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HYDRAULICS_5 Design of Irrigation Systems by László Ormos HYDRAULICS_5 Design of Irrigation Systems by László Ormos

DESIGN OF MANIFOLD The manifold is a pipe with multiple outlets to the inlets DESIGN OF MANIFOLD The manifold is a pipe with multiple outlets to the inlets of lateral pipes. The size of plot, the flow rate and the number of shifts in a complete irrigation cycle should be taken into consideration. An orchard is designed for irrigation with a solid set system. The manifold is laid in the center of the field. The whole plot is irrigated simultaneously. The flow rate of selected sprinklers is qs=0. 11 m 3/h at a pressure hs=2 bars. The space between the sprinklers along the laterals is es=6 m. Space between laterals is e. L=8 m. What are the diameters of pipes if the local head loss in the manifold and laterals is 10%?

DESIGN OF MANIFOLD manifold H=96 m B=96 m lateral The topography of field is DESIGN OF MANIFOLD manifold H=96 m B=96 m lateral The topography of field is the following:

DESIGN OF MANIFOLD Design of lateral 1. The maximum allowable pressure head variation is: DESIGN OF MANIFOLD Design of lateral 1. The maximum allowable pressure head variation is: 2. The number of sprinklers on every laterals is as follows: 3. The length of lateral is: 4. The total outlet of a lateral is:

DESIGN OF MANIFOLD For 16 mm PE lateral pipe 5. The hydraulic gradient when DESIGN OF MANIFOLD For 16 mm PE lateral pipe 5. The hydraulic gradient when Q=0. 88 m 3/h and J 16=22% 6. 7. The head loss in the lateral pipe (including 10% local head loss) and coefficient F 6=0. 38, is: Since hf> h the pipe diameter has to be increased. The hydraulic gradient if diameter is 20 mm of PE which has J 20=6. 5% by Q=0. 88 m 3/h. is:

DESIGN OF MANIFOLD 8. The head loss in the lateral pipe (including 10% local DESIGN OF MANIFOLD 8. The head loss in the lateral pipe (including 10% local head loss) and coefficient F 8=0. 38, is: Since hf< h the pipe diameter is good. 9. The inlet pressure in the lateral is: 10. The water pressure by the last sprinkler on the lateral is:

DESIGN OF MANIFOLD Design of manifold 11. The number of laterals is as follows: DESIGN OF MANIFOLD Design of manifold 11. The number of laterals is as follows: 12. The length of manifold is: 13. The total flow rate is as follows:

DESIGN OF MANIFOLD For 63 mm PE manifold pipe 14. The hydraulic gradient when DESIGN OF MANIFOLD For 63 mm PE manifold pipe 14. The hydraulic gradient when Q=21. 12 m 3/h and J 63=7. 2% 15. The head loss in the manifold (including 10% local head loss) and coefficient F 24=0. 371, is: 16. The pressure by the manifold inlet is: 17. The pressure by the inlet of last lateral is:

DESIGN OF MANIFOLD 18. The minimum pressure in the entire system at the last DESIGN OF MANIFOLD 18. The minimum pressure in the entire system at the last sprinkler on the last lateral is as follows: 19. The pressure difference between the first and last sprinkler is: Since the pressure difference hf-l is lower than the allowable pressure head variation hmax, the system is good.

References Azenkot, A. (1998): ”Design Irrigation System”. Ministry of Agriculture Extension Service (Irrigation Field References Azenkot, A. (1998): ”Design Irrigation System”. Ministry of Agriculture Extension Service (Irrigation Field service), MASHAV Israel Dr. Avidan, A. (1995): ”Soil-Water-Plant Relationship”. Ministry of Agriculture Extension Service (Irrigation Field service), CINADCO, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, MASHAV, Israel Sapir, E. -Dr. E. Yagev (1995): ”Drip Irrigation”. Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, CINADCO, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, MASHAV, Israel Sapir, E. -Dr. E. Yagev (2001): ”Sprinkler Irrigation”. Ministry of culture and Rural Development, CINADCO, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, MASHAV, Israel Eng. Nathan, R. (2002): ”Fertilization Combined with Irrigation (Fertigation)”. Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, CINADCO, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, MASHAV, Israel