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Humboldt Workshop, Abuja, Nov. 1 – 6, 2009 Module 4 - 3 rd Nov. , 2009 Managing the Large Class: Distance Learning methods in face to face teaching E. B. Sonaiya¹, ² O. A. Makinde² ¹Director, Centre for Distance Learning, ²Department of Animal Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Some problems with Large in F-2 -F teaching § Classes “A Large Class” differs with the subject matter § 500 in Chemistry ≤ 50 in Foreign Languages § overcrowding and/or insufficient furniture
Specific problems with Large in F-2 - F teaching Classes STUDENTS’ PERSPECTIVE § Difficulties in relating to the teacher § Hearing (Audio) and seeing (Video) difficulties § Interaction difficulties - questions, distractions § Clashes in time schedules and learning styles
Specific problems with Large in F-2 -F teaching Classes INSTRUCTORS’ PERSPECTIVE § Maintaining students’ interest § Effective communication with the whole class § Organizing tutorials, practicals and discussion groups § Examining, grading and management of results § Managing time schedules and learning styles
Application of DL tools to Large in F-2 -F teaching Classes Blended/Mixed/Hybrid Learning Mode - Integration of distance learning methods with face-to-face teaching: to combine the advantages of both teaching/learning modes. - Distance learning methods provide the flexibility and efficiency: which may not be available in face-to-face teaching. - A classroom environment provides the social interaction: needed by the students for learning.
Student focused DL tools Self-learning activities: ØPreparatory work; ØAssigned readings; ØSelf-tests; ØIndependent work - term papers, projects, reports, research. Communication through: 1. Print Medium – Text books, Lecture notes and Handouts. 2. Electronic Media – Radio, TV, CD, VCD, DVD. 3. Internet Resources - E-mail, Websites, Webcast
Student focused DL tools • • • Group-learning activities: Discussion; Tutorial; Group work (research, analyses, investigation, report); Communication through: 1. Print Medium – Text books, Lecture notes and Handouts. 2. Electronic Media – Radio, TV, CD, VCD, DVD. 3. Internet Resources - E-mail, Websites, Webcast
Instructor’s DL tools Presentation technologies: 1. Print Medium – Text books, Lecture notes and Handouts. 2. Electronic Media – Radio, TV, CD, VCD, DVD. Magic board, LCD projector, Digital Film 3. Internet Resources - E-mail, Forums, Chatrooms, Electronic Notice Boards, Websites, Webcast, Videoconferencing
Instructor’s DL tools Presentation technologies: Print Textbooks and study guides provide students with assignments and direction. Some courses require additional independent work through the mail. Course packets, textbooks and other materials are sent to students through the mail. Students submit lessons by mail, fax, or in some cases e-mail. Assignments, exams and completions are self-paced within an agreed time frame.
Instructor’s DL tools Presentation technologies: Telecourse/Datacast Telecourses are highly produced videotaped course segments broadcast at scheduled times by television stations (public TV and others) or local cable access channels. Datacasting is the transmission of text, graphics, video, audio and other media over the airwaves along with the digital television signal. Datacast course materials can be downloaded to a computer or viewed on a television.
Instructor’s DL tools Presentation technologies: Multimedia Course material is available on CD, DVD, videocassette, audiocassette, or other types of stored media. Multimedia courses may combine text, graphics, audio, video and other elements. The material is designed to be flexible, self-paced, and modular. In some cases, access to the Internet is required. The students learning choices influence how material is presented and reviewed.
Students- Instructor’s DL tools Presentation technologies: An audioconference connects instructors and students using standard telephone lines for real-time discussion. Course times are scheduled and can include the entire class or small groups.
Instructor’s DL tools Presentation technologies: Online courses are delivered over the Internet and are usually web-based. Courseware management systems (D 2 L, Web. CT, Blackboard, and others) are often used to organize content, activities, communication, and assessment. Some courses may have specific hardware and/or software requirements. Webcast A webcast captures and records audio, video, slides and other types of digital data, then synchronizes it as a single streamed media presentation. The course is either viewed live over the Internet or linked to later. Instructors can interact with students by various means: email, chat, scheduled audioconferences, or other methods.
Instructor’s DL tools Presentation technologies: Webconference A webconference combines the use of a Web browser for visuals and an audioconference for discussion. Students and instructors communicate and collaborate in real-time. Students can show and receive graphics, draw, add text, demonstrate Web sites, share documents and use Web chat. Students can interact with each other to create new collaborative content during the course. Videoconference A videoconference connects instructors and students in simultaneous two-way communication. Everyone may see and speak with each other for real-time discussions. Videoconference sites are located worldwide in public and private locations, including schools, government agencies and businesses. Some types of videoconferences can be delivered directly to the desktop.
DL Examining tools Examination techniques: MCQs, T or F, Fill in the blanks, Grading techniques: Templates, Automated grading. Communication through: 1. Print – OMR answer sheets 2. Electronic – PC, Laptops 3. Interactive tools – Intranet/Internet, Websites
Expected outcomes from a blended learning environment • Optimization of the learning outcome and ease of program delivery. • Creation of rich learning environments in which the individual uses the learning opportunities that are offered to them in a way that is most adequate to their needs, objective, and learning style. • Learning is free from time and space limitations and is according to the individual learning speed. • Increases familiarity with distance learning environments/methods • Adds to the interest in topics discussed and increases learning opportunities
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