make my soul Thy holy spool to be. My conversation make to be Thy reel And reel thy yarn thereon spun of Thy wheel. Make me Thy loom then, knit therein this twine: And make Thy Holy Spirit, Lord, wind quills: Then weave the web Thyself. Thy yarn is fine. Thine ordinances make my fulling-mills. Then dye the same in heavenly colors choice, All pinked with varnished flowers of paradise. Then clothe therewith mine understanding, will, Affections, judgment, conscience, memory, My words and actions, that their shine may fill My ways with glory and Thee glorify. Then mine apparel shall display before Ye That I am clothed in holy robes for glory.
Anne Bradstreet is most famous for being the first Puritan poet. Not only is she recognized for her poetry, which was uncommon during the early 17 th century, but the fact that she is a woman makes her even more prominent. There were not very many women writers before the 20 th century, much less in the 1600 s! Bradstreet and her family emigrated to American in 1630. The well-educated Anne was ill-prepared for the three month journey. She was afflicted with small pox which really affected her joints, but she was still able to have eight children. Tragedy struck again when Bradstreet's home burned to the ground, as you will read in one of her poems. It was a devastating fire that left the family devoid of all personal belongings. Anne's husband Simon had many political duties that kept him traveling to various colonies on diplomatic errands, so Anne would spend her lonely nights reading and educating her children. Anne was especially fond of poetry and began to write herself; her works were kept private as it was frowned upon for women to pursue intellectual enlightenment, let alone create and air their views and opinions. However, her brother-in-law had secretly copied her work and brought it to England to have it published without her permission. The book did fairly well in England, but was the only one to be published during her lifetime. All of her other poems would be published after her death. Bradstreet's poetry was mostly based on life experience and the love for her husband family. She lived in a time where the search for knowledge was against God's will, and women were relegated to traditional roles. She clearly valued knowledge and intellect and was a free thinker, who could even be considered an early feminist.
Quote about Bradstreet’s work • . . . the worse effect of his [the reader's] reading will be unbelief, which will make him question whether it be a woman's work, and ask, is it possible? If any do, take this as an answer from him that dares to avow it; it is the work of a woman, honored, and esteemed where she lives, for her gracious demeanor, her eminent parts, her pious conversation, her courteous disposition, her exact diligence in her place, and discreet managing of her family occasions, and more than so, these poems are the fruit but of some few hours, curtailed from her sleep and other refreshments.
Reading Assignment You will read two poems written by Bradstreet: "Upon the Burning of our House" and "To My Dear and Loving Husband. “
"To My Dear and Loving Husband" (76) If ever two were one, then surely we. If ever man were loved by wife, then thee; If ever wife was happy in a man, Compare with me, ye women, if you can. I prize thy love more than whole mines of gold Or all the riches that the East doth hold. My love is such that rivers cannot quench, Nor ought but love from thee, give recompense. Thy love is such I can no way repay, The heavens reward thee manifold, I pray. Then while we live, in love let's so persevere That when we live no more, we may live ever. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Note that each of the first three lines begins with "If"--a good example of anaphora. What is the effect of this repetition? Does it undermine the certainty that other lines seem to express? Note that it is further emphasized by breaking the regular iambic rhythm. Whom is this poem addressed to? If just her husband, why does she address "ye women"y here? Is she speaking to both? Or is this a private poem, probably not meant for publication? It was not published for many years. Note how she uses the imagery of physical wealth and ownership to represent their emotional love, and its contrast with the spiritual element at the end of their poem. Ought means both nothing and expression of duty. These are very different meanings. Which is she using here? Could she be using both? Why should she want to "repay" if they two are truly one? What does this paradox mean? How should they live now, as lovers, if they are to live and love forever? How does this tie in with their Puritan beliefs in predestination? Note the extra syllable in these final two lines. What is its effect?
"Upon the Burning of our House“ (handout) • Consider the importance Bradstreet places on worldly possessions. • Does she find them important at all? • What is most important to her? • Notice the fact that she still praises God immediately after all of her things turn to dust. How does this poem display the characteristics of Puritan beliefs? • Lastly, notice the use of inversion. It is typical to read literature from this time period that uses a different word order than we would use today.
Day 9 • Quiz • Final Draft of essay must be complete, check spelling, punctuation, grammar, capitalization. (50) • Essay must contain 3 quotes. (10) • Quotes must be cited with parenthetical citations. (10) • Works Cited must be last page of essay. (20) • Paper must use MLA format. (10)
Native American Myths Despite the immense variety of the tribes, certain themes, characters, and stories can be found in many of the cultures. One idea prevalent in most of the myths is that spiritual forces can be sensed in the natural world - including clouds, wind, animals, and plants - that they shape and sustain. In addition, a major theme in Native American mythology is creation, the steps by which the world and everything in it took on their present forms.
Reading Assignment page 20 • Read the creation myth "The Earth on Turtle's Back. “ As you read, pay attention to the importance the Onondaga tribe placed on dreams and how they believe the world came into existence. When you have finished reading, complete the following selfassessment activity to review the myth.
Research Assignment • Many Native Americans greeted the English and Spanish settlers when they arrived in America. Investigate one tribe, and write a well-written mini-report of your findings (2 - 3 paragraphs). You can explain the tribe's lifestyle, government, transportation, clothing, housing, trading, relationship with settlers, or any other interesting aspect of their lives that you may discover. Make sure you cite the information you find using MLA format. You can find a couple of websites to help you with your research: http: //www. si. edu/Encyclopedia_SI/History_and_Culture/American. Indian_ History. htm http: //www. mce. k 12 tn. net/indians/navigation/native_american_chart. htm Save your work in the G: Perritt/Block/Assignment
Quiz: Match the items. The task is to match the lettered items with the correct numbered items. Appearing below is a list of lettered items. Following that is a list of numbered items. Each numbered item is followed by a drop-down. Select the letter in the drop down that best matches the numbered item with the lettered alternatives. a. slave captured during the slave trade b. Puritan minister who was a part of The Great Awakening c. Puritan; a part of the first Plymouth Colony d. Harvard graduate who is known for using conceit e. first Puritan poet 1. William Bradford 2. Edward Taylor 3. Olaudah Equiano 4. Jonathan Edwards 5. Anne Bradstreet
Background • The Great Awakening was a religious revival that began around the 1730 s. It swept through the colonies in the East transforming the religious and social life of the Puritans. Unlike the compact communities of the old world, the small farms and plantations made communication difficult. People often lived great distances from the church and membership suffered; they relied on themselves, and by the second and third generations, the majority of the population was outside the membership of the Puritan church. • Ministers like Jonathan Edwards would preach their sermons trying to revive the Puritan church. These revivals would occur and then die out; one of the reasons why they were extinguished was because of the growing influence of the Enlightenment [text annotation indicator]. Edwards is most known for his sermon "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" where he uses the image of a dangling spider over a fire to describe the human predicament. • Despite the initial response to his preaching, Edwards did not remain popular forever. His downfall occurred when he condemned a group of young people from his pulpit. The parents of these children drove him from his position, and he was exiled to Stockbridge where he worked with the Native Americans.
Puritan Sermon The Puritans believed that the real power of a sermon was to be found in its words, rather than its delivery. Since the words were thought to be divinely inspired, it was believed that the words alone carried enough power to affect the congregation. Preachers usually spoke their sermons in a deliberate monotone. Consider this effect as you read “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. ”
Sinners in Hands….
Final Project • Now that you have completed all of the readings for this unit, it's time to put your knowledge of the literary terms to the test. Not only is it important to be able to identify literary terms within a piece of literature, but it is also important to understand the writer's purpose in utilizing that writing technique as well as the significance of the technique to the piece as a whole. • Your task is to create a Literary Terms Power. Point presentation. You will use all 9 Key Terms from this unit. More than likely you will need two slides per term. Once you create a title slide, you will have approximately 19 -20 slides. • For each term, you will include a specific text reference from one of the pieces from this unit that utilizes the term. For example, if my term is "simile, " I will want to find an example of a simile in one of the stories or poems we have read. You will type that example onto the slide. In addition, you need to explain the effectiveness or significance of that example as it relates to the piece. Lastly, you need to create your own sentence(s) utilizing that literary term. Please include a picture to go along with your example. • sample slide below.
Day 10 • • • Quiz Vocabulary Background information (Issue Books) Overture/Group Work Journal Study guide/character chart
III. The Crucible
Essential Questions • How did Mc. Carthyism influence Arthur Miller to write The Crucible? • What was Miller's purpose in writing about the Salem Witch Trials? • What are the major themes found in the play? • Is Miller's portrayal of the Puritans accurate
1692 vs 1950 Arthur Miller wrote The Crucible to both understand to comment on a brief but turbulent episode in American history that he and the country had just survived. This was the hunt for communists led by Senator Joseph Mc. Carthy in the 1950 s. Because of the near hysteria surrounding this national hunt for communists shortly after World War II, playwright Miller equated it with the hunt for witches in the 1690 s in colonial New England, most specifically in the village of Salem, Massachusetts.
Even though this play was written in the 1950 s, Arthur Miller is true to the diction and style of the Puritans. There may be words you don't know as you read. It would be to your benefit to look these words up. Here a few of the words you will encounter while reading the play. Make sure you learn and study these words. 1. Predilection 2. Parochial 3. Defiled 4. Injunctions 5. Deference 6. Contention 7. Prodigious 8. Ameliorate 9. Pious 10. Tainted 11. Scoffing 12. Base 13. Adamant 14. Rescinded 15. Indictment
Key Terms • Mc. Carthyism: the practice of making accusations of disloyalty, esp. of pro. Communist activity, in many instances unsupported by proof or based on slight, doubtful, or irrelevant evidence • Allegory: the representation of abstract ideas or principles in a narrative or dramatic form
The Crucible Overview
The Overture pages 3 -8 • • Group # Paragraphs #1 Setting 1 – 3 #2 Theocracy 4 – 5 #3 The wilderness 6 – 7 #4 "City on a hill" 8 – 10 #5 Next generation Puritans 11 – 13 #6 Withcraft 14 – 15
Describe how the narrator/author sees Rev. Parris. Explain, in detail, the "town" and describe how the Puritan’s viewed their "town. " According to these paragraphs, what was the economic situation in Salem during this time? How did the Europeans view the Puritans? What does the narrator/author mean when he says that "There was a good supply of ne’er-do-wells? " Describe what you think a ne’er-do-well is and what their life might be like in Salem 1692. What reason "more than the creed" does the author give for the people of Salem remaining so strongly united? Will that reason remain valid (consider when the author says, "the time of the armed camp had almost passed" in your response)? Explain the duty of the two-man patrols appointed by the Church-Govt. as police officers. What exactly were they policing? List the main tension of this section: ______ vs. _______
How did the Puritans view the forest and why? Explain why the Puritans viewed the Indians as heathens. What is the main conflict/tension in this section? How did the Puritans view other sects of Christianity? According to the author why did they feel this way? What does it mean to believe one holds the candle that lights the world? Explain the concept of the New Jerusalem. List three character traits your peers should understand about the Puritans Look up the word JUNTA in the dictionary, and write the definition here that makes the best sense with how it is used in this section. What governmental change occurred that may have seemed frightening to the Puritan people? How does Miller explain a THEOCRACY? (And what might "material or ideological enemies" mean? ) Other than possible witches, what does Miller say made these Puritans feel panic? Even though Miller’s play is about historical figures in Salem in the 1690 s, the play is also known to be an expression of his feelings about his own period in the 1950 s. What does he say about repressions that could apply to the 1950 s and even to our own time? Why does Miller feel pity for the people of his play (the people of 17 th century Salem)? What does Miller say are two or three reasons that people felt good about crying witch against their neighbors? Based on the previous question: In this section, what is Miller’s attitude about the strictness of the Puritans?
Day 13 • Journal • Fact vs Fiction • Act I
Journal #3 • Re-read pages 3 -8 • Describe Salem Village as given in Miller’s Commentary. Comment on the people, their beliefs, and their possible biases.
Act I • • Study Guide Character Map Conflicts Setting
AND THIS IS FACT: So, What’s the Truth? 1. THIS IS FICTION: 1. Tituba led six girls into a nearby forest to cast 2. charms and spells, followed by a wild dancing ritual. 3. 2. Ruth Putnam was the first girl to become afflicted. 4. 3. The only symptom of bewitchment was that the victim could not be woken from a deep slumber. *** 4. John Proctor, Rebecca Nurse, and Martha Corey were all hung on the same day. Tituba was asked to bake a “witchcake” in order to figure out who was afflicting Betty Parris. She was later accused of witchcraft by Betty and Abigail. Betty Parris and Abigail Williams were the first to become afflicted. Actual symptoms consisted of violent, physical tantrums. Rebecca Nurse was hung on July 19 th, John Proctor on August 19 th, and finally, Martha Corey on September 22 nd. Tituba brought stories of voodoo and other supernatural events from Barbados. This alone compelled the girls to take part in harmless fortune-telling.
The Parris Family THIS IS FICTION: 1. Mrs. Parris had been dead for years and the family consisted of Betty (daughter), Mr. Parris, Abigail (niece), and Tituba (slave). 2. Betty was present for the trials. 3. Mr. Parris claimed to be a graduate of Harvard. 4. Tituba was single and didn’t have family as a slave. Tituba confessed quickly. AND THIS IS FACT: 1. Mrs. Paris was alive during the incident and died in 1969, four years after the incident. The Parris family consisted of Mr. and Mrs. Parris, Betty, Thomas, and Susannah; Abigail was only “kinfolk. ” 2. After the trials began Betty was sent away. 3. Mr. Parris actually went to Harvard, but dropped out. 4. Tituba was actually an Indian woman who had a husband named John and a daughter named Violet. She was also tortured for a long time before she confessed.
The Proctor Family THIS IS FICTION: 1. John Proctor is young and is a farmer. 2. Elizabeth is his only wife. 3. John Proctor only has two young sons. 4. Mary Warren was 17 in the story 5. John and Abigail committed adultery. Abigail worked for the Proctors before Mary AND THIS IS FACT: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. John is actually 60 and a tavern keeper. Elizabeth is his third wife. John has a daughter that is 15, a son that is 17, and another son that is 33 from a previous marriage. Mary Warren is 20. The adultery between Abigail and John is unlikely to occur as they lived far from each other and Abigail never worked for them.
The Putnams, Nurses, & Giles Corey THIS IS FICTION: 1. Daughter is named Ruth Putnam. 2. Ruth was the only child of 8 to survive. 3. Both of the Nurses were deeply respected and revered. 4. Giles Corey was executed for refusing to reveal the name of a witness. AND THIS IS FACT: 1. The daughter’s real name is Ann, just like her mother’s. 2. The Putnams had 6 living children. 3. Rebecca Nurse was considered least likely to be a witch – she was seen as saint-like. 4. The Nurses were not extremely respected because they owed money. 5. Corey was accused of witchcraft and didn’t enter a plea. He was pressed with stones in an attempt to force him to plea either way, but he refused.
Act I • Remember that the play takes place in Salem, Massachusetts in 1692. The Puritans' government is a theocracy - ruled by God through religious officials. This is important to note as you recognize the importance and power of the character Reverend Parris. • The play opens with the town's minister, Reverend Parris, praying in front of his daughter's bed. The rumor is that his daughter, Betty, is the victim of witchcraft. Reverend Parris has sent for Reverend Hale, an expert on witchcraft, to determine the cause of Betty's illness. This is merely just the beginning of the hysteria that unfolds in the play.
Stage Directions • Located at the beginning of a script and throughout, stage directions may identify the setting; tell actors how to speak and move; or describe the characters, the scenery, or the arrangement of props. In The Crucible, Miller also uses the stage directions to convey historical background, occasionally drawing parallels to the American political scene of the 1950 s.
Activity The stage directions of a play are instructions for the director, actors, and stage crew. Stage directions may describe the props, scenery, costumes, and sound effects used during a performance and tell how characters look, move, speak, and feel. Create a chart using the headings below. Choose two stage directions for each of the following characters: Parris, Mr. Putnam, Mrs. Putnam, Tituba, Giles Corey, Proctor, Abigail, Rebecca Nurse, Rev. Hale, Mary Warren. Page # Quote Character Explanation 25 ”. . . feverish with Mrs. Putnam all of this curiosity …” excites her
Day 16 • Act II • Dialogue
Act II • The relationship between John Proctor and his wife Elizabeth is a delicate one. Obviously, Elizabeth has lost a lot of trust in John which is shown in the opening lines of Act II. Notice how cold Elizabeth is towards Proctor and how he responds to her. Should she just forgive him and move on? Is Elizabeth's treatment of John understandable considering he cheated on her with Abigail? • Mary Warren and Reverend Hale become integral characters in the play's plot. Both Mary and Hale have to deal with an internal conflict of their own. Mary is torn between whether to tell the truth at the trials or whether to protect herself from a possible accusation. Reverend Hale now believes that the trials have gotten out of hand starts to believe John Proctor.
• 1. What does the reader learn about the Proctors’ marriage through the discrepancy between what John Proctor does before he sees his wife and when he talks to her? • 2. In what ways is Miller’s use of dialogue effective in the first two pages of this scene to show the rift between the couple? • 3. What does Proctor’s hesitation to travel to Salem indicate about his inner conflict? • 4. Whom does Elizabeth call, “A mouse no more”? What does she mean by this metaphor? • 5. Explain the ironic ultimatum the head of the court has given to those who have been arrested. • 6. Explain the metaphor: “The magistrate sits in your heart that judges you. ”
Dialogue • Dialogue is written conversation between two or more characters. Found in all forms of literature but most important in drama, dialogue moves the plot forward and provides clues about characters' motives and relationships. For example, consider the following dialogue between Elizabeth and John Proctor.
Dialogue Elizabeth. You were alone with her [Abigail Williams]? Proctor. (stubbornly): For a moment alone, aye. Elizabeth. Why, then, it is not as you told me.
Dialogue • Why does Elizabeth react so strongly to the news that John was alone with Abigail? • What does Proctor's stubborn reply reveal about him? • You might infer that John and Elizabeth are both uneasy about John's relationship with Abigail--John feels guilty about what happened between them, and Elizabeth does not trust her husband.
Activity With two classmates, examine other passages of dialogue in Act Two: 1. the exchanges between Mary Warren, Proctor, and Elizabeth in which Mary reveals Sarah Good's confession of witchcraft (60 -62); 2. the exchanges between Mr. Hale, Proctor, and Elizabeth in which Proctor tries to recite the Commandments (70 -71); 3. the exchange between Proctor and Mary Warren at the end of the act (84 -85). • Read these exchanges aloud. • Determine what the dialogue reveals about the characters.
Writing Assignment Writing Dialogue: Between Acts 1 and II eight days elapsed. What happened during those eight days? Fill in the missing events by creating a script. 1. You must use at least two characters. 2. You must use stage directions and dialogue. 3. It must be 350 words. 4. Use correct format for writing dialogue using The Crucible as a guide.
Rubric MLA Format Correctly written dialogue Content Length Grammar 10 points 30 points 10 points 20
Day Eight • • • Journal Irony Activity Irony Assessment Group Quotes Help with dialogue Act III
Journal #5 • Choose one character from Act I or Act II. Write about what you think will happen to them in Acts III and IV.
Irony Verbal irony Occurs when someone states one thing and means another; often recognized as sarcasm i. e. narrator refers to honesty as an “incumbrance” or “burden” A contrast between what is expected to happen and what actually does happen i. e. gentleman who is admired and envied commits suicide Situational irony Occurs when a reader knows more about a situation or a Dramatic character in the story than the characters do irony (SEE pg. R 113)
Allusion: a reference to another literary work, event in history, or any other cultural piece. The play: "There are wheels within wheels in this village, and fires within fires!" speaker: Mrs. Putnam The Allusion: This was the appearance and structure of the wheels: They sparkled like chrysolite, and all four looked alike. Each appeared to be made like a wheel intersecting a wheel. Ezekiel 1: 16 Complex interacting processes, agents, or motives, as in It's difficult to find out just which government agency is responsible; there are wheels within wheels. This term, which now evokes the complex interaction of gears, may derive from a scene in the Bible (Ezekiel 1: 16): “Their appearance and their work was as it were a wheel in the middle of a wheel. ” [c. 1600]
Day 18 • Watch Video on Real Trials • Read/Listen to Act III • Foil Assignment
Act III • In Act III, court is in session. Things are really intense in Salem. Elizabeth has been arrested for allegedly making a voo-doo doll. Proctor's only goal is to free his wife and prove that Abigail is a liar in the process. You will read some very intense questioning from Danforth. This is where the play gets really good! • Proctor really needs Mary to tell the truth about Abigail and the rest of the girls if he is going to be able to prove Elizabeth's innocence. Read Act III to find out if Mary does the right thing and if Proctor is successful in his efforts to save Elizabeth's life. Think back to the song "Witchy Woman. " Are the descriptions of witches anything like the women accused of being witches in the play?
Foil A foil is a character who provides a striking contrast to another character. For example, a down-to-earth, practical character may be a foil to an absent-minded, flighty character. A writer might use a foil to emphasize certain traits of another character or simply to set off or enhance this character through contrast. Use a chart to contrast Elizabeth and Abigail. Record details about how they differ in personality, values, and their feelings for John Proctor. Locate 2 quotes from the text that prove your observations.
Compare/Contrast Abigail Vs Elizabeth Personality Values Feelings for Proctor
Day 19 • Read Act IV • Complete Chart • Discuss Introductory paragraph. • Quiz tomorrow on Crucible • Writing Assignment
Act IV Reverend Hale returns to Salem in Act IV after quitting the court. He wants to beg the prisoners to confess to witchcraft in order to save themselves from the gallows. You know from reading Act III that Proctor has now also been arrested. Elizabeth is safe for now because she is pregnant, but other respected citizens such as Rebecca Nurse are still scheduled to hang. The choice is simple: confess to being a witch and you are saved; don't confess and you will be hanged. For most, this is an easy decision, but consider the morals and values of the Puritans. It would be very difficult for a Puritan to lie about being a witch and to sacrifice his/her integrity.
Day 20 • Final Essay • Complete Introduction • Complete Conclusion Paragraph
Final Assessment - The Crucible Essay Your major assessment for this unit is to write a critical analysis essay over The Crucible. In order to fully analyze a piece of literature, you must have opinions, as well as facts. In addition, it is imperative that you explain the significance of your ideas. This is the point when you will truly begin to analyze the text.
Choose one of the following topics to focus on in your paper: 1. In the play, The Crucible, many of the characters learn things about themselves, as well as others. Discuss the insight gained by the characters of Elizabeth Proctor and Abigail Williams. 2. Analyze one of the contrasts found in The Crucible, and discuss how it is prevalent throughout the play in reference to Abigail and Elizabeth. Why is it important, as a reader, to recognize these contrasts? 3. Analyze the change or lack of change undergone by Elizabeth and Abigail. Why is this significant to the overall plot of the story? 4. Analyze the role of Elizabeth Proctor or Abigail Williams in The Crucible. Why is their character a vital role in the play? What can readers learn from them?
Steps to Writing with POWER • Plan • Organize your thoughts/Choose your quotes • Write your 1 st draft • Edit, Edit • Revise
• Introduction: Your introduction should start out general and should get more specific as you work your way down to thesis. Mention the author and title of the work you are writing about in your introduction. The thesis statement is the main idea of the entire paper. It should also include your opinion about the given topic. • Body: Your body paragraphs should have a topic and concluding sentence. Use transitions!!! After you give a fact, detail, etc. about the topic you are writing on, give your opinion about that fact. This will help you explain the significance of your points, as well as make your paper stronger. Each body paragraph needs a quote of support from the text. • Conclusion: No new information or points in your conclusion. Your conclusion is a summary of your main points from your paper.
Things to use: • include a brief summary of the paper's main points. • ask a provocative question. • use a quotation. • evoke a vivid image. • call for some sort of action. • end with a warning. • universalize (compare to other situations). • suggest results or consequences.
Essay Requirements: • Your paper should be at least 3 pages typed in length - 4 paragraph minimum. • It should be formatted in MLA format. (double spaced, Times New Roman or a similar font, 12 point font, correct headings and header, 1 inch margins, parenthetical citations, etc. ) • At least 6 quotes from the play must be integrated within your paper. • Remember to write in 3 rd person only. • You also need to use literary present tense. Watch your verbs! • Create an original title for your essay - The Crucible Essay is not acceptable.
Introduction Hook (Big Idea about life) Tie hook to play (author and title) Summarize Play (include setting, plot, characters) Thesis statement (tied to big idea— include Abigail and Elizabeth)
Day 21 • Type essay • Interactive Witch Hunt
Day 23 • Movie • Writing the body paragraphs of the essay
Body Paragraph Topic sentence Example 1 Explain 1 Example 2 Explain 2 Example 3 Explain 3 Closing sentence
Day 26 • • Review Writing a Conclusion
Review • • • Settings Acts I-IV Characters Names/Relationships Conflicts Internal/External Plot Major Events Acts I-IV Themes (Message for mankind)
Conclusion Answer the question "So What? " Show your readers why this paper was important. Show them that your paper was meaningful and useful. Synthesize, don't summarize Don't simply repeat things that were in your paper. They have read it. Show them how the points you made and the support and examples you used were not random, but fit together. Redirect your readers Give your reader something to think about, perhaps a way to use your paper in the "real" world. If your introduction went from general to specific, make your conclusion go from specific to general. Think globally.
Conclusion Restatement Big Why 1. 2. Eloquent conclusion
• Elizabeth Proctor determined her destiny-a place in heaven. Her love for John and her family makes her angelic against Abigail’s evilness. If the Abigail has any redeeming qualities, they fail to appear in the play. Miller's emphasis on the Abigail's traits of arrogance, jealousy, and revenge make it apparent that anyone who might have known Abigail personally would have based his opinion of her on these three personality "flaws. " Ultimately, our opinion of the Abigail is not a favorable one, and it is clear that Miller meant us to feel this way: He wanted Elizabeth to be the heroine of the play.
Interactive Witch Hunt In order to leave behind the "safe world" of the present and get a taste of what it was like in Salem in 1692 at the height of the witch hunts, you are going to participate in an interactive web site created by the National Geographic Society. By fully entering into the activity, you will gain insight into the emotional power of the Salem witch trials and will gain a fuller understanding of the play's literary and historical significance http: //www. nationalgeographic. com/salem/
Day 28 • • • Good Night and Good Luck Mc. Carthyism Mc. Crucdiblism Mc. Carthyism Group Reading/Assignment Individual Assignment • Draft of essay due!!!!!!
Final Product • Write recipe on provided index card on the lined side. • On the blank side, create or find a picture of the dish. Be creative as possible.
Day 29 • Type your Crucible Essay • Extra Credit Assignment
Rubric MLA Format Quotes from play Parenthetical citations (Miller 10). Content Length Grammar Works Cited 10 points 20 points 10 points 30 points 10 points 20 points 10 points
Elizabeth Proctor Pie
Character Recipe Objective: You will demonstrate your understanding of a character by “creating” them in a recipe form. Imagine that you were to cook up that character. I’m asking you to record what comprises that person. Preparation Tips: Prewriting 1. Select a character from The Crucible, which you are currently devouring. 2. List character traits and descriptions as they appear in the play. 3. Determine and list events or forces that you believe helped shape the character. 4. Look at a few recipes from magazines to see how they are written. Writing Create a recipe that the author might have used to develop the character you have selected. Baste them in creative juices every so often. Revising Stir. Add ingredients. Check to make sure preparation instructions are clear and in logical order. Proofreading Check spelling, abbreviations for measurements, and that preparation instructions are delivered using imperative sentences (if you don’t know what one is, find out!).
Here’s an example: Recipe for Elizabeth Proctor Pie Ingredients: 4 tablespoons Jealousy 2 cups Suspicion 3 teaspoons Betrayal 1/2 cup Regret 4 pints Truth (use “Salem” brand) 5 drops Realization Directions • Gather all ingredients. Start with Jealousy and mix Suspicion deep into the middle of it. Beat until mixed. Heat the 3 teaspoons of Betrayal until it comes to a boil Pour into mixture. Let sit for 2 months until fermented. • In a separate bowl add 1/2 cup of regret Then the Truth is stirred throughout. (mix until all clumps are smooth). Roll out and form into a crust. • Pour the mixture into the crust. • Bake for 3 months. Make sure to set the oven at 1000 degrees for intense heat. • Pull from oven. • Finally, sprinkle the Realization on top. Cool until ready to serve. Preparation Time: 5 months Serves: 1 town which is completely deluded.
Think about the following, an then answer in a well thought out paragraph. • What does it mean to be independent OF something? • What is the most important component of persuasion? • What do you know about Thomas Jefferson? • Why was the Declaration of Independence written? • Why is the Declaration of Independence important to us now? Write a good paragraph discussing your thoughts.
Rhetoric • is the use of language to communicate effectively. Politicians, advertisements, and persuasive essays all use rhetoric to help get their point across. Rhetoric involves three audience appeals: logos, pathos, and ethos. From ancient Greece to the late 19 th century, it was a central part of Western education, filling the need to train public speakers and writers to move audiences to action with arguments. However, rhetoric is definitely a part of our daily culture. • The founding fathers are known for their persuasive speeches and political documents that call for action. The rhetoric they used helped to persuade congress to go to war with Britain and to persuade the colonists to keep fighting and to not give up. These men were effective speakers and writers!
Reading persuasion When you begin to examine the rhetoric of a piece of writing, you will look for: Define these using 96 -98 and your literary handbook • • • tone diction Ethos/ ethical appeal Pathos/emotional appeal Logos/logical appeal repetition parallelism alliteration assonance • • • rhetorical questions figurative langage analogies allusions anaphora anecdotes
Logos, Pathos, Ethos • Logos is the use of evidence such as facts, statistics and examples to support your point. For example, if you are trying to convince someone that California needs to put more money towards education and less into the construction of prisons, you would tell them that California is first in the nation in prison spending and 41 st in education spending. Of course, this is why approximately 80% of all public schools are in need of repair, let alone more credentialed teacher and current textbooks. • Pathos is the emotional power of language that appeals to the reader’s needs, values and attitudes. A writer often relies on pathos to motivate their reader to take some type of emotion. Consider the following pitches for a man’s cologne: Words such as bold, power, and in charge, appeal to those qualities many men want to cultivate, so they will be motivated to buy this product. Like an advertisement, you must use emotional words and phrases to strengthen your message. If you believe in legalization of marijuana, you might use words such as liberty, herb, and responsibility. If you favor the criminilization of marijuana, you would use words such as menace, narcotic and irresponsible. • Ethos is credibility or reliability. You cannot expect people to accept your viewpoint unless they believe that you know what you are talking about! Fr example, “Four out of five dentists recommend using BRITE toothpaste. ” After all, dentists should know! Another way to appear trustworthy is by presenting a logical, reasoned argument that takes opposing viewpoints into account. Also, do not rely too much upon emotion or else you may lose credibility with your audience.
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos?
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos?
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos?
Pathos, or Logos?
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos?
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos?
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos?
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos?
Ethos, Pathos, Logos?
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos?
Reading Persuasion • It is also important to analyze the diction and tone of the piece. • Ask yourself these questions: Why is it important that the writer used repetition? How does parallelism help to get his point across? Why is it significant that the writer used alliteration and assonance in this sentence? How are rhetorical questions persuasive? How does the word choice help to get the point across? What is the tone of the piece? • Once you begin to analyze a piece of writing, you will better understand the speech or document. You will also understand why the piece was so effective and persuasive. Keep in mind that rhetoric is not limited to these examples. It is appropriate to examine figurative language , analogies , allusions , anaphora , anecdotes , etc as well.
Rationalism • Between the mid 1760 s and 1770 s, King George III and Parliament imposed a number of regulations and threatened the liberties of the colonists. This begun what is known as The Age of Reason or Enlightenment. • Rationalism is the belief that human beings can arrive at truth by using reason, rather than relying on authority of the past, on religious faith, or intuition. Unlike the Puritans, rationalists believed in the power of reason and science to further human progress. • Deism is a branch of rationalism and states that God made it possible for people at all times to discover natural laws through their Godgiven power of reason. Deism was shared by many 18 th century thinkers and founding fathers, such as Benjamin Franklin. They believed that people are by nature good, not evil. Deists believed in a perfect society and thought this was an achievable goal.
Group Work Read the example, try to determine the rhetorical devices used. 1. In The Crisis No. 1, Thomas Paine says, ". . . God Almighty will not give up a people to military destruction, or leave them unsupportedly to perish, who have so earnestly and so repeatedly sought to avoid the calamities of war. . . " 2. Once again, in The Crisis No. 1, Paine states, "My own line of reasoning is to myself as straight and clear as a ray of light. " 3. In his speech to the Virginia convention, Patrick Henry makes this statement: "We are apt to shut our eyes against a painful truth, and listen to the song of that siren till she transforms us into beasts. "
Answers • 1. This is an example of ethos. He is referencing God because he knows his audience are God-fearing men who will fight if God is on their side. 2. Paine uses a simile to compare his reasons for fighting the war to a ray of light. Like a ray of light, his reasons are clear and to the point. 3. Henry makes an allusion to the sirens in The Odyssey. It is a poem by Homer that his audience would be familiar with. Like the beautiful sirens in the poem who lure the sailors off track, he is saying the British are trying to keep the colonists from fighting for independence with their promises.
Day 31 • Review: Terms and Ethos, Logos, Pathos • Quiz-terms/Ethos, Logos, Pathos • Patrick Henry-”Speech in the Va. Convention”/AKA “Give me liberty or give me death. ” • Activity on speech
Henry Page 101 • Patrick Henry’s “Speech in the Virginia Convention” played a key role in turning colonial ideas against negotiation with England toward armed rebellion. • As we read and listen, he begins with respectful rebuttal of previous speeches, but towards the end, his tone intensifies thus heightening the climax of the speech. • He establishes that the British are preparing for war, asserts the war has already begun. Thus, he dismisses any thoughts for peaceful compliance.
Patrick Henry • Patrick Henry uses examples of parallel structure to get his point across. • He also uses loaded or charged words to add to his point • Finally, he uses his words to persuade the statesmen and readers to fight for what they believe in, and do not give in to the British
Speech in The VA Convention 1. Choose two examples of the following from the speech of ethos, pathos, and logos. Were you more convinced by Henry’s appeals to logic or by his appeals to emotion? What conclusions can you draw about the art of persuasion? 3. In paragraph four, what metaphors does Henry use to describe the coming war? 4. Henry makes use of the rhetorical question—a question that is asked for effect. Rhetorical questions, which are often used in persuasion, presume the audience agrees with the speaker on the answers, and so no answer is expected or required. Find a series of rhetorical questions in the fifth paragraph of this speech. Why do you think Henry uses this device, rather than straightforward statements of fact, to make his points? How does this technique make his speech more persuasive?
Speech in The Va Convention 5. Because Henry’s audience knew the Bible, as well as classical mythology, the orator knew he could count on certain allusions producing emotional effects. Look up the classical or Biblical passages Henry alludes to in each of the following statements from his speech. How would each allusion relate to the conflict in Virginia in 1775? Could any of them relate to life today? Explain. a. "We are apt to. . . listen to the song of that siren, till she transforms us into beasts. " (Odyssey, Books 10 and 12) b. "Are we disposed to be of the number of those who, having eyes, see not, and having ears, hear not the things which so nearly concern their temporal salvation? " (Ezekiel 12: 2) c. "Suffer not yourselves to be betrayed with a kiss. " (Luke 22: 47 -48)
Day 32 • Declaration of Independence • Writing Assignment
Declaration of Independence • The signing of The Declaration
Day 33 • Quiz on Speech and Declaration • Writing Assignment (final draft due tomorrow)
Format of the document • PREAMBLE: states why this document is being written by using specific reasons why • PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION AND DECLARATION OF RIGHTS: States why freedom is essential and states your ideals of independence [what you believe about liberty, freedom, and rights] • GRIEVANCES: Explains how one’s basic rights have been violated by this tyrannical force • EXPLANATION OF PREVIOUS ACTIONS/DEMANDS: Explains what has already been done to try and resolve the conflict and what is expected • RESOLUTION: States what changes are desired and what the plan is to achieve them; what new independence means and provides
Assignment • You will choose something that “holds you down. ” What/who is your King George? Declare it and proclaim independence from it. Your response should imitate the preamble and philosophy/foundation of the actual Declaration of Independence itself.
Format of the Declaration • introduction of topic (statement of action), • argument (how you would like to see the situation as you think would be just and fair) • offenses (what is happening now that needs to be changed) • reasons for argument, examples of offenses, and restatement of argument (independence will create a better place for all those involved)
Declaration of Independence Writing Assignment Directions: Using the following format, write your own Declaration of Independence from an entity from which you feel you need to separate for good reason. (ex: unfair or unreasonable). You may consider the following topics. Remember the Declaration of Independence is written because of injustices inflicted on the United States. Simply being angry with someone or disliking something is not warrant for independence. We must all accept our responsibilities. • Independence from a punishment (ex: Saturday Detention) • Independence from a chore (ex: taking out the garbage) • Independence from a place of employment (ex: job at Taco Bell) • Independence from a commitment you have made (ex: a date) • Independence from a promise (ex: someone will get hurt) • Independence from a relationship (ex: boyfriend, girlfriend, or just friend) • Independence from a club or an organization (ex: sports team) • Any other entity you feel has been truly unjust or unreasonable
When, on the road of life, it becomes necessary to step outside of our daily rituals and routines and examine closely the decisions we make towards our own fate and adjust towards what we know is a better path, we must question the objects that attempt to enslave us, face them head on, and, in this instance, refuse to place any more bucks in the hands of the coffee mafia. I hold these truths to be self evident, that all consumers are considered equal, that I have specific rights such as life, liberty, and the pursuit of a day without the mochaladen caffeine temptation on my drive home. Be it known that to secure these rights, individuals must break from the chains of caffeine and the allure of silky smooth chocolate. And when chocolate or the promise of caffeine become like false prophets or sirens tempting me to a 220 calorie laden fate, I have such liberties to declare my freedom. Abstinence, or perhaps simply moderation, will indeed be a necessary step in severing the oppressive control it has over this life. Habits are hard to break, and my experience has been one of longsuffering; years and years of denial and afternoon rendezvous with the mocha mistress. To this consumer it has become all consuming. My story is not unique. The legal addictive stimulant has claimed many a hardworking American. It is actually in the overworked that it preys on the most with promises of energy or self worth or both. Promises that after a hard day somehow you’ve earned it. Such has been the mindless obedience to this mocha monster, this grande god; and such a time is now the necessity to alter my former habits. The green and white mermaid with stars in her hair shall tempt me no more.
Declaration of Independence After many life experiences and the anticipation of those to come, I find it necessary to rid my life to stress. This stress, which has kept me up many a night worrying and hoping for miracles, may only cause irreparable damage to future plans of college. I hold these truths to be obvious to any student that all essays are created equal, that they are endowed by their assigner with certain requirements, which among these are a well developed thesis, structure, and the minimal pursuit of the five page paper, double spaced. Such has been the patient sufferance of my person; and such is now the necessity which constrains myself to alter my former system of study. The history of my completed homework assignments is one of repeated failure to complete and not up to par, all having a direct relationship to my stressful evenings. To prove this, let facts of the stresses of school be submitted to a candid classroom. • It evokes all optimism for a good night sleep. • It requires flash cards with information pertaining to the test, the whole test, and nothing but the test. • It induces a caffeine addiction. • It makes students snap at their parents. • It causes disgusting zits all over the students’ faces.
ELEMENT 25 points Excellent 20 WELL DONE 18 Acceptable 10 Not shown 1. Declaration follows all instructions. 2. Declaration follows the rhetorical format of the original. 3. Declaration displays evidence ethos, pathos, and logos. 4. Spelling, grammar, and punctuation does not detract from the writing.
Ben Franklin • • • Video Questions (Assessment) Thirteen Virtues Autobiography Group Work (Assessment) Epitaph (Assessment)
10 Things You Didn’t know!
During the early 1700 s and while in his late 20 s, Benjamin Franklin gathered thirteen virtues that he felt were a guide to live by.
TEMPERANCE. Eat not to dullness; drink not to elevation.
SILENCE. Speak not but what may benefit others or yourself; avoid trifling conversation.
ORDER Let all your things have their places; let each part of your business have its time.
RESOLUTION Resolve to perform what you ought; perform without fail what you resolve.
FRUGALITY Make no expense but to do good to others or yourself; i. e. , waste nothing.
INDUSTRY Lose no time; be always employ'd in something useful; cut off all unnecessary actions.
SINCERITY Use no hurtful deceit; think innocently and justly, and, if you speak, speak accordingly.
JUSTICE Wrong none by doing injuries, or omitting the benefits that are your duty.
MODERATION Avoid extremes; forbear resenting injuries so much as you think they deserve.
CLEANLINESS Tolerate no uncleanliness in body, cloaths, or habitation.
TRANQUILLITY Be not disturbed at trifles, or at accidents common or unavoidable.
CHASTITY Rarely use venery but for health or offspring, never to dulness, weakness, or the injury of your own or another's peace or reputation.
HUMILITY Imitate Jesus and Socrates
Activity • Read through these Ben Franklin quotes, and put a star next to your THREE favorites.
GROUP ACTIVITY Discuss your chosen quotes: why you like them, what they mean. You will do two activities with your group: • 1. Create a short skit dramatizing one of the sayings but without using the saying directly. We are going to guess which saying it is. Each member of your group must have a part in the skit. • 2. Create a mini-poster illustrating one of the sayings. The saying should be written somewhere on the poster. Put your names on the back. We will put them up on the wall and vote for the best of your class and then the best of all my classes. Bonus points for winners (20, 10, and 5).
Epitaph • ep·i·taph (p-t f) n. • 1. An inscription on a tombstone in memory of the one buried there. • 2. A brief literary piece commemorating a deceased person.
The Body of Benjamin Franklin Printer (Like the cover of an old book Its contents torn out And stript of its lettering and gilding) Lies here, food for worms. But the work shall not be lost For it will (as he believed) appear once more In a new and more elegant edition Revised and corrected by The Author. - Benjamin Franklin
Unit Writing Assignment 1. In order to assess your knowledge of this unit, you will create a Rhetoric Scrapbook using Microsoft Word or a similar word processing program. You will include the following elements in your scrapbook: 2. A cover page - this should include your name, teacher's name, class, and date; you will also need a title (Rhetoric Scrapbook is appropriate). Make your cover page creative and eye-appealing. 3. Aphorism requirement - You need to choose three of your favorite aphorisms by Benjamin Franklin. These can come from the readings in the unit, or you can search for your own. You will explain what you think the aphorism means as well as provide some sort of illustration that goes with the witty saying. 4. Your own declaration - Like Thomas Jefferson, you will write your own Declaration of Independence. You can declare your independence from anything you would like: homework, cleaning, boys, etc. Think outside the box. This is a creative writing assignment. Look back at the Declaration of Independence and format your declaration similarly. Your declaration should be about a page in length, single-spaced. 5. Jefferson begins by explaining why independence is necessary and what England has done to get in the way of freedom. You want to do the same. Then, he lists everything he doesn't like about the King of England. You will also want to list everything you do not like about your topic as well. You will then literally declare your independence in your conclusion and sign your name. 6. Rhetorical devices. Choose a speech from a modern politician. First, you will want to copy and paste the text of the speech into your document. Then, using the comment feature. You will insert comments identifying the rhetoric as you come across the examples. 7. Finally, you will use Franklin’s epitaph as a model for your own epitaph. You must use a conceit, an extended metaphor, as a basis for your epitaph. Note that Franklin used a book for his metaphor.
Native American Myths As stated in the introduction, the literature of the Native Americans was entirely oral. The numerous tribes living in America during this time period had not yet created a writing system. The many different tribal groups each developed their own stories about the creation of the world, the appearance of the first people, the place of humans in the universe, and the lives and deeds of heroes.
Writing Assignment Using the chart you created, write one paragraph about Abigail and another about Elizabeth. Begin each paragraph with a short description of the character. Then continue with the information from the chart. Finally, write a statement about the charcter as a concluding sentence.
Introductory paragraph • One sentence hook---look over your chart and see what overall idea you see • Tie hook to Crucible---mention author and title in this sentence. • Several sentence summary of story. Introduce Abigail and Elizabeth, give setting, plot • Thesis statement.