- Количество слайдов: 10
Hyperpower and War on Terror 1990 to Present
End of Cold War • What impact did the Cold War have? • Lasted 40 years • Death of 25+ million people • Created global stability – Superpower » State that has a major economic, cultural, and military impact on global affairs and trends » US v USSR – It was a “cold” war » Stalemate = permanent character » Prevent nuclear war = Both sides lose in nuclear war » Few predicted the peaceful fall of the USSR and the Berlin Wall • Why did the USSR end? • Economic decline, debt, attractive pull of western capitalism and democracy, etc…
Mapping the post-Cold War Era • The US no longer had a well defined threat • Do we still need a military based economy? – Cold War Characteristic = sharp divide between opposing socioeconomic systems – Globalization Characteristic = sharp divide between economic and cultural winners and losers • Should we focus on economic and cultural gain? – Winners = Capitalism and democratic socialism beat authoritarian communism – Losers = Eastern Europe and Third World nations lacked infrastructure to compete in global economy • Did globalization replace the Cold War as the world stabilizing factor? – Yes = Capitalism and democratic socialism = new system of international relations = economic cooperation = ballooning of world economy = Stability – Yes = Negated Westphalian System of Order by creating interdependence = markets are more important of state
US Primacy • During the Cold War • Bipolar International System – Two Supers powers Controlled world affairs • Era of Globalization • Unipolarity – Single Hyperpower controls world affairs » Hyperpower = a state controls world military, economic, and cultural affairs and has no rival – Is this the world today with the US in charge? » Hegemony – power and control in of other state actors that promotes cultural and economic unity • Does the US have the Capabilities to lead • Capabilities = Resources that a state has access to… • What is a greater threat to world stability • America that acts alone in decision making… • American that doesn’t lead… • Multipolar – Three or more Great Power control world affairs » Great Power = strong regional influence and moderate influence on world affairs – Is this the world today with the US as one of several main actors?
The Rise of Europe • During the Cold War • Continent was divided, Serious threat of war, Uneven economic expansion, and no central authority • Era of Globalization • Europe = real winner in the end of Cold War – United continent, no threat of war, and universal economic expansion, and the formation of the European Union • What kind of Europe world it be? – Government » Federalism v. Sovereignty – Economy » Free Market v. Fair Trade • European Union – Economic Regulator and Central Authority » 27 members » Economic Powerhouse = 30% share in world economy • Euro still gaining strength » Military power • European Security and Defense Policy • European Security Strategy
A New Russia • During Cold War • Communist and Authoritarian Dictatorship • Era of Globalization • Democratic, liberal and market-oriented? • Painful process of change – Economic Depression in 1990’s » Older generation vs. youth • Communist/Nationalist vs. Free Marketers » Quickly adopted western-style privatization • Privatization = change from government control of industry and resources to market control » Boris Yeltsin = International Hero and national disgrace for promoting change and not national interest » Vladimir Putin = restoration of nationalism and authoritarian socialism • Decrease of democracy • National control of resources • Lack of human rights or ethnic minority sovereignty • Economic recovery = future powerhouse?
East Asia: An Economic Tiger • During the Cold War • East Asia: China, Vietnam, Korea, Laos, Cambodia and Mongolia – Highly volatile, marked by revolutions, wars, and insurgencies » Primed for new rivalries = instability – Economically disadvantaged » Communist authoritarian • Era of Globalization • Stability in modern world despite disadvantages during CW – Economic Success = not predicted by IR scholars » West depends on available cheap labor – Regional interdependence limited rivalries » ASEAN – Association of Southeast Asian Nations – Japan – Stability and non-aggression foreign policy » Soft Power – non-military power that influences other nations – China – Immerging Superpower » Peaceful military and economic rise = stability » Is China the US’s main economic rival?
The Haves and Have Nots • During the Cold War • Third World = undeveloped non-industrial nations where ideological conquest took place – Economic, social, and military instability – Supported either US (First World) or USSR (Second World) • Era of Globalization • Undeveloped Nations = Cold War Third World Nations – Abandoned by Cold War allies – Mass Poverty = lose of economic support hindered development • Half World’s Population (3 bil) = less $2 a day • 48 poorest countries = less wealth then richest 3 people • Poverty and inequality breeds insecurity and instability » Opponents of Globalization insist • Globalization results in further economic problems • Needs Restriction or more regulation » Proponents of Globalization insist • India and China economic success demonstrate success of globalization
The War on Terror • September 11, 2001 • Demonstrated that globalization and the current international order are not accepted by all – Backlash against American Primacy and Western Economic/Cultural Imperialism? – Used the tools of globalization • New threat = New tactics – Containment and Deterrence no long relevant – Increased assertive American Foreign Policy – Re-think relations with autocratic regimes » Bush Doctrine – invade before they attack » Saudi Arabia – source of terrorist of 9/11 • Iraq • Had no involvement in 9/11 or weapons of Mass Destruction – Was invasion a strategic mistake • US belief = Building new regime easier then controlling old – Several factors impacted decision to attack » Oil? , Israel? , Humanitarian? , Security? , etc…
Continue • Power Vacuum – Iraq » Old regime = All vs. Saddam Hussein » New Regime = Sunni vs. Shiite vs. Kurds – Iran » Can now focus on other advisories – Middle East » Possibility of unraveling unstable region • Effective Equipment Tool for Al-Qaida – Radical Islam has rallying point to create animosity towards west » Promotes Theocracy (Religious based Government) » Jihad (struggle) against non-believers