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Human Trafficking: Modern Day Slavery Central Ohio Rescue & Restore Coalition
What is Human Trafficking? • A form of modern-day slavery • Exploitation of men, women and children for commercial sex or labor purposes. • The second largest and fastest growing criminal industry in the world.
Human Trafficking Pre-Test 1. ) To be considered a victim of trafficking one must be transported across state or country borders (T/F)? 2. ) Generally Human Trafficking is an international issue most often present in underdeveloped countries (T/F)? 3. ) There are multiple forms of human trafficking and victims may fall in multiple categories (T/F)? 4. ) Under the Federal definition, trafficked persons can only be foreign nationals (immigrants from other countries) (T/F)? 5. ) Human Trafficking and “Smuggling” humans are considered to be different crimes (T/F)? 6. ) Currently there are countries where “slavery” is legal (T/F)? 7. ) The terms “pimp” and “trafficker” are synonymous (T/F)? 8. ) For a person to be convicted of sex/labor trafficking they must use physical force/brutality against their victim (T/F)? 9. ) There is estimated to be more humans living in slavery now than when it was legalized in America (T/F)? 10. ) If you are arrested for prostitution/soliciting and you are under the age of 18 are you automatically considered to be a victim of sex trafficking (T/F)?
Through the Eyes of Victims • “Not My Life”
Trafficking Victims Protection Act 2000 “Severe Forms of Trafficking in Persons” defined as: • Sex Trafficking: the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for the purpose of a commercial sex act , in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person forced to perform such an act is under the age of 18 years; or • Labor Trafficking: the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage or slavery.
Two Broad Categories of Human Trafficking Labor Trafficking: Sexual Trafficking: Domestic Service Sweat Shops/Factories Begging Agricultural Work Mining Brick Kilns Child Soldiers Prostitution Pornography Stripping Lap Dancing Live-Sex Shows Mail-order Brides Child Brides
International Scope of Trafficking • About 800, 000 men, women and children are trafficked across international borders each year. • The International Labor Organization estimates that 12. 3 million people are living in slavery around the globe today. • Annually, up to 17, 500 individuals are trafficked into the US from other countries. • Approximately 80 percent of transnational victims are women and girls and up to 50 percent are minors. US Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report 2008
What is Labor Trafficking? Using force, fraud or coercion to recruit, harbor, transport, obtain or employ a person for labor or services in involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage or slavery
Vulnerability Factors: Labor Trafficking • • High unemployment Poverty Crime Discrimination Corruption Political Conflict Cultural Acceptance of Practice US Trafficking in Persons Report, 2008
Debt Bondage Illegal in the United States. Considered trafficking-related exploitation by the United Nations TIP Protocol. Trafficking victims must reimburse his/her traffickers for travel, room and board, hygiene and other personal items. Amount to be repaid is set by the traffickers.
Who Are The Traffickers? • • • Organized crime Neighbors, friends, family members, village chiefs Agricultural operations Business owners Families
SEX TRAFFICKING Commercial Sex act induced by force, fraud, coercion, or in which the individual is under the age of 18
Sex Trafficking in the US? Each year an estimated 100, 000 to 300, 000 US children are at high risk of commercial sex exploitation. According to the Ernie Allen, Executive Director of the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, at least 100, 000 US children are caught up in child prostitution Average of entry into prostitution is 12 to 14. Studies suggest that up to 90% of runaway youth become involved in the commercial sex industry. Estes, R. , & Weiner, N. A. (2001) Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in the U. S. , Canada and Mexico Shared Hope International, Demand: A Comparative Examination of Sex Tourism and Trafficking in Jamaica, Japan, The Netherlands, and the United States US Department of Justice. Congressional Victims Rights Caucus and Congressional Trafficking Caucus July 21, 2009.
Factors Associated with Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking • Use of prostitution by runaway and thrownaway children to provide for subsistence needs • Presence of pre-existing adult prostitution markets in communities where large numbers of street youth are concentrated • Prior history of child sexual abuse and child sexual assault • Poverty Estes, R. , & Weiner, N. A. (2001) Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in the U. S. , Canada and Mexico
Factors Associated with Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking • Large numbers of unattached and transient males in local communities including military personnel, truckers, and conventioneers. • Membership in gangs • Promotion of child prostitution by parents, older siblings and boy friends • Recruitment by organized crime units Estes, R. , & Weiner, N. A. (2001) Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in the U. S. , Canada and Mexico
Pimp Control/Traffickers Pimps are masters of the art of seduction; they are able to identify the vulnerabilities of a specific child and exploit them. Once seduced, pimps use torture tactics to control their victims. Such tactics consistently lead to complete obedience and a breakdown of personal agency and autonomy. These behaviors include both physical and psychological torture. Pimps use the increased glamorization of pimp/ho culture, as well as cultural acceptance of demand for child victims, to help maintain control of the child. http: //www. gems-girls. org/media-center/music Dr. Celia Williamson, University of Toledo and Second Chance
HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN OHIO "Ohio is not only a destination place foreign-born trafficking victims, but it's also a recruitment place" -Celia Williamson, associate professor at the University of Toledo
Human Trafficking in Ohio • According to the Polaris Project, Ohio ranks 7 th in the number of calls placed to the National hotline between 12/07 and 6/09. • The FBI identified Toledo, Ohio as “the top U. S. recruitment city for trafficking children into the sex industry” • Ohio is said to be the 5 th Leading state in Human Trafficking by Mark Logan
Why Ohio? • Proximity to Canada/Toronto • Extensive highway system - I-71/I-75 & I-70 • Growing immigrant community allows traffickers to hide victims in plain sight - 30% Increase between 1999 -2000 • Poverty among minorities, women and children • Wright Patterson Air Force Base - Largest concentration of strip clubs in the state • Migrant Labor Polaris Project
Ohio Attorney General Richard Cordray Human Trafficking Study Commission • Purpose – To understand the problem of HT in Ohio – To make recommendations about ways to strengthen Ohio’s response to the problem • Committees – Victim Services – Legislation – Public Awareness – Law Enforcement Training – Research
Report on the Prevalence of Human Trafficking in Ohio, February 2010 • Ohio Trafficking in Persons Study Commission Research and Analysis Sub-Committee • Conservative Estimate: At least 6, 316 Ohioans are at risk of being trafficked and at least 1, 861 are believed to be trafficked in Ohio today. – This estimate does not include domestic adults who are victims of sex trafficking. • In 2007/2008, Central Ohio law enforcement filed 3, 575 prostitution charges. 35 arrests for “Johns”
Examples of Central Ohio HT Cases CORRC Foreign national woman married to US citizen who forced her into domestic servitude. Latina woman trafficked in a brothel. Foreign national woman sexually trafficked by her husband. Undocumented immigrants trafficked in ethnic restaurant. 14 year old American girl prostituted by a gang. Since July 2008, The Salvation Arm/CORRC has provided services to 85 victims of human trafficking.
THE IMPACT OF TRAFFICKING ON VICTIMS “They didn’t see us as human beings, but just as whores, just as flesh that they could use. That’s all”
Physical Harms of Human Trafficking Older broken bones that did not heal properly Bed bug bites Traumatic Brain Injury Bodily injuries: broken bones, concussions, burns, bruising, bite marks, vaginal/anal tearing from violence including assault, stabbings, rape, and torture http: //www. acf. hhs. gov/trafficking/about/fact_sex. html Polaris Project
Physical Harms of Human Trafficking Reproductive Health Problems Exposure to STDs, including HIV Pregnancies Abortions Fertility issues Malnutrition, rotting teeth Stunted growth (in children) Alcohol and other Drug Use Chronic back, visual or respiratory problems from working in agriculture, construction or manufacturing in dangerous conditions http: //www. acf. hhs. gov/trafficking/about/fact_sex. html Polaris Project
Psychological Harms of Sex Trafficking Mind/body separation/disassociated ego states, dissociative disorders Shame and grief Depression, hopelessness Anxiety disorders Self destructive behaviors, including suicide Traumatic bonding with perpetrator http: //www. acf. hhs. gov/trafficking/about/fact_sex. html www. icfi. com/transition
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Acute anxiety, depression, insomnia, persistent flashbacks, physical hyper-alertness, selfloathing that is long-lasting and resistant to change “In a study of prostituted women from 9 countries, level of PTSD was 68%, which is in the same range as that of treatment-seeking combat veterans” http: //www. acf. hhs. gov/trafficking Farley et al. (2003). Prostitution and Trafficking in Nine Countries: An Update on Violence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Prostitution, Trafficking, and Traumatic
Faces of Prostitution: Grace
IDENTIFYING TRAFFICKED PERSONS “Every Home Computer is Red Light District” -Dr Mary Anne Layden
Potential Signs of Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking Hotel room keys Numerous school absences False ID’s and lying about age Teen’s dating much older, abusive, or controlling men Having large amounts of cash, jewelry, new clothes Recurrent STI’s/STD’s and/or need for pregnancy tests Signs of physical assault including: branding or tattooing, broken bones, black eyes, etc • Being a runaway is a risk factor • • Dr. Celia Williamson, University of Toledo and Second Chance
Communicating with Victims • Before questioning potential trafficking victim: – Isolate individual from person accompanying her/him without raising suspicions – Individual accompanying patient may be trafficker posing, or a recruiter • Enlist trusted translator/interpreter who also understands victim’s cultural needs
Identifying Victims of Human Trafficking • Is potential victim accompanied by another person who seems controlling? • Does person accompanying potential victim insist on giving information to you? • Can you see or detect any physical abuse? • Does person seem submissive or fearful? • Does potential victim have difficulty communicating because of language or cultural barriers? • Does potential victim have any identification?
Questions to Ask • • Can you leave your job or situation if you want? Can you come and go as you please? Have you been threatened if you try to leave? Have you been physically harmed in any way? What are your working or living conditions like? Where do you sleep and eat? What to you do to have a roof over your head? Do you sleep in a bed, on a cot or on the floor?
Questions to Ask • Have you ever been deprived of food, water, sleep or medical care? • Do you have to ask permission to eat, sleep or go to the bathroom? • Are there locks on your doors and windows so you cannot get out? • Has anyone threatened your family? • Has your identification or documentation been taken from you? • Is anyone forcing you to do anything that you do not want to do?
Communicating with Victims • For victim’s safety, strict confidentiality is paramount – Ask questions in safe, confidential and trusting environment – Limit number of staff members coming in contact with suspected trafficking victim • Importance of indirectly and sensitively probing to determine if person is trafficking victim – May deny being a victim, so best not to ask direct questions – Phrase “trafficking victim” will have no meaning
Barriers to Identification • Many victims in the U. S. do not speak English and are unable to communicate with service providers, police, or others who might be able to help them. • Often kept isolated and activities restricted to prevent them from seeking help • Victims comply and don’t seek help because of fear
Barriers to Identification • Typically watched, escorted or guarded by traffickers or associates of traffickers • Traffickers may “coach” victims to answer questions with cover story about being wife, student or tourist • Unaware of what is being done to them is a crime – Do not consider themselves victims – Blame themselves for their situations • May develop loyalties, positive feelings toward trafficker as coping mechanism
Barriers to Identification • Often victims don’t know where they are, because traffickers frequently move them to escape detection • Fear for safety of family in home country • Fear and shame • Self-blame and hopelessness • Dependency
HELPING VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING “The responsibility of freedom is to free someone else”
Ohio Law • Ohio Substitute House Bill 280 – Signed into law by Governor Strickland on 1/6/09 – Increases penalties and requires a mandatory prison term for engaging in a pattern of sex trafficking – Sex traffickers will now face a 1 st Degree Felony – Traffickers have to provide restitution – Attorney General’s Office will study HT in Ohio
Senate Bill 235 • Senate Bill 235: Fedor & Grendell • As introduced, it will make human trafficking a stand-alone second degree felony under state law. • This proposed language was replaced by a sub-bill in March that also amends the criminal charges of conspiracy and a pattern of corrupt activity to include human trafficking. • This sub-bill also amends the definition of human trafficking in to cover both labor and sex trafficking. • http: //www. legislature. state. oh. us/bills. cfm? ID=128_SB_235
What are the Needs of Trafficked Persons? The following services delivered in a CULTURALLY COMPETENT, TRAUMA-SENSITIVE manner: Safety Basic Needs (Food, Clothing) Safe, Temporary Housing Residential Trauma Treatment Counseling Permanent Housing Comprehensive Case Management Legal Advocacy Workforce Development Training Educational Services Interpretation/Translation Spiritual Services Alcohol & Other Drug Treatment Life Skills Culturally Appropriate Social Support
Central Ohio Rescue & Restore Coalition • Coordinated by The Salvation Army Central Ohio • Comprised of over 60 member organizations from a wide cross section of the community: – – – – – Social services providers Law enforcement (FBI, ICE, CPD) Faith community Medical providers State Refugee Coordinator Ohio Attorney General Office Ohio Department of Public Safety Ohio Department of Job and Family Services Ohio Latino Affairs Commission
Central Ohio Rescue & Restore Coalition • Four Areas of Focus: – Public Awareness • • Annual Unlocking the Chains Conference Speakers Bureau: spoken to over 5, 000 individuals to date Outreach materials Public awareness events – Legislation & Lobbying • Support for strong anti-trafficking legislation in Ohio. Tracks and maintains up to date information on all local and national HT laws. – Law Enforcement • Works with local law enforcement agencies to identify trafficking cases and support the investigation and prosecution of traffickers. – Demand Reduction • Focusing on reducing the demand aspect of sex trafficking – Services to Victims of Human Trafficking • 24/7 Hotline 614 -285 -4357 (HELP) • Since 7/2008, CORRC has assisted 45 victims of human trafficking.
What Will CORRC Provide? • Comprehensive case management from rescue through restoration. • Adults served by The Salvation Army. • Youth served by Gracehaven. – Organize safe shelter for the victim(s). – Assess and meet basic and immediate needs. – Arrange for interpretation and translation if necessary. – Locate a legal advocate. – Conduct intake.
What Will CORRC Provide? • Develop a Service Plan – Residential Treatment – Permanent Housing – Mental Health Services – Employment Training and Placement – Legal Services – Medical Services – Cultural/Community Orientation – Life Skills Education – Referral to Public Benefits – Interpretation and Translation Services
How to become and Abolitionist! • ***Tell someone*** • Educate yourself • Look beneath the surface and beyond the stereotypes • Boycott harmful internet sites (Craig’s list) • Eliminate Pornography • Join the coalition • Screen for potential victims • Don’t glorify pimps • Report injustices that you see/suspect – CORRC Hotline – Police Non-Emergency • Buy fair trade • Sponsor public awareness events • Encourage others to do these same things
You Can Be a Change Agent! • Donate $ and Time • Awareness Displays • Affiliate with an preexisting organization – – – Gracehaven Second Chance Not for Sale Shared Hope Perverted Justice • Contact state and local representatives • Attend conferences and anti -trafficking events – Salvation Army – Central Ohio Rescue and Restore Coalition • Start something new Change requires action…. be creative and take action!
Central Ohio Rescue & Restore Coalition • Contact Information: 614 -285 -4357 (HELP) – Trisha Smouse; Anti-Human Trafficking Program Manager • 614 -358 -2614 trisha. smouse@use. salvationarmy. org – Christina Conrad; Anti-Human Trafficking Specialist • 614 -358 -2629 christina. conrad@use. salvationarmy. org