Скачать презентацию Humor Theories by Don L F Nilsen and Скачать презентацию Humor Theories by Don L F Nilsen and

06f8e8d97485bdf14e969c24b3c8511c.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 64

Humor Theories by Don L. F. Nilsen and Alleen Pace Nilsen 41 1 Humor Theories by Don L. F. Nilsen and Alleen Pace Nilsen 41 1

Victor Raskin’s Tripartite Classification INCONGRUITY HOSTILITY RELEASE Contrast Incongruity Resolution Sublimation Liberation Economy Aggression Victor Raskin’s Tripartite Classification INCONGRUITY HOSTILITY RELEASE Contrast Incongruity Resolution Sublimation Liberation Economy Aggression Superiority Triumph Derision Disparagement 41 (Attardo [2007], 103) 2

Script-Model Grammar • Raskin’s 1985 Semantic-Script Theory of Humor (SSTH) sees humor as a Script-Model Grammar • Raskin’s 1985 Semantic-Script Theory of Humor (SSTH) sees humor as a violation of Grice’s cooperative principle. • A joke consists of two overlapping scripts. • The two scripts are in opposition (bona-fide vs. scatalogical) • The punch line changes the joke from the bona-fide to the scatalogical script. (Attardo [2007] 108) 41 3

Overlapping Scripts • Overlapping scripts occur not only in jokes, but also in the Overlapping Scripts • Overlapping scripts occur not only in jokes, but also in the allegory, the oxymoron, the conceit, the simile, and perhaps in allusion, symbolism, double entendre and intertextuality. • Overlapping scripts also occur in the master tropes-metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, and irony. • And for all of these literary forms, there is the bonafide (or literal) script, and the non-bona-fide (or figurative) script. (Triezenberg [2008]: 536) 41 4

Humor Enhancers • Katrina Triezenberg notes that humorous discourse also has humor enhancers. • Humor Enhancers • Katrina Triezenberg notes that humorous discourse also has humor enhancers. • “A humor enhancer is a narrative technique that is not necessarily funny in and of itself, but that helps the audience to understand that the text is supposed to be funny, that warms them up to the author and to the text so that they will be more receptive to humor, and that magnifies their experience of humor in the text. ” (Triezenberg [2008]: 537 -538) 41 5

 • These humor enhancers allow a piece of humor to be instantaneous and • These humor enhancers allow a piece of humor to be instantaneous and epiphinal. They include: – Shared stereotypes, – Cultural factors (prejudices, hang-ups, taboos, etc. ), – Familiarity (as with a good impersonation, or as with something that is “spot-on”), and – Repetition and variation (Triezenberg [2008]: 539) 41 6

Why Mysteries Are Not Funny • Jokes and lies both violate Grice’s “Conversational Implicatures. Why Mysteries Are Not Funny • Jokes and lies both violate Grice’s “Conversational Implicatures. ” They are both examples of “non-bona -fide communication. ” • In murder mysteries, the reader is often led down the garden path, and given false clues. • To solve the mystery, the reader has to consider script oppositions to determine if scripts are not compatible with each other, and if not, why not. (Triezenberg [2008]: 540) 41 7

General Theory of Verbal Humor (GTVH) 1. Script Opposition 2. Incongruity & Resolution 3. General Theory of Verbal Humor (GTVH) 1. Script Opposition 2. Incongruity & Resolution 3. Situation (including props) 4. Target (butt of the joke) 5. Genre (joke, riddle, etc. ) 6. Language (compatible with both scripts) (Attardo [2007] 108) 41 8

Jab Lines vs. Punch Lines • Jab lines are tendentious, but punch lines are Jab Lines vs. Punch Lines • Jab lines are tendentious, but punch lines are not. • “Whereas punch lines are disruptive of the narrative they close, jab lines are not, and in fact often contribute to the development of the text. ” (Attardo [2007] 110). 41 9

Salvatore Attardo’s Hierarchy • Lines that are related form a strand. • A bunch Salvatore Attardo’s Hierarchy • Lines that are related form a strand. • A bunch of related strands is called a stack. • A bridge is the occurrence of two related lines far from each other. • A comb is the occurrence of several related lines in close proximity. (Attardo [2007] 111) 41 10

Attardo’s Defining Moment • “Each story that is not a picaresque story has a Attardo’s Defining Moment • “Each story that is not a picaresque story has a central defining event in the plot that sets the wheels in motion: • Madame Bovary’s adultery • Raskolnikoff’s homicide • Lolita’s seduction, etc. ” (Attardo [2007] 113) 41 11

Sigmund Freud • “Sigmund Freud distinguishes between innocent and tendentious jokes. ” (Attardo [2007], Sigmund Freud • “Sigmund Freud distinguishes between innocent and tendentious jokes. ” (Attardo [2007], 104). • RIDDLE: What do you get when you cross a mafioso with a postmodern theorist? • ANSWER: Someone who will make you an offer you cannot understand. ” (Attardo [2007] 109) 41 12

Humor Sophistication • Victor Raskin notes that sophistication in humor is similar to sophistication Humor Sophistication • Victor Raskin notes that sophistication in humor is similar to sophistication more generally, and that it entails: • Rarity, expensiveness, availability, complexity, exoticness, subtlety, refinement, obscurity, prestigiousness, desirability, unexpectedness, etc. (Raskin [2008]) 12) 41 13

Sophistication via Innuendo • When I was young I helped a good fairy in Sophistication via Innuendo • When I was young I helped a good fairy in distress, so she offered me a choice, an excellent memory or a large penis. • I do not recall what I chose. • NOTE: “Fewer and fewer people ‘get’ the jokes as sophistication increases. ” • “Perhaps sophistication correlates with the number of missing links in inferencing. ” (Raskin [2008] 13) 41 14

Ranking of Humor Sophistication • 1. He was a man of letters. He worked Ranking of Humor Sophistication • 1. He was a man of letters. He worked at the Post Office. • 2. I am very unhappy. I have two girlfriends, and both are cheating on me. • 3 -9. No Examples Given • 10. What’s the difference between the sparrow? No difference whatsoever. Both halves are identical, especially the left one. (Raskin [2008] 13) 41 15

Superiority Theory & Humor Neither a Necessary nor a Sufficient Condition • When we Superiority Theory & Humor Neither a Necessary nor a Sufficient Condition • When we see a Charlie Chaplin movie, do we feel superior to Charlie Chaplin. • John Morreall feels that we laugh “at the clever and acrobatic way Charlie Chaplin gets out of a tough situation. ” • Morreall also notes that if we win a race, we feel superior to the losers, but humor does not automatically result from winning. (Morreall [2008] 233) 41 16

Discuss the following: Humor is hostile Humor diminishes selfcontrol. Humor is irresponsible 41 17 Discuss the following: Humor is hostile Humor diminishes selfcontrol. Humor is irresponsible 41 17

Discuss the following: • • • Humor is hostile Humor diminishes self-control. Humor is Discuss the following: • • • Humor is hostile Humor diminishes self-control. Humor is irresponsible. Humor is insincere. Humor is idle. Humor is hedonistic. Humor fosters sexual license. Humor fosters anarchy. Humor is foolish. (Morreall [2008] 237 -238) 41 18

HUMOR THEORIES • THE EVOLUTION THEORIES as proposed by Charles Darwin, and by the HUMOR THEORIES • THE EVOLUTION THEORIES as proposed by Charles Darwin, and by the I. A. H. B. • THE HUMOR-IS-GOOD-FOR-YOU THEORIES as proposed by Norman Cousins, et. al. • THE SUPERIORITY THEORIES as proposed by Aristotle, Plato, Thomas Hobbes, Henri Bergson, and Charles Gruner • THE INCONGRUITY THEORIES as proposed by Immanuel Kant, Arthur Shopenhauer, Paul Mc. Ghee and John Morreall • THE SURPRISE THEORIES as proposed by René Descartes 41 19

 • THE AMBIVALENCE THEORIES (FEELINGS AND EMOTIONS) as proposed by Socrates • THE • THE AMBIVALENCE THEORIES (FEELINGS AND EMOTIONS) as proposed by Socrates • THE CONFIGURATIONAL THEORIES (GESTALT RECOGNITION AND SUDDEN INSIGHT) as proposed by G. W. F. Hegel • THE PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES as proposed by Sigmund Freud • THE RELEASE AND RELIEF THEORIES as proposed by Harvey Mindess and William Fry 41 20

A NEW WAY OF LOOKING AT HUMOR THEORIES: • FEATURES • FUNCTIONS • SUBJECTS A NEW WAY OF LOOKING AT HUMOR THEORIES: • FEATURES • FUNCTIONS • SUBJECTS 41 21

FEATURES OF HUMOR: INCONGRUITY AND INCONGRUITY RESULUTION Unresolved Resolved 41 22 FEATURES OF HUMOR: INCONGRUITY AND INCONGRUITY RESULUTION Unresolved Resolved 41 22

FEATURES OF HUMOR: SURPRISE AND TENSION • Surprise – Garden Path – Epiphany • FEATURES OF HUMOR: SURPRISE AND TENSION • Surprise – Garden Path – Epiphany • Tension and Relief 41 23

ALLEEN NILSEN’S FEATURES OF HUMOR • • • Ambiguity Exaggeration Understatement Hostility Incongruity or ALLEEN NILSEN’S FEATURES OF HUMOR • • • Ambiguity Exaggeration Understatement Hostility Incongruity or Irony Situation-Insight Sudden Insight Superiority Surprise or Shock A Trick or Twist Word Play (A. Nilsen Living Language 202 -203) 41 24

EXPLAIN THE FEATURES IN THE FOLLOWING JOKES: • David Letterman’s first job in broadcasting EXPLAIN THE FEATURES IN THE FOLLOWING JOKES: • David Letterman’s first job in broadcasting was at Ball State University’s classical music radio station, WBST. He was a constant trial to Tom Watson, the manager, who in exasperation fired him after he introduced the song “Clair de Lune” with “You know the de Lune sisters; there was Claire; there was Mabel…. ” • Word Play (A. Nilsen Living Language 204) 41 25

 • Left to our own devices, we Wobegonians go straight for the small • Left to our own devices, we Wobegonians go straight for the small potatoes. • Majestic doesn’t appeal to us; we like the Grand Canyon better with Clarence and Arlene parked in front of it smiling. • Understatement (Nilsen & Nilsen Encyclopedia 301) 41 26

 • Will Rogers solemnly declared, “They have an unwritten law in the Senate • Will Rogers solemnly declared, “They have an unwritten law in the Senate that a new member is not allowed to say anything when he first gets in, and another unwritten law that whatever he says afterward is not to amount to anything. ” • Superiority (A. Nilsen Living Language 205) 41 27

 • A good man dies and goes to heaven. When St. Peter asks • A good man dies and goes to heaven. When St. Peter asks him if there’s anything he can do for him, the man explains that he would love to talk to Mary, the mother of Jesus. St. Peter is happy to set up such a meeting. After a few polite formalities, the man tells Mary the purpose of his request. He has always wanted to ask her something. • When she encourages him to go ahead, he says, “I’ve wondered why in all your pictures you look so sad. Please tell me what it is. ” Mary sighs and then with a little wistful smile confesses, “I always wanted a daughter. • Incongruity and Surprise (A. Nilsen Living Language 205) 41 28

 • In one of her routines, eleven-year-old Claire Friedman told about a classmate • In one of her routines, eleven-year-old Claire Friedman told about a classmate she calls Tiffany: “During lunch, Tiffany was staring at her carton of orange juice. I asked why. She said, “The box says concentrate. ” • Claire said, “Tiffany is so dumb she’d get fired from an M&M factory for throwing away all the Ws. • Superiority, Hostility, Wordplay (A. Nilsen Living Language 204) 41 29

 • During the 1960 s, there was talk of nominating Senator Margaret Chase • During the 1960 s, there was talk of nominating Senator Margaret Chase Smith for President of the United States. One reporter stuck a microphone in her face and asked, “Mrs. Smith, what would you do if you should wake up some morning and find yourself in the White House? ” • Without batting an eye she responded, “I would go to the president’s wife, apologize, and leave immediately. ” • Situation, Surprise, etc. (A. Nilsen Living Language 204) 41 30

 • A four-year-old was brought to the emergency room of a hospital with • A four-year-old was brought to the emergency room of a hospital with a bad cough. • The child kept up a nonstop conversation while the nurse was trying to assess her lung sounds. Finally, the nurse said, “Shhh, I have to see if Barney is in there. ” The child looked at her and calmly stated, “I have Jesus in my heart. Barney is on my underwear. ” • Surprise, Incongruity, etc. (A. Nilsen Living Language 204) 41 31

 • At the opening of a new play, George Bernard Shaw sent two • At the opening of a new play, George Bernard Shaw sent two tickets to Winston Churchill. Shaw wrote on the letter, “Here is a ticket for you and your friend—if you have one. ” • Churchill sent back the tickets with a message for Shaw. “I can’t attend on the opening night, but I would love to go to the second performance—if you have one. ” • Hostility, Exaggeration, Word Play, etc. (A. Nilsen Living Language 204) 41 32

 • In Alice in Wonderland, the Mock Turtle explains to Alice that he • In Alice in Wonderland, the Mock Turtle explains to Alice that he “only took the regular course. ” “What was that? ” inquired Alice. “Reeling and Writhing, of course, to begin with, and then the different branches of Arithmetic—Ambition, Distraction, Uglification, and Derision. ” • Word Play, etc. (A. Nilsen Living Language 205) 41 33

Literary Functions of Humor: Scripts and Double Entendre • “The text of a joke Literary Functions of Humor: Scripts and Double Entendre • “The text of a joke is always fully or in part compatible with two distinct scripts and the two scripts are opposed to each other in a special way. ” • “The punchline triggers the switch from the one script to the other by making the hearer backtrack and realize that a different interpretation [of the joke] was possible from the very beginning. ” (Attardo and Raskin [1991] 308) 41 34

PSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF HUMOR – – – – Arousal Social Control Establishment of Superiority PSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF HUMOR – – – – Arousal Social Control Establishment of Superiority Relief, and Release Ego Defense, Coping, and Saving Face Gaining Status Healing Testing Limits 41 35

SELF-DISPARAGEMENT • Self-disparagement humor is actually intended to empower the user. Here are some SELF-DISPARAGEMENT • Self-disparagement humor is actually intended to empower the user. Here are some effective ads using self-disparagement: • Terminix Pest Control: “When you think of pests, think of us. • Twist Lemon-Menthol Cigarettes: “Our new menthol is a lemon. ” 41 36

 • Champion International Trend Carpet: “Eight million people walked all over us. And • Champion International Trend Carpet: “Eight million people walked all over us. And they don’t even know our name. ” • Quaker Oats as a diet food: “Quaker Oats: Breakfast of losers. ” • Simmons bunk beds: “Simmons beds are a lot of bunk. ” (Nilsen & Nilsen 273) 41 37

EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF HUMOR – Teaching and Learning – Arguing and Persuading 41 38 EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF HUMOR – Teaching and Learning – Arguing and Persuading 41 38

SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF HUMOR – In-Bonding and Out-Bonding – Promoting Social Stability and Control SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF HUMOR – In-Bonding and Out-Bonding – Promoting Social Stability and Control – Promoting Social Change 41 39

SUPERIORITY VS. INCONGRUITY • In Reflections upon Laughter, Frances Hutcheson argued against Thomas Hobbes’s SUPERIORITY VS. INCONGRUITY • In Reflections upon Laughter, Frances Hutcheson argued against Thomas Hobbes’s century-old superiority theory. • He pointed out that people don’t go to asylums to laugh at the “inferior” beings, nor do we laugh at animals unless they resemble human beings. • We laugh at someone who slips on a banana peel not because we feel superior, but because of the incongruity between our expectations and the sudden insight. (Nilsen & Nilsen 163) 41 40

!SUBJECTS OF HUMOR – Ethnic Identification – Politics – Sexual Roles and Scatology – !SUBJECTS OF HUMOR – Ethnic Identification – Politics – Sexual Roles and Scatology – Occupations – Religion and Belief Systems 41 41

 • !!OLD TABOOS AND CENSORSHIP • These are the taboo areas in American • !!OLD TABOOS AND CENSORSHIP • These are the taboo areas in American English. They’re the subjects that we can’t talk about, but we must talk about. • But these taboos are changing. Most of our censorship used to come from the right, but now our censorship is coming from both the right and the left. Censorship from the left is called “political correctness. ” 41 42

 • !!!NEW TABOOS AND CENSORSHIP • TABOO AND CENSORSHIP FROM THE RIGHT INCLUDES: • !!!NEW TABOOS AND CENSORSHIP • TABOO AND CENSORSHIP FROM THE RIGHT INCLUDES: – Sex, Religion, Body Parts, Swear Words, Obscenities and Vulgarities • TABOO AND CENSORSHIP FROM THE LEFT (POLITICAL CORRECTNESS) INCLUDES: – Women, Gays, Disabled People, Ethnic Minorities and Old People 41 43

HUMOR WEB SITES AMERICAN COMEDY ARCHIVES (JENNI MATZ): www. emerson. edu/comedy THE ASSOCIATION FOR HUMOR WEB SITES AMERICAN COMEDY ARCHIVES (JENNI MATZ): www. emerson. edu/comedy THE ASSOCIATION FOR THE STUDY OF PLAY: http: //www. tasplay. org COMEDY ARCHIVES (JENNI MATZ): http: //www. greaterboston. tv/features/gb_20060509_comedy. html COMEDY USA (BARRY WEINTRAUB): www. comedyusa. com THE HUMOR COLLECTION (RUTH HAMILTON): www. thehumorcollection. org 41 44

HUMOR MATTERS (STEVE SULTANOFF): http: //www. humormatters. com THE HUMOR PROJECT (JOEL GOODMAN): www. HUMOR MATTERS (STEVE SULTANOFF): http: //www. humormatters. com THE HUMOR PROJECT (JOEL GOODMAN): www. Humor. Project. com INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF HUMOR STUDIES (MARTIN LAMPERT): www. humorstudies. org ISHS HISTORICAL SITE (DON NILSEN): http: //www. uniduesseldorf. de/WWW/Math. Nat/Ruch/Secretar y. Page. html 41 45

LAUGHING JAPAN (TILL WEINGAERTNER): http: //www. tillchan. typepad. com/laughing MIRTH: HUMOR AND LAUGHTER IN LAUGHING JAPAN (TILL WEINGAERTNER): http: //www. tillchan. typepad. com/laughing MIRTH: HUMOR AND LAUGHTER IN TEACHING (RON BERK): www. mirthium. com PARENTING HUMOR (TIM BETE): http: //www. Tim. Bete. com A PLAYFUL PATH TO WHOLENESS (BERNIE DEKOVEN): http: //www. deepfun. com SNIGLETS (RICH HALL): http: //www. ziplink. net/users/wood/funny/snigglets. html 41 46

References: Apter, Michael J. “Humour and Reversal Theory. ” Chapter 8 in Michael Apter’s References: Apter, Michael J. “Humour and Reversal Theory. ” Chapter 8 in Michael Apter’s The Experience of Motivation: Theory of Psychological Reversals. New York, NY: Academic Press, 1982. Apter, Michael J. , and Kenneth C. P. Smith. “Humour and the Theory of Psychological Reversals. ” in Chapman and Foot (1977): 95 -100. Attardo, Salvatore. “The General Theory of Verbal Humor, Twenty Years After. ” HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 24 -2 (2011): 123. Attardo, Salvatore. Linguistic Theories of Humor. Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter, 1994. Attardo, Salvatore. “A Multiple-Level Analysis of Jokes. ” HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 2. 4 (438 -439). 41 47

Attardo, Salvatore. “A Primer for the Linguistics of Humor” in Raskin 2007, 101 -156. Attardo, Salvatore. “A Primer for the Linguistics of Humor” in Raskin 2007, 101 -156. Attardo, Salvatore, and Lucy Pickering. “Timing in the Performance of Jokes. ” HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 24. 2 (2011): 233 -250. Attardo, Salvatore, and Victor Raskin. “Script Theory Revis(it)ed: Joke Similarity and Joke Representation Model. ” HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 4. 3 -4 (1991): 293 -347. Beeman, William O. “Humor. ” Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 9. 2 (2000): 1 -4. Bell, Nancy D. , Scott Crossley, and Christian F. Hempelmann. “Wordplay in Church Marquees. ” HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 24. 2 (2011): 187 -202. 41 48

Berger, Arthur Asa. An Anatomy of Humor. Paperback: Edison, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1999. Berger, Berger, Arthur Asa. An Anatomy of Humor. Paperback: Edison, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1999. Berger, Arthur Asa. Blind Men and Elephants: Perspectives on Humor. Paperback: Edison, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2010. Berger, Arthur Asa. “Humor: An Introduction. ” American Behavioral Scientist 30. 3 (1987): 6 -16. Boskin, Joseph. Humor and Social Change in 20 th Century America. Boston, MA: Boston Public Library, 1979. 41 49

Boskin, Joeph, ed. The Humor Prism in 20 th-Century America. Detroit, MI: Wayne State Boskin, Joeph, ed. The Humor Prism in 20 th-Century America. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1997. Cann, Arnie, and Katherine C. Etzel. “Remembering and Anticipating Stressors: Positive Personality Mediates the Relationship with Sense of Humor. ” HUMOR 21. 2 (2008): 157 -178. Chafe, Wallace L. The Importance of Not Being Earnest: The Feeling Behind Laughter and Humor. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins, 2007. Chapman, Anthony, and Hugh Foot, eds. It’s a Funny Thing, Humour. Oxford, England: Pergamon Press, 1977. Chapman, Anthony, and Hugh Foot, eds. Humor and Laughter: Theory, Research, and Applications. Paperback: Edison, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1995. 41 50

Davies, Christie. “Logical Mechanisms: A Critique. ” HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 24. Davies, Christie. “Logical Mechanisms: A Critique. ” HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 24. 2 (2011): 159 -166. Deckers, Lambert. “On the Validity of a Weight-Judging Paradigm for the Study of Humor. ” HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 6. 1 (1993): 43 -56. Doloff, Steven. “Racism and the Risks of Ethnic Humor” (Eschholz 273275). Eckardt, A. Roy. How to Tell God from the Devil. Edison, NJ: Transaction, 1995. Eckardt, A. Roy. On the Way to Death: Essays Toward a Comic Vision. Edison, NJ: Transaction, 1995. Eckardt, A. Roy. Sitting in the Earth and Laughing: A Handbook of Humor. Edison, NJ: Transaction, 1991. Eschholz, Paul, Alfred Rosa, and Virginia Clark. “The Power of the Mass Media. ” Language Awareness: Readings for College Writers, 10 th Edition. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2009. 41 51

Farb, Peter. “Speaking Seriously about Humor. ” The Massachusetts Review 22. 4 (1981): 760 Farb, Peter. “Speaking Seriously about Humor. ” The Massachusetts Review 22. 4 (1981): 760 -776. Ferguson, Mark A. , and Thomas E. Ford. “Disparagement Humor: A Theoretical and Empirical review of Psychoanalytic, Superiority, and Social Identity Theories. ” HUMOR 21. 3 (2008): 283 -312. Fleet, F. R. A Theory of Wit and Humour. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1970. Frewen, Paul A. , Jaylene Brinker, Rod A. Martin, and David J. A. Dozois. “Humor Styles and Personality-Vulnerability to Depression. ” HUMOR 21. 2 (2008): 179 -196. 41 52

Fry, William F. Sweet Madness: A Study of Humor. Palo Alto, CA: Pacific Books, Fry, William F. Sweet Madness: A Study of Humor. Palo Alto, CA: Pacific Books, 1963. Fry, William F. , and Waleed Salameh, eds. Advances in Humor and Psychotherapy. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press, 1993. Fry, William F. , and Waleed Salameh. Handbook of Humor and Psychotherapy. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resources Exchange, 1987. Galloway, Graeme. “Humor and Ad Liking: Evidence that Sensation Seeking Moderates the Effects of Incongruity. Resolution Humor. ” Psychology and Marketing 26. 9 (2009): 779792. 41 53

Galloway, Graeme and Danielle Chirico. “Personality and Humor Appreciation: Evidence of an Association between Galloway, Graeme and Danielle Chirico. “Personality and Humor Appreciation: Evidence of an Association between Trait Neuroticism and Preferences for Structural Features of Humor. ” HUMOR 21. 2 (2008): 129 -142. Grotjahn, Martin. Beyond Laughter. New York, NY: Mc. Graw Hill, 1957. Gruner, Charles R. The Game of Humor: A Comprehensive Theory of Why We Laugh. Paperback: Edison, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1999. Gruner, Charles. Understanding Laughter: The Workings of Wit and Humor. Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall, 1978. Hartz, Glenn A. , and Ralph Hunt. “Humor: The Beauty and the Beast. ” American Philosophical Quarterly 28. 4 (1991): 299 -309. 41 54

Hempelmann, Christian F. , and Salvatore Attardo. “Resolutions and Their Incongruities: Further Thoughts on Hempelmann, Christian F. , and Salvatore Attardo. “Resolutions and Their Incongruities: Further Thoughts on Logical Mechanisms. ” HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 24 -2 (2011): Hirt, Michael, and Judy Genshaft. “The Effects of Incongruity and Complexity on the Perception of Humor. ” Personality and Individual Differences 3 (1982): 453 -455. Jones, James M. “Cognitive Factors in the Appreciation of Humor: A Theoretical and Experimental Analysis. Unpublished Ph. D. Dissertation, New Haven, CT: Yale University, 1970. Kerr, Walter. Tragedy and Comedy New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, 1967. 41 55

Kilbourne, Edwin D. “Humor in Science. ” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 140 Kilbourne, Edwin D. “Humor in Science. ” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 140 -3 (1996): 338 -349. La. Fave, Lawrence. “Humor Judgments as a Function of Reference Groups and Identification Classes. ” in Goldstein and Mc. Ghee (1972): 195 -210. La. Fave, Lawrence. “Superiority, Enhanced Self-Esteem and Perceived Incongruity Humor Theory. ” in Chapman and Foot (1976): 63 -92. Lauter, Paul, ed. Theories of Comedy. New York, NY: Doubleday Anchor, 1969. Mc. Ghee, Paul E. , and Jeffrey Goldstein, eds. Handbook of Humor Research. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag, 1983. 41 56

Mac. Hovec, Frank J. Humor: Theory, History, Applications. Springfield, IL: C. C. Thomas, 1988. Mac. Hovec, Frank J. Humor: Theory, History, Applications. Springfield, IL: C. C. Thomas, 1988. Martin, G. Neil, Sharon J. Sadler, Clare E. Barrett, and Alison Beaven. “Measuring Responses to Humor: How the Testing Context Affects Individuals’ Reaction to Comedy. ” HUMOR 21. 2 (2008): 143 -156. Martin, Rod A. The Psychology of Humor: An Integrative Approach. London, England: Elsevier, 2007. Mauldin, R. Kirk. “Alienation: A Laughing Matter. ” HUMOR 21. 3 (2008): 313 -346. Mey, Jacob L. Pragmatics: An Introduction. New York, NY: Blackwell, 2001. Meyer, John C. “Humor as a Double-Edged Sword: Four Functions of Humor in Communication. ” Communication Theory 10 (2000): 310 -331. 41 57

Mintz, Lawrence E. , ed. Humor in America: A Research Guide to Genres and Mintz, Lawrence E. , ed. Humor in America: A Research Guide to Genres and Topics. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1988. Morreall, John. Comedy, Tragedy, and Religion. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1999. Morreall, John. “Enjoying Incongruity. ” HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 2. 1 (1989): 1 -18. Morreall, John. “Funny Ha-Ha, Funny Strange, and Other Reactions to Incongruity. ” in Morreal (1987): 188 -207. Morreall, John. “Philosophy and Religion” in Raskin 2008, 233. Morreall, John, ed. The Philosophy of Laughter and Humor. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1987. 41 58

Morreall, John. Taking Laughter Seriously. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1983. Morreall, John. Taking Laughter Seriously. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1983. Morteinson, Peter. “Thoughts on the Current State of Humor Theory. ” Comedy Studies 1. 2 (2010): 173 -180. Nerhardt, Göran. “Incongruity and Funniness: Towards a New Descriptive Model. ” in Chapman and Foot (1976): 55 -62. Nilsen, Alleen Pace. Living Language. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1999. Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L. F. Encyclopedia of 20 th Century American Humor. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx, 2000. Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L. F. Nilsen. “Humor. ” The New Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Volume 3. Ed. Maryanne Cline Horowitz. New York, NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2005, 1061 -1064. 41 59

Nilsen, Don L. F. Humor in British Literature from the Middle Ages to the Nilsen, Don L. F. Humor in British Literature from the Middle Ages to the Restoration: A Reference Guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1997. Nilsen, Don L. F. "Humor in the Earliest English Literature. " Kansas English 79 -1 (1993): 36 -47. Nilsen, Don L. F. Humor Scholarship: A Research Bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1993, 175185. Nilsen, Don L. F. Humor in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth. Century British Literature: A Reference Guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1998. Nilsen, Don L. F. Humor Scholarship: A Research Bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1993. 41 60

Nilsen, Don L. F. , and Alleen Pace Nilsen. Language Play. Rowley, MA: Newbury Nilsen, Don L. F. , and Alleen Pace Nilsen. Language Play. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, 1978. Oring, Elliott. Jokes and Their Relations New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1992 (reissued, 2010). Oring, Elliott. Engaging Humor. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2003. Oring, Elliott. “Parsing the Joke: The General Theory of Verbal Humor and Appropriate Incongruity. ” HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 24. 2 (2011): 203 -222. Oring, Elliott. “Still Further Thoughts on Logical Mechanisms: A Response to Christian F. Hempelmann and Salvatore Attardo. ” HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research. ” 24. 2 (2011): 151 -158. Palmer, Jerry. Taking Humour Seriously. London, England: Routledge, 1994. 41 61

Payne, David A. Superiority vs. Incongruity Theories of Humor: A Critical Test Conducted in Payne, David A. Superiority vs. Incongruity Theories of Humor: A Critical Test Conducted in the Context of Friendships. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii, 2001. Petrenko, Maxim S. Narrative Joke: Conceptual Structure and Linguistic Manifestations. Unpublished Ph. D. Dissertation, West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University, 2008. Popa, Diana, and Salvatore Attardo. New Approaches to the Linguistics of Humour. Galati, Romania: Dunarea de Jos University Press, 2007. Raskin, Victor, ed. Primer of Humor Research. New York, NY: Mouton de Gruyter, 2008. Raskin, Victor. “On Oring on GTVH. ” HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 24. 2 (2011): 223 -232. Raskin, Victor. Semantic Mechanisms of Humor. Dordrecht, Netherlands: D. Reidel, 1985. 41 62

Raskin, Victor. Theory of Humor and Practice of Humor Research: Editor’s Notes and Thoughts Raskin, Victor. Theory of Humor and Practice of Humor Research: Editor’s Notes and Thoughts in Raskin (2008) 1 -16. Rawlings, David. “Relating Humor Preference to Schizotypy and Autism Scores in a Student Sample. ” HUMOR 21. 2 (2008): 197220. Ross, Alison. The Language of Humour. London, England: Routledge, 1998. Samson, Andrea C. , and Christian F. Hempelmann. “Humor with Backgrounded Incongruity: Does More Required Suspension of Disbelief Affect Humor Perception? HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 24. 2 (2011): 167 -186. Schiffrin, Deborah. Approaches to Discourse. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1994. Svebak, Sven, and Michael J. Apter. “Laughter: An Empirical Test of Some Reversal Theory Hypotheses. ” Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 28 (1987): 189 -198. 41 63

Trachtenberg, Stanley. American Humorists: 1800 -1950. Detroit, MI: Gale Press, 1982. Triezenberg, Katrina. “Humor Trachtenberg, Stanley. American Humorists: 1800 -1950. Detroit, MI: Gale Press, 1982. Triezenberg, Katrina. “Humor in Literature” in Raskin [2008]: 523 -542. Veale, Tony. “Incongruity in Humor: Root Cause or Epiphenomenon? ” HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 17. 4 (2004): 419 -428. Viana, Amadeu. “Asymmetry in Script Opposition. ” HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 23. 4 (2010): 505 -526. Wimer, David J. , and Bernard C. Beins. “Expectations and Perceived Humor. ” HUMOR 21. 3 (2008): 347 -364. Zillman, Dolf. “Disparagement Humor. ” in Mc. Ghee and Goldstein (1983): 85 -108. Zillman, Dolf. “Putdown Humor. ” Journal of Communication 26. 3 (1976): 154 -163. 41 64