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HUMAN IMPACT on the BIOSPHERE Chapter 6 HUMAN IMPACT on the BIOSPHERE Chapter 6

The Tragedy of the Commons • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=EZFk. Uele. HPY When The Tragedy of the Commons • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=EZFk. Uele. HPY When a resource (like the environment) is shared, everyone can use it but no one is responsible for protecting it. Each person just uses “a little”, but it often results in the destruction of the “commons”

HUMAN IMPACT Watch the Chapter 6 video HUMAN IMPACT Watch the Chapter 6 video

HUMANS _____ participate in Food webs _____ and biogeochemical cycles ______ http: //www. physicalgeography. HUMANS _____ participate in Food webs _____ and biogeochemical cycles ______ http: //www. physicalgeography. net/fundamentals/images/nitrogencycle. jpg Ecosystems provide us with resources a variety of ______ http: //www. brevardcounty. us/mrrp/images/misc/boat_cartoon. jpg http: //www. physicalgeography. net/fundamentals/images/nitrogencycle. jpg

http: //www. newtonswindow. com/problem-solving. htm REMEMBER RESOURCE A _________ is anything an organism needs http: //www. newtonswindow. com/problem-solving. htm REMEMBER RESOURCE A _________ is anything an organism needs for life NATURAL RESOURCES = LAND AIR WATER http: //coweeta. ecology. uga. edu/coweeta_photographs/erosion. htm FORESTS http: //www. lenntech. com/images/discharge. gif

________ RESOURCES RENEWABLE regrow • Living can ______ • Non living replaced by Biogeochemical ________ RESOURCES RENEWABLE regrow • Living can ______ • Non living replaced by Biogeochemical cycles ___________ http: //www. inclusive. co. uk/downloads/images/pics 2/tree. gif http: //www. sfu. ca/aq/archives/Nov 2007/features/fish_story. html http: //www. navitron. org. uk/wind/600 kw. JPG

Renewable does NOT mean unlimited _____ Fresh water Ex: _______ is a renewable resource Renewable does NOT mean unlimited _____ Fresh water Ex: _______ is a renewable resource but can become limited by drought overuse ______ OR _______ http: //www. wrightwoodcalif. com/watershort/Conserve. Water. JPG http: //earth. ooups. com/uk/images/100/tapwater. jpg

FRESH WATER RESOURCES Although water is a renewable _______ resource, the total supply of FRESH WATER RESOURCES Although water is a renewable _______ resource, the total supply of fresh water is limited _____. http: //www. mos. org/oceans/graphics/planet/watercycle. jpg

FRESH WATER RESOURCES pollutants Wetlands remove ____ and purify ______ water passing through. http: FRESH WATER RESOURCES pollutants Wetlands remove ____ and purify ______ water passing through. http: //www. epa. gov/bioiweb 1/aquatic/importance. html

NONRENEWABLE RESOURCES NOT BE replenished can ____________ by natural processes http: //www. greenpeace. org/raw/image_full/international/photosvideos/photos/illegal-deforestation-and-land. NONRENEWABLE RESOURCES NOT BE replenished can ____________ by natural processes http: //www. greenpeace. org/raw/image_full/international/photosvideos/photos/illegal-deforestation-and-land. jpg http: //www. npr. org/news/images/2005/aug/16/pumping_gas 200. jpg

HUMAN POPULATION You are here http: //www. learner. org/jnorth/spring 2002/species/spring/Update 041902. html#Humankind HUMAN POPULATION You are here http: //www. learner. org/jnorth/spring 2002/species/spring/Update 041902. html#Humankind

Image from: http: //www. sleepbamboo. com/planet_people. jpg WORLD POPULATION World clock • Current world Image from: http: //www. sleepbamboo. com/planet_people. jpg WORLD POPULATION World clock • Current world population is just 7 BILLION over _______ • Estimates predict it will reach 9 billion by 2050 http: //www. peopleandplanet. net/

HUMAN ACTIVITIES that harm the planet OVER HUNTING ___________ POACHING ________ HABITAT DESTRUCTION ________________ HUMAN ACTIVITIES that harm the planet OVER HUNTING ___________ POACHING ________ HABITAT DESTRUCTION ________________ AGRICULTURE ______________ POLLUTION ______________ URBAN DEVELOPMENT _______________ Images from: http: //www. cs. utexas. edu/users/s 2 s/latest/art 1/src/proj/Art/cave_art/Hunters-Deer. jpg http: //www. istockphoto. com/file_thumbview_approve/127525/2/istockphoto_127525_farming. jpg http: //www. kidcrosswords. com/kidoutdoors/the%20 environment/pollution_smokestacks. jpg http: //www. lubee. org/images/about-threats-1. jpg

HUNTING AND GATHERING Throughout human history, people have ____ and _______ in rivers, and HUNTING AND GATHERING Throughout human history, people have ____ and _______ in rivers, and hunted fished gathered _____ wild seeds, fruits, and nuts. We are still doing this today in many places. http: //www. amonsoquath. net/gallery/pages/chee. html http: //www. travelwriter. co. za/let-the-train-strain_p 2. html

WHEN IT BECOMES A PROBLEM? OVERHUNTING _________ POACHING ________ http: //msnbc. msn. com/id/8302763 http: WHEN IT BECOMES A PROBLEM? OVERHUNTING _________ POACHING ________ http: //msnbc. msn. com/id/8302763 http: //www. aeffonline. org/images/poachersandelephant. jpg

OVERHUNTING can put animal populations at risk of ______ extinction Miss Waldron’s Red Colobus OVERHUNTING can put animal populations at risk of ______ extinction Miss Waldron’s Red Colobus monkey Extinct 2000 Alagoas Curassow: extinct in wild 1980’s Dodo: extinct 1681 Moa: extinct 1500’s http: //www. petermaas. nl/extinct/speciesinfo/misswaldronredcolobus. htm http: //www. birdlife. org/datazone/species/index. html? action=Spc. HTMDetails. asp&sid=100&m=0 http: //lawyerkm. files. wordpress. com/2008/09/dodo_11. jpg http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Moa

http: //www. southeastutah. org/photos/dino. jpg VOCAB Species that has died out = extinct _______ http: //www. southeastutah. org/photos/dino. jpg VOCAB Species that has died out = extinct _______ Species whose population size is rapidly declining and will become extinct if the trend continues endangered = _______ http: //www. blackfootedferret. org/ Species that is at risk of becoming endangered in threatened the near future = ______ http: //www. fresnochaffeezoo. com/images/bald-eagle. gif

International Union for Conservation of Nature ( IUCN) RED LIST = world's main authority International Union for Conservation of Nature ( IUCN) RED LIST = world's main authority on the conservation status of species Currently 3079 animals and 2655 plants classified as Endangered worldwide Compared with 1102 animals and 1197 plants in 1998

EXAMPLE: WHALES During the 19 th and the earlier part of 20 th centuries, EXAMPLE: WHALES During the 19 th and the earlier part of 20 th centuries, over-hunting led to a overkill severe _____of whale populations, and to ________ endangerment of many whale species. Minke whale = most hunted species http: //news. bbc. co. uk/2/shared/spl/hi/guides/456900/456973/html/nn 1 page 1. stm http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Whaling#Conservation_status

Today many major whales species are endangered North Atlantic Right Southern Right Bowhead Blue Today many major whales species are endangered North Atlantic Right Southern Right Bowhead Blue Sei Humpback Bowhead < 350 3000 8000 2, 300 10 -28, 000 10, 000 8, 000

North American Buffalo Wild buffalo ______ in America once numbered 30 - 60 million, North American Buffalo Wild buffalo ______ in America once numbered 30 - 60 million, ranging from Virginia to Alaska. Pile of bison skulls, 1870’s By 1884, the buffalo was close to extinction overhunting due to _____. http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/American_Bison

WHY POACH? Many endangered big game animals today Illegal poaching are threatened by_________ / WHY POACH? Many endangered big game animals today Illegal poaching are threatened by_________ / http: //cnnstudentnews. cnn. com/EARTH/9710/02/kenya. ivory. ap http: //www. aeffonline. org/images/poachersandelephant. jpg

WHY POACH? • • • Fur Tusks/horns Tourist souveniers Medicine ? Artwork http: //studentweb. WHY POACH? • • • Fur Tusks/horns Tourist souveniers Medicine ? Artwork http: //studentweb. cortland. edu/giambalvo 73/poaching. jpg http: //www. ens-newswire. com/ens/jul 2009/20090716_rhinopoaching. jpg $ http: //www. sciencebuzz. org/sites/default/files/images/ivory. jpgh ttp: //www. peterpalms. com/fox/pictures/silverfoxcoat. jpg http: //d-vers. com/images/medium/PMTung/Chinese-Ivory-Carved-Hippo-Tusk-Family-Of-Rhinos/Chinese-Carved-Ivory-Hippo-Tusk-Family-Of-Rhinocerous. jpg

EXAMPLE: Rhinos endangered • All five rhino species are ______ Just a few decades EXAMPLE: Rhinos endangered • All five rhino species are ______ Just a few decades ago, the world’s rhino population exceeded 100, 000, but today there are less than 11, 000 habitat loss poaching due to _______ and _______. Rhino horns ________ are in demand in many countries where they can bring over $60, 000/lb. ~ ground into medicine (China) ~ carved into ceremonial dagger handles (Yemen) http: //nationalzoo. si. edu/Publications/Zoo. Goer/2003/6/Sidebar_Forensics. cfm

HOW DO WE HELP? • Preserves/Sanctuaries • Captive breeding programs • Laws/regulations • Support HOW DO WE HELP? • Preserves/Sanctuaries • Captive breeding programs • Laws/regulations • Support “GREEN” organizations

PRESERVES/SANCTUARIES Preserving habitat Establishing protected areas Game ranger patrols to prevent poaching Education http: PRESERVES/SANCTUARIES Preserving habitat Establishing protected areas Game ranger patrols to prevent poaching Education http: //asiancorrespondent. com/74455/sumatran-elephants-could-be-extinct-in-30 -years/

How do we help? Captive breeding __________ Animals are raised and protected in zoos How do we help? Captive breeding __________ Animals are raised and protected in zoos until population is stable, then returned to wild http: //www. blackfootedferret. org/

HOW DO WE HELP? CAPTIVE BREEDING: Conservation efforts, private ownership, and reintroduction of buffalo HOW DO WE HELP? CAPTIVE BREEDING: Conservation efforts, private ownership, and reintroduction of buffalo have allowed the population to recover Today-total bison population in North America is estimated at 500, 000 About 85 percent of these animals are privately owned. http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/American_Bison

LAWS/REGULATIONS International Whaling Commission has placed a moratorium on whaling for certain species Only LAWS/REGULATIONS International Whaling Commission has placed a moratorium on whaling for certain species Only works if nations voluntarily comply http: //www. cdnn. info/eco/whaling_250146. jpg

 LAWS & REGULATIONS Convention on International Trade The________________ (CITES) in Endangered Species bans LAWS & REGULATIONS Convention on International Trade The________________ (CITES) in Endangered Species bans international ______ in products trade from endangered species. http: //www. mtholyoke. edu/~sjberg/CITES. htm

WHAT CAN WE DO TO HELP? Support “Green” organizations that work for laws to WHAT CAN WE DO TO HELP? Support “Green” organizations that work for laws to establish quotas and protect species. POWER OF ONE VIDEO http: //www. nwf. org/ http: //www. maksimum. com/haberler/h/greenpeacee_cevre_cezasi. php http: //www. sierraclub. org/ http: //www. brookingshumane. org/ http: //www. sierraclub. org/ http: //www. ducks. org/states/62/index. html

THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY HABITAT DESTRUCTION ____________ Agriculture _________ Urban development ________ Deforestation ________ Fragmentation THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY HABITAT DESTRUCTION ____________ Agriculture _________ Urban development ________ Deforestation ________ Fragmentation ________ Invasive species ________ Pollution ________

Importance of Agriculture By middle of 20 th century, despite agricultural advances there were Importance of Agriculture By middle of 20 th century, despite agricultural advances there were ________in many food shortages parts of the world. http: //www. enjoy. org/hstech/Hunger. Site 02/america/Ford. Schwartz/ Governments and scientists began a major effort increase to ______ food production

GREEN _____ REVOLUTION 1. New more productive strains plant ____ techniques 2. Modern farming______ GREEN _____ REVOLUTION 1. New more productive strains plant ____ techniques 2. Modern farming______ allowed planting larger areas fertilizers pesticides 3. Chemical ______ & ______ boosted crop production and controlled pests http: //interactive. usask. ca/ski/media/stills/agriculture/crops/t_plant-breeder. jpg

HOW WE HARM THE ENVIRONMENT Large fields are planted with a single variety year HOW WE HARM THE ENVIRONMENT Large fields are planted with a single variety year after year MONOCULTURE = ________ http: //imagesource. allposters. com/images/NGSPOD 04/107870. jpg

WHY IS THIS A PROBLEM? Modern MONOCULTURE agriculture allows farmers to grow more food WHY IS THIS A PROBLEM? Modern MONOCULTURE agriculture allows farmers to grow more food BUT. . . Fertilizers pesticides _____ and _______ beneficial ~ kill ____ insects Runoff _____from feedlots and fields Contaminate surface and ground water ~ _____ http: //www. biology-blog. com/images/blogs/10 -2007/fertilizer-15101. gif http: //cms 1. good. is/posts/full_1289265646 pesticides. jp

Impact of Agriculture Wearing away of topsoil = Soil erosion ______ is caused by Impact of Agriculture Wearing away of topsoil = Soil erosion ______ is caused by plowing land removing plant roots http: //coweeta. ecology. uga. edu/coweeta_photographs/erosion. htm

 Impact of Agriculture Desertification ______ = changing of fertile land in dry climates Impact of Agriculture Desertification ______ = changing of fertile land in dry climates into desert areas caused by farming, overgrazing, and drought http: //www. the-human-race. com/images/environment/drought. jpg

Challenges for Future Finding enough _____ for irrigation is water another problem. Less than Challenges for Future Finding enough _____ for irrigation is water another problem. Less than ¼ of US farmland irrigation relies heavily on ______, but this area produces a major _____ portion of our harvest. http: //www. suu. edu/faculty/bowman/Econ 1740/Heilbroner. Zinn/ogallala_aquifer_map_pic_2. gif

Challenges for Future http: //www. suu. edu/faculty/bowman/Econ 1740/Heilbroner. Zinn/ogallala_aquifer_map_pic_2. gif Many Midwest states rely Challenges for Future http: //www. suu. edu/faculty/bowman/Econ 1740/Heilbroner. Zinn/ogallala_aquifer_map_pic_2. gif Many Midwest states rely on the OGALLALA ______aquifer for their water needs. using water We are _______ faster than the replenish water cycle can _______ it. Evidence indicates this aquifer may run dry _____ within 20 -40 years.

HOW DO WE HELP? technology Modern_____ is changing how farmers farm and lessening the HOW DO WE HELP? technology Modern_____ is changing how farmers farm and lessening the impact on the environment. EX: Satellite _____ imaging GPS _____ technology enable farmers to apply chemicals only needed where_______

HOW DO WE FIX IT? EX: “No-till” and other “green” farming methods ____ soil HOW DO WE FIX IT? EX: “No-till” and other “green” farming methods ____ soil erosion can reduce ______ ecosystems and protect __________ http: //cbarc. aes. oregonstate. edu/images/no-till. jpg

Sustainable Agriculture Ways to preserve the environment Cover Crops Legumes, grasses, and other cover Sustainable Agriculture Ways to preserve the environment Cover Crops Legumes, grasses, and other cover crops recycle soil nutrients, reduce fertilizer need, and prevent weed growth. Controlled Grazing By managing graze periods and herd densities, farmers can improve nutrient cycling, increase the effectiveness of precipitation, and increase the carrying capacity of pastures. A Biological Pest Control The use of predators and parasites to control destructive insects minimizes pesticide use as well as crop damage B Yr. 1 Contour Plowing Contour plowing reduces soil erosion from land runoff. On hilly areas, plowing is done across the hill rather than straight up and down. corn Yr. 2 Yr. 3 corn oats alfalfa C Crop Rotation Different crops use and alfalfa replenish different nutrients. By rotating crops, the loss of important plant nutrients alfalfa (plowed in) is decreased. corn

INDUSTRIAL GROWTH and URBAN DEVELOPMENT The impact of humans on the biosphere was transformed INDUSTRIAL GROWTH and URBAN DEVELOPMENT The impact of humans on the biosphere was transformed by the INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION ___________ during the 1800’s. http: //www. archives. gov/research/american-cities/images/american-cities-015. jpg

Industrial productivity and scientific advancements have provided us with modern conveniences the ___________ we Industrial productivity and scientific advancements have provided us with modern conveniences the ___________ we enjoy today http: //www. vallartasource. com/images/cell_phone. jpg http: //www. danielwiener. com/daniel/tips/archives/humvee_2. jpg http: //www. scriptfx. com/gallery/computer/laptop. jpg http: //www. wii-volution. com/images/wii/gamecube. jpg http: //www. nbz. ru/pic/catalog/ipod_color. gif

 FOREST RESOURCES Loss of forests = deforestation ______ can result in erosion and FOREST RESOURCES Loss of forests = deforestation ______ can result in erosion and loss of nutrients preventing regrowth http: //www. greenpeace. org/raw/image_full/international/photosvideos/photos/illegal-deforestation-and-land. jpg

http: //www. abc. net. au/newsitems/200506/s 1384632. htm DEFORESTATION Changes in Brazilian rainforest over 30 http: //www. abc. net. au/newsitems/200506/s 1384632. htm DEFORESTATION Changes in Brazilian rainforest over 30 years The tropical rainforests once covered more than 14% of the earth's total land surface, but now cover less than 6%.

HABITAT DESTRUCTION http: //www. lubee. org/images/about-threats-1. jpg Tropical rainforests are disappearing at a rate HABITAT DESTRUCTION http: //www. lubee. org/images/about-threats-1. jpg Tropical rainforests are disappearing at a rate of about 80 acres per minute.

BIODIVERSITY THREAT http: //www. wri. org/biodiv/pubs_maps_description. cfm? Image. ID=1553 Nearly half of the world's BIODIVERSITY THREAT http: //www. wri. org/biodiv/pubs_maps_description. cfm? Image. ID=1553 Nearly half of the world's species of plants, animals and microorganisms will be destroyed or severely threatened over the next quarter century rainforest deforestation. due to ______________

HOW DO WE HELP? Sustainable development: • Stop clear cutting of forests/jungles • Selective HOW DO WE HELP? Sustainable development: • Stop clear cutting of forests/jungles • Selective harvest of mature trees • Replanting of logged areas • Tree farms • Breeding new, faster growing species

WHAT’S THE PROBLEM? • • Destruction of habitats Air & water pollution Use of WHAT’S THE PROBLEM? • • Destruction of habitats Air & water pollution Use of resources Uses lots of fossil fuel All lead to a decrease in BIODIVERSITY ________ http: //tuberose. com/Environmental_Toxicity. html http: //www. kidcrosswords. com/kidoutdoors/the%20 environment/pollution_smokestacks. jpg

Image from: http: //members. graphicsfactory. com/clip-art/image_files/tn_image/2/1313572 -tn_Tomb. Stone 001_92007. jpg Scientists estimate there are Image from: http: //members. graphicsfactory. com/clip-art/image_files/tn_image/2/1313572 -tn_Tomb. Stone 001_92007. jpg Scientists estimate there are 10 -30 million plant and animal species on the planet Most of these are unidentified. Some scientists estimate at the rate we are going ___ of the plants and animals 1/4 will be committed to extinction by 2050 http: //www. igreens. org. uk/extinctions_predicted_from_globa. html

Image from: http: //members. graphicsfactory. com/clip-art/image_files/tn_image/2/1313572 -tn_Tomb. Stone 001_92007. jpg Officially over 5, 000 Image from: http: //members. graphicsfactory. com/clip-art/image_files/tn_image/2/1313572 -tn_Tomb. Stone 001_92007. jpg Officially over 5, 000 species of animals and birds are listed as Endangered or Threatened on our planet Believed that some 10, 000 species have gone extinct in just the past 100 years http: //www. globalanimal. org/2011/12/18/2012 -the-year-of-extinction/61240

BIODIVERSITY THREAT Development of natural areas for cities or agriculture results in habitat destruction BIODIVERSITY THREAT Development of natural areas for cities or agriculture results in habitat destruction __________ http: //www. simtropolis. com/idealbb/files/SG_Shopping. Center. JPG

BIODIVERSITY THREAT Splitting a habitat into smaller disconnected pieces = ___________ Habitat fragmentation It BIODIVERSITY THREAT Splitting a habitat into smaller disconnected pieces = ___________ Habitat fragmentation It results in small “islands” of natural area isolated from each other by crop land, pasture, pavement, or even barren land. http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Habitat_fragmentation

BIODIVERSITY THREAT Habitat fragmentation brings wildlife in more frequent contact with humans. When it BIODIVERSITY THREAT Habitat fragmentation brings wildlife in more frequent contact with humans. When it comes down to “us or them”. . . “they” usually lose. http: //www. chrismadden. co. uk/eco/peterrabbit. html

WHAT DOES IT MEAN? REMEMBER! Everything is connected. BIODIVERSITY is a measure of the WHAT DOES IT MEAN? REMEMBER! Everything is connected. BIODIVERSITY is a measure of the HEALTH _____ of an ecosystem. MORE BETTER _______ DIVERSITY = ______ Image from: Pearson Education Inc, publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall © 2006 http: //images 1. wikia. nocookie. net/__cb 20061028011328/uncyclopedia/images/4/4 f/Jenga. Tower. jpg

BIODIVERSITY THREAT One of most important threats to biodiversity come from apparently harmless plants BIODIVERSITY THREAT One of most important threats to biodiversity come from apparently harmless plants or animals that humans transport into INVASIVE SPECIES new habitats =__________ PREDATORS New habitats don’t have ______ and parasites that control the population in their native habitats, so invasive species INCREASE populations _______ rapidly.

EXAMPLES OF INVASIVE SPECIES http: //psephos. adam-carr. net/countries/a/australia/images/australiamap. gif 24 rabbits turned loose for EXAMPLES OF INVASIVE SPECIES http: //psephos. adam-carr. net/countries/a/australia/images/australiamap. gif 24 rabbits turned loose for hunting in 1859 in Australia, reproduced at such a rapid rate they have taken over the continent. Within 10 years they had multiplied so rapidly, 2 million rabbits a year could be shot or trapped without any noticeable effect on population. http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Image: Wild_rabbit. jpg

EXAMPLES OF INVASIVE SPECIES They are believed to be responsible for the ______ of EXAMPLES OF INVASIVE SPECIES They are believed to be responsible for the ______ of 1/8 of extinction the mammal species, unknown numbers of plant species, as well as serious _______ problems. soil erosion http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Image: Rabbit-erosion. jpg It is still a major problem and rabbit diseases have been purposely introduced to try to control the population. http: //www. csiro. au/communication/rabbits/qa 1. htm

EXAMPLES OF INVASIVE SPECIES Zebra mussels _________ are native to the Caspian Sea region EXAMPLES OF INVASIVE SPECIES Zebra mussels _________ are native to the Caspian Sea region of Asia. They are believed to have been transported to the Great Lakes in the ballast water from a ship. They were first discovered in 1988, and have since spread rapidly to all of the Great Lakes and waterways in many states including ____________ SOUTH DAKOTA and into Canada. http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Image: Dreissena_polymorpha 3. jpg

PROBLEMS CAUSED BY ZEBRA MUSSELS • Clog power plant and public water intakes and PROBLEMS CAUSED BY ZEBRA MUSSELS • Clog power plant and public water intakes and pipes, costing taxpayers millions of dollars · Damage boat engines · Blanket shorelines with their sharp shells and foul smell · Consume available food for native species and smother native mussels · Threaten water-based recreational activities http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Zebra_mussel

EXAMPLES OF INVASIVE SPECIES http: //www. team. ars. usda. gov/v 2/ctoavsimages/newfrontpgpic 2. jpg LEAFY EXAMPLES OF INVASIVE SPECIES http: //www. team. ars. usda. gov/v 2/ctoavsimages/newfrontpgpic 2. jpg LEAFY SPURGE _________ is native to Europe and Asia and first appeared in Massachusetts in 1827. Across _______ and much of the South Dakota Great Plains, leafy spurge is one of the most crowding threatening invasive plants, ______ out native grassland damaging grazing land __________.

EXAMPLES OF INVASIVE SPECIES http: //www. nps. gov/plants/alien/map/eues 1. htm 302, 000 acres in EXAMPLES OF INVASIVE SPECIES http: //www. nps. gov/plants/alien/map/eues 1. htm 302, 000 acres in South Dakota are infested with LEAFY SPURGE. According to the U. S. Department of Agriculture, leafy spurge infestations in the Dakotas, Montana and Wyoming alone cost agricultural producers and taxpayers at least $144 million annually in production losses, control expenses and other impacts to the economy.

BIODIVERSITY THREAT pollutants The addition of ________ = harmful materials that can enter the BIODIVERSITY THREAT pollutants The addition of ________ = harmful materials that can enter the biosphere through land, water or air can also threaten biodiversity. http: //www. kidcrosswords. com/kidoutdoors/the%20 environment/pollution_smokestacks. jpg http: //www. iol. ie/~carigeen/pollution. jpg

AIR RESOURCES ______ = harmful material that can Pollutant enter the biosphere through land, AIR RESOURCES ______ = harmful material that can Pollutant enter the biosphere through land, air, or water smog ____ = Mixture of chemicals that appear as a gray-brown haze in the atmosphere http: //www. cyberolimpiadas. com. sv/proyectos 2004/gamma/proyecto 3/smog. jpg

AIR RESOURCES fossil fuels Burning _____ releases pollutants that cause smog and other problems AIR RESOURCES fossil fuels Burning _____ releases pollutants that cause smog and other problems in atmosphere. Toxic chemicals like nitrates, sulfates, and particulates can cause breathing problems ________ asthma like ______ http: //www. cyberolimpiadas. com. sv/proyectos 2004/gamma/proyecto 3/smog. jpg

Example: _____ was first modern insecticide DDT It was cheap, stayed active for long Example: _____ was first modern insecticide DDT It was cheap, stayed active for long time, and kills many different insects Used to control agriculture pests and disease carrying MOSQUITOES ________ http: //www. michigan. gov/images/mosquito_65147_7. jpg

When DDT was sprayed, it drained into rivers and streams at LOW concentrations. http: When DDT was sprayed, it drained into rivers and streams at LOW concentrations. http: //www. ci. cypress. ca. us/public_works/stormwater_images/kids_watershed. jpg

DDT in the environment gets into food chain organisms through the ______, is tissues DDT in the environment gets into food chain organisms through the ______, is tissues stored in _____, and degrade doesn’t _______. http: //www. geocities. com/~greyhawk_1/sh_eagle-9. jpg

BIOLOGICAL MAGNIFICATION _______________ concentration = the ______ of a harmful substance increases ______as it BIOLOGICAL MAGNIFICATION _______________ concentration = the ______ of a harmful substance increases ______as it passes to organisms at higher trophic ________levels in food chain or web. Plants pick up DDT from water & store it → Herbivores eat plants and store some DDT → Carnivores eat herbivores and store more DDT

Figure 6 -16 Biological Magnification of DDT Section 6 -3 Magnification of DDT Concentration Figure 6 -16 Biological Magnification of DDT Section 6 -3 Magnification of DDT Concentration Fish-Eating Birds 10, 000 Large Fish 1, 000 Small Fish 100, 000 Zooplankton 10, 000 Producers 1000 Water 1

The wide spread use of DDT threatened many species… especially fish eating birds like The wide spread use of DDT threatened many species… especially fish eating birds like osprey, brown pelican, and bald eagles. http: //image 10. webshots. com/11/3/94/67/2146394670011493049 pwl. CDV_ph. jpg DDT causes birds to lay fragile eggs with ______ shells so eggs would break when sat on. American Bald Eagle was declared endangered in 1967. It has since been “threatened” reclassified as ___________

http: //www. kimball. k 12. sd. us/Heroes%20 Web%20 Page/Pictures/Rachel%20 Carson. jpg In 1962, American http: //www. kimball. k 12. sd. us/Heroes%20 Web%20 Page/Pictures/Rachel%20 Carson. jpg In 1962, American biologist Rachel Carson ________ published the book, _______ which Silent Spring told of DDT’s harmful effects. The book led to a large public outcry and banned eventually resulted in DDT being _____ in the United States in the 1970’s The book was one of the important events in environmental movement the birth of the _____________.

HOW DO WE HELP ? • Smokestack “Scrubbers” can control emissions • Auto emission HOW DO WE HELP ? • Smokestack “Scrubbers” can control emissions • Auto emission standards • Clean air regulations • Reduce use of fossil fuels http: //www. alexvisani. com/darkgallery/smog. jpg

FRESH WATER RESOURCES Americans use BILLIONS of gallons of freshwater daily for ____, ____ FRESH WATER RESOURCES Americans use BILLIONS of gallons of freshwater daily for ____, ____ drinking washing and __________ watering crops http: //www. thesolutionsite. com/lesson/4601/freshwater. jpg

“INVISIBLE WATER” DON’T FORGET THE _________ Water used to make products that we don’t “INVISIBLE WATER” DON’T FORGET THE _________ Water used to make products that we don’t think or know about The PRODUCTION OF: • 1 kg wheat costs 1, 300 L water • kg rice costs 3, 400 L water • 1 kg eggs costs 3, 300 L water • 1 kg beef costs 15, 000 L water • 1 cotton shirt costs 2, 500 L water • 1000 g of blue jeans costs 10, 850 liters water • 1 ton passenger car costs 400, 000 liters of water • Building a house uses about 6 million liters of water VIDEO http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=-nekq. KEsbd. U

HOW DO WE HELP ? • Water conservation • Protect wetlands and forests • HOW DO WE HELP ? • Water conservation • Protect wetlands and forests • Water treatment plants • Clean water regulations hhttp: //www. romanviii. co. uk/bp/nhpage. asp? pcat=about_us

WAYS TO CONSERVE WATER http: //www. watersavingtips. org/images/saving_1. jpg WAYS TO CONSERVE WATER http: //www. watersavingtips. org/images/saving_1. jpg

THE BIG QUESTION ? Human activities affect ________ like renewable resources land, forests, air, THE BIG QUESTION ? Human activities affect ________ like renewable resources land, forests, air, fresh water. How can we provide for our needs without using up all resources? = SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT _______________ ~ Use natural resources without using them up ~ Provide for human needs WITHOUT causing long term environmental harm

CONSERVING BIODIVERSITY Wise management of natural resources = _________ conservation Protecting endangered species requires CONSERVING BIODIVERSITY Wise management of natural resources = _________ conservation Protecting endangered species requires detailed information about ecological relationships _________ We can’t protect a species without interacts understanding how it ______ with ecosystem the _________.

CONSERVING BIODIVERSITY Today conservation efforts focus on protecting entire ecosystems not just individual species CONSERVING BIODIVERSITY Today conservation efforts focus on protecting entire ecosystems not just individual species HOT SPOTS _______ = are places that are MOST endangered Image from: Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall© 2006

WHAT CAN BE DONE? • Urban planning so there is less “ Sprawl” • WHAT CAN BE DONE? • Urban planning so there is less “ Sprawl” • Set aside land for parks/preserves • Research to understand species/ecosystem interactions • Concentration of $ on “HOT SPOTS” to maximize results for $ spent http: //www. anselm. edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbios/piplosign 6403. jpg

HUMAN IMPACT on the BIOSPHERE Chapter 6 -4 Charting a course for the Future HUMAN IMPACT on the BIOSPHERE Chapter 6 -4 Charting a course for the Future http: //www. claybennett. com/pages 2/mistletoe. html

BIG ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS DEAD ZONES __________ OZONE DEPLETION __________ ACID RAIN __________ GLOBAL CLIMATE BIG ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS DEAD ZONES __________ OZONE DEPLETION __________ ACID RAIN __________ GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE __________ WASTE __________ http: //www. acmecompany. com/stock_thumbnails/13808. greenhouse_effect_2. jpg

DEAD ZONES REMEMBER ! When an ecosystem receives a LARGE input of limiting nutrient DEAD ZONES REMEMBER ! When an ecosystem receives a LARGE input of limiting nutrient (ie. , fertilizer runoff) the ALGAL BLOOM population increases dramatically = ______

Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone The DEADZONE forms each April, generally grows throughout the Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone The DEADZONE forms each April, generally grows throughout the summer, reaching a peak in late July. http: //www. ncat. org/nutrients/hypoxia. html

Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone http: //serc. carleton. edu/microbelife/topics/deadzone/index. html At its peak, the Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone http: //serc. carleton. edu/microbelife/topics/deadzone/index. html At its peak, the nearly lifeless water can span 5, 000 to 8, 000 -plus square miles, an area almost the size of New Jersey

DEAD ZONES How do we HELP? Use modern technology and “green” farming methods to: DEAD ZONES How do we HELP? Use modern technology and “green” farming methods to: • Decrease agricultural fertilizer use • Decrease runoff of agricultural waste

http: //www. planetguide. net/book/chapter_5/ozone_layer. html OZONE LAYER Our atmosphere between 20 -50 km contains http: //www. planetguide. net/book/chapter_5/ozone_layer. html OZONE LAYER Our atmosphere between 20 -50 km contains high concentrations OZONE (O 3) of ______ which protect us from the sun’s harmful ultra-violet _______ radiation. http: //pubweb. bnl. gov/users/xujun/www/bnl/ozone_layer_1. gif

EFFECTS OF UV RADIATION Skin cancer _________________ Premature aging ____________ of skin Cataracts/blindness _________________ EFFECTS OF UV RADIATION Skin cancer _________________ Premature aging ____________ of skin Cataracts/blindness _________________ crop yield Reduces ________ food chains Disrupts _________ in oceans Click here to see a movie about the effects of UV radiation WMV, 618 K

WHAT WE KNOW Scientists have been depletion monitoring the ______ of ozone in our WHAT WE KNOW Scientists have been depletion monitoring the ______ of ozone in our atmosphere and have discovered a hole in the ozone layer Antarctica over ______. Click here to see a movie about the ozone hole WMV, 616 K http: //ozonewatch. gsfc. nasa. gov/facts/hole. html

The annual ozone The annual ozone "hole“ over Antarctica has occurred during the Antarctic Spring (October) since the early 1980 s. Rather than being an actual hole through the layer, the ozone hole is a large area with extremely low amounts of ozone. Ozone levels fall by over 60% during the worst years. http: //ozonewatch. gsfc. nasa. gov/facts/hole. html

Ozone depletion is a global issue NOT just a problem at the South Pole. Ozone depletion is a global issue NOT just a problem at the South Pole. Research has shown that ozone depletion also occurs over North America, Europe, Asia, and much of Africa, Australia, and South America. Over the U. S. , ozone levels have fallen 5 -10%, depending on the season. http: //home. casema. nl/daveduijn/globe 2. gif

What’s the cause of Ozone Depletion? Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC’s) molecules _______ released from air conditioners, What’s the cause of Ozone Depletion? Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC’s) molecules _______ released from air conditioners, aerosol spray cans, fire extinguishers, and industry destroy ozone ________ http: //www. atm. ch. cam. ac. uk/tour/part 3. html

OZONE DEPLETION HOW DO WE HELP? MONTREAL PROTOCOL 1987 - the ____________ committed signing OZONE DEPLETION HOW DO WE HELP? MONTREAL PROTOCOL 1987 - the ____________ committed signing nations (including USA) to REDUCTION a ______ in the use of CFCs and other ozone-depleting substances. banned CFC production was _____ after 1995 in the developed countries, and later in developing countries. Today, over 180 countries have ratified the treaty.

THAT’S WHY. . . http: //www. roundrocktexas. gov/images/spray_cans_large. jpg AEROSOL _______spray cans no longer THAT’S WHY. . . http: //www. roundrocktexas. gov/images/spray_cans_large. jpg AEROSOL _______spray cans no longer contain CFC propellants. AIR CONDITIONERS Gases in __________ refrigerators and _______ are collected and recycled.

OZONE DEPLETION How do we help? We can't make enough ozone to replace what's OZONE DEPLETION How do we help? We can't make enough ozone to replace what's been destroyed, but provided that we stop producing ozone-depleting substances, computer models predict natural ozone production reactions should return the ozone layer to normal levels by about 2050. This is the first example of different countries getting together on an environmental issue, agreeing on what to do, doing something, and seeing a positive effect http: //www. gifs. net/image/Words/Wow_rotates/4031

ACID RAIN BURNING FOSSIL FUELS What’s the cause? ____________ Emissions to Atmosphere Nitrogen oxides ACID RAIN BURNING FOSSIL FUELS What’s the cause? ____________ Emissions to Atmosphere Nitrogen oxides Sulfur dioxide Chemical Transformation Nitric acid Sulfuric acid Condensation Dry Fallout particulates, gases Industry Transportation Ore smelting Precipitation Acid rain, fog, snow, and mist Power generation Sulfur oxides Nitrogen oxides Releases ________ and ________ into the atmosphere that react with water to produce ACID RAIN.

http: //www. robl. w 1. com/Pix/C 900991. jpg http: //www. geocities. com/kamil_pollutionpage/Acid. Rain. htm http: //www. robl. w 1. com/Pix/C 900991. jpg http: //www. geocities. com/kamil_pollutionpage/Acid. Rain. htm http: //www. abc. net. au/quantum/scripts 99/9905/img/asthma. jpg http: //www. scienceacross. org/media/samplingforacidrain. NOAAed. SAW. jpg

ACID RAIN EFFECTS • • • damages buildings and statues damages forests kills fish ACID RAIN EFFECTS • • • damages buildings and statues damages forests kills fish reduces biodiversity causes illness & premature death from heart & lung disorders like asthma and bronchitis

ACID RAIN HOW DO WE HELP? Develop a National energy policy that emphasizes use ACID RAIN HOW DO WE HELP? Develop a National energy policy that emphasizes use of alternative renewable energy sources Cut down on activities that use fossil fuels ~ conserve electricity ~ drive less Drive automobiles with increased fuel efficiency OR run on alternative fuels Recycle (uses less energy than starting from scratch)

GREENHOUSE EFFECT Temperatures of Earth remain within a range suitable for life _______ because GREENHOUSE EFFECT Temperatures of Earth remain within a range suitable for life _______ because the _______ atmosphere acts as a natural _________ blanket. insulating http: //wwwstatic. bayareawritingproject. org/images/bawp 41/earth. Atmosphere. IMG. gif

GREENHOUSE EFFECT Atmospheric gases such as Carbon dioxide (CO __________ 2 ) methane __________ GREENHOUSE EFFECT Atmospheric gases such as Carbon dioxide (CO __________ 2 ) methane __________ water vapor __________ CFC’s __________ NORMALLY trap heat energy from the sun like a greenhouse Greenhouse effect = ___________ http: //www. acmecompany. com/stock_thumbnails/13808. greenhouse_effect_2. jpg

 GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE Is it real? Some people say that the Earth has GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE Is it real? Some people say that the Earth has cycles of warmer/cooler climate change and that this is just part of that cycle. Most scientists believe that the increase in global temperatures is the result of human activities that have increased the amount of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere

In 2007 in Paris a U. N. - backed panel of international scientists issued In 2007 in Paris a U. N. - backed panel of international scientists issued a major announcement on climate change stating that: 1. "warming of the climate system is unequivocal“ 2. There is a 90% probability the cause “man- made”. Either way… our planet is getting warmer!

FACTS WE KNOW Global mean surface temperatures have increased 0. 5 -1. 0°F since FACTS WE KNOW Global mean surface temperatures have increased 0. 5 -1. 0°F since the late 19 th century. The 20 th century's ten warmest years have occurred in the last 15 years of this century. http: //content. answers. com/main/content/wp/en/thumb/8/87/280 px-Instrumental_Temperature_Record. png

FACTS WE KNOW The snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere and floating ice in FACTS WE KNOW The snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere and floating ice in the Arctic Ocean have decreased. Graph & glacier pix: http: //nsidc. org/sotc/glacier_balance. html polar bears: http: //www. metro. co. uk/news/article. html? in_article_id=35720&in_page_id=34

FACTS WE KNOW Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have increased steadily. http: //en. wikipedia. FACTS WE KNOW Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have increased steadily. http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Image: Major_greenhouse_gas_trends. png

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE WHAT’S the CAUSE? • Burning solid waste, fossil fuels (oil, natural GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE WHAT’S the CAUSE? • Burning solid waste, fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal), wood and wood products • Production and transport of fossil fuels • Decomposition of organic wastes in landfills • Animal sources (methane) • Deforestation (trees remove CO 2 from atmosphere)

What’s so bad about warming up a little? We’re freezing here! What’s so bad about warming up a little? We’re freezing here!

What’s so bad about warming up a little? http: //healthandenergy. com/images/global 2. gif Cartoon What’s so bad about warming up a little? http: //healthandenergy. com/images/global 2. gif Cartoon from Brookings Register Coastal flooding

http: //www. claybennett. com/pages/ocean_temps. html What’s so bad about warming up a little? Changes http: //www. claybennett. com/pages/ocean_temps. html What’s so bad about warming up a little? Changes in Gulf Stream http: //zfacts. com/meta. Page/lib/Atlantic_conveyor. jpg

What’s so bad about warming up a little? http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Hurricane_Katrina http: //i. What’s so bad about warming up a little? http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Hurricane_Katrina http: //i. a. cnn. net/cnn/2005/WEATHER/08/25/tropical. storm/story. katrina. 915 p. jpg More severe storms

What’s so bad about warming up a little? http: //www. cactus-art. biz/note-book/Dictionary/aaa_Dictionary_pictures/drought. jpg Heat What’s so bad about warming up a little? http: //www. cactus-art. biz/note-book/Dictionary/aaa_Dictionary_pictures/drought. jpg Heat waves and drought Weather extremes Brookings Register

What’s so bad about warming up a little? http: //www. metro. co. uk/news/article. html? What’s so bad about warming up a little? http: //www. metro. co. uk/news/article. html? in_article_id=35720&in_page_id=34 Changing habitats means loss of species

What’s the Kyoto Accord? • International agreement signed in 1997 • Aimed at reducing What’s the Kyoto Accord? • International agreement signed in 1997 • Aimed at reducing global warming REDUCE • Participants asked to _______ their GREENHOUSE GAS ________ emissions to a percentage below 1990 emission levels • Set binding targets for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for countries to reach ______ by 2012 • 37 industrialized countries (includes US) which make almost 65% of greenhouse gases (GHG) were to decrease to ~ 5% less than 1990 levels (US target = 7%)

PROBLEMS WITH KYOTO ACCORD ALL countries not required to reduce emissions equally 7% for PROBLEMS WITH KYOTO ACCORD ALL countries not required to reduce emissions equally 7% for the US, 6% for Japan, 0% for Russia, Developing nations didn’t have to reduce emissions at all India and China, which have ratified the protocol, are not required to reduce carbon emissions under the present agreement despite their relatively large populations. Developed nations (like USA) could meet required reductions by purchasing emission reductions from elsewhere and funding developing countries for climate related studies, projects, and technology

KYOTO is “OLD NEWS”! UNITED STATES The ________ is the only major industrial country KYOTO is “OLD NEWS”! UNITED STATES The ________ is the only major industrial country that did NOT signed the Kyoto Accord. Met in December 2009 - Copenhagen, Denmark http: //unfccc. int/meetings/items/2654. php

Current Status • OBJECTIVE: to keep the maximum temperature rise to below 2 degrees Current Status • OBJECTIVE: to keep the maximum temperature rise to below 2 degrees Celsius; • the commitment to new reduction targets by developing countries for 2020 • Proposed $ 30 billion short-term funding for immediate action till 2012 and $100 billion annually by 2020 in long-term financing (still needs to be approved by countries) • The challenge now is to turn what is agreed into something that is legally binding

WHAT NEXT? • Some developed countries have already declared that they will not continue WHAT NEXT? • Some developed countries have already declared that they will not continue to follow commitments to reduce emissions • developing countries have increased their carbon emissions by 130% or more • Delegates from nearly 200 countries have met several times for major climate talks, but no new agreement has been reached. • They have just agreed to “talk about it” • Some countries say no deal will be in place until at least 2020.

http: //www. gifanimations. com/animation/Menu. Selection/1/56 What is a CARBON FOOTPRINT? CARBON FOOTPRINT A __________ http: //www. gifanimations. com/animation/Menu. Selection/1/56 What is a CARBON FOOTPRINT? CARBON FOOTPRINT A __________ = the total set of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions caused directly and indirectly by an individual, organization, event or product http: //www. nature. org/initiatives/climatechange/calculator/

The US is no longer the #1 CO 2 emitter http: //www. chrismadden. co. The US is no longer the #1 CO 2 emitter http: //www. chrismadden. co. uk/eco/china-carbon-footprint. html but. . . we contribute to the problem.

http: //matadornetwork. cachefly. net/bravenewtraveler. com/docs//wp-content/images/posts/20080418 -planet. jpg Even if you don’t “believe” in global http: //matadornetwork. cachefly. net/bravenewtraveler. com/docs//wp-content/images/posts/20080418 -planet. jpg Even if you don’t “believe” in global warming. . . Even if countries can’t agree on emission levels … we should still work to reduce our emissions of global warming gases BECAUSE. . .

http: //www. inkcinct. com. au/Web/CARTOONS/2005 -379 C--last-fossil-fuel. gif THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE http: //www. inkcinct. com. au/Web/CARTOONS/2005 -379 C--last-fossil-fuel. gif THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway! Fossil fuels are a limited resource… eventually they will be gone!

THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway! http: //healthandenergy. com/global_warming_cartoons. htm THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway! http: //healthandenergy. com/global_warming_cartoons. htm Our supply of fossil fuels is dependent on countries that are not “friendly” to the U. S.

THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway! Brookings Register March 2012 THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway! Brookings Register March 2012 Our supply of fossil fuels is dependent on countries that are not “friendly” to the U. S.

THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway! Brookings Register Drilling for THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway! Brookings Register Drilling for and transporting fossil fuels has negative environmental consequences

THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway! Drilling and transporting fossil THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway! Drilling and transporting fossil fuels has negative environmental consequences Brookings Register

THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway! BP oil spill in THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway! BP oil spill in Gulf 2011 HOW QUICKLY WE FORGET! Drilling and transporting fossil fuels has negative environmental consequences http: //i 2. cdn. turner. com/money/2011/04/14/news/companies/bp_meeting/deepwater_horizon_fire. top. jpg http: //pn. b 5 z. net/zirw/b 12 qa/i/u/68100167/i//Jan 11/0126 drill. jpg Brookings Register

THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway! Images from: http: //www. THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE” make sense anyway! Images from: http: //www. cartoonstock. com/directory/R/Renewable_energy. asp Innovation and alternative energy technologies for automobiles and power generation are good for our economy

THINK ABOUT IT Scientists are RIGHT Scientists are about man-made WRONG about man-made global THINK ABOUT IT Scientists are RIGHT Scientists are about man-made WRONG about man-made global warming WE KEEP DOING WHAT WE ARE DOINGNOTHING! Environmental Disaster Consequences too awful to think about REALLY BAD Still have other problems associated with fossil fuel use: pollution/acid rain/ dependence on our enemies BAD WE WORK TO CHANGES HELP Solves other problems GET OFF TURN THINGS associated with FOSSIL FUELS AROUND + solve fossil fuel use other fossil fuel problems- BEST! GOOD!

HOW DO WE HELP? Develop a National energy policy that emphasizes use of alternative HOW DO WE HELP? Develop a National energy policy that emphasizes use of alternative renewable energy sources http: //e 360. yale. edu/images/features/stahl_0401_energy_policy. jpg

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE HOW DO WE HELP? Watch your carbon footprint Cut down on GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE HOW DO WE HELP? Watch your carbon footprint Cut down on activities that use fossil fuels Drive automobiles with increased fuel efficiency OR run on alternative fuels Cut down on CO 2 emissions (with or without the Kyoto accord) Recycle (uses less energy than starting from scratch) Reduce deforestation (plants use CO 2)

WHAT DO WE DO WITH OUR TRASH? According to the Environmental Protection Agency, the WHAT DO WE DO WITH OUR TRASH? According to the Environmental Protection Agency, the average American produces about 4. 4 pounds of garbage a day. That adds up to a approximately 220 million tons of garbage each year for all of us. This only takes into consideration the average household member and does not count industrial waste or commercial trash. http: //blog. lib. umn. edu/stau 0156/architecture/garbage%20 can. jpg

PICTURE THIS: It would bury more than 990, 000 football fields under six-foot high PICTURE THIS: It would bury more than 990, 000 football fields under six-foot high piles of waste. . http: //wchs. warren. k 12. in. us/athletics/Pictures/FOOTBALL%20 STADIUM%20&%20 PRESSBOX_gif. jpg . . . and that’s just the United States! http: //www. wisegeek. com/how-much-garbage-does-a-person-create-in-one-year. htm

TRASH KILLS It has been estimated that over a million sea-birds and 100, 000 TRASH KILLS It has been estimated that over a million sea-birds and 100, 000 marine mammals and sea turtles are killed each year by ingestion of plastics or entanglement. http: //lh 4. ggpht. com/abramsv/SBAx. Rydox-I/AAAAPOs/IWu. Ogznte 9 Q/fish_story_003. jpg http: //www. mindfully. org/Plastic/Ocean/Sea-Plastic-LN-PG 5 oct 05. htm http: //saveourshores. org/files/md/Distorted-Turtle. jpg

PLASTIC IS MADE FROM FOSSIL FUELS! http: //lowcarbonhome. info/wp-content/uploads/2008/05/plastic-garbageii. jpg PLASTIC IS FOREVER! PLASTIC IS MADE FROM FOSSIL FUELS! http: //lowcarbonhome. info/wp-content/uploads/2008/05/plastic-garbageii. jpg PLASTIC IS FOREVER!

http: //earthfirst. com/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/floating-trash. jpg PACIFIC OCEAN GARBAGE GYRE Covers an area twice the size http: //earthfirst. com/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/floating-trash. jpg PACIFIC OCEAN GARBAGE GYRE Covers an area twice the size of TEXAS Estimated to contain over 100 million tons of debris Two linked areas on either side Hawaiian islands Western and Eastern Pacific Garbage Patches http: //islandbreath. org/2008 Year/05 -environment/0805 -08 The. Plastic. Gyres. html

Why is the world's biggest landfill in the Pacific Ocean? • See a video Why is the world's biggest landfill in the Pacific Ocean? • See a video http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Lt-Miv. Nezes&NR=1 http: //www. jadedthea. com/images/Pacific. Gyre. gif

We Can’t Just Keep Piling it up in Landfills https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=-JQYw. We Can’t Just Keep Piling it up in Landfills https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=-JQYw. F 4 Vyi. Y Plastic recycling video We have to REDUCE, REUSE, RECYCLE

QUOTES This we know. . . the earth does not belong to man, man QUOTES This we know. . . the earth does not belong to man, man belongs to earth. All things are connected, like the blood which connects one family. Whatever befalls the earth befalls the children of the earth. Man did not weave the web of life – he is merely a strand in it. Whatever he does to the web, he does to himself. ~ Chief Seattle, 1854

If you want to see an endangered species, get up and look in the If you want to see an endangered species, get up and look in the mirror. ~ John Young, former Apollo astronaut A true conservationist is a man who knows that the world is not given by his fathers, but borrowed from his children. ~ John James Audubon, 1785 - 1851 It's not easy being green. ~ Kermit the Frog Unless someone like you cares a whole awful lot, Nothing is going to get better. It's not. ~ Dr. Seuss, The Lorax

WE NEED TO START CONSIDERING THE EFFECTS ON OUR PLANET WHEN WE MAKE DECISIONS! WE NEED TO START CONSIDERING THE EFFECTS ON OUR PLANET WHEN WE MAKE DECISIONS! http: //www. claybennett. com/pages/earth_d 5. html http: //www. chrismadden. co. uk/eco/hourglass. html

SOURCES http: //www. animation-station. com/smileys/index. php? page=17 http: //mff. dsisd. net/Environment/Cycles. htm http: //www. SOURCES http: //www. animation-station. com/smileys/index. php? page=17 http: //mff. dsisd. net/Environment/Cycles. htm http: //www. romanviii. co. uk/bp/nhpage. asp? pcat=about_us

SOURCES http: //www. oldetimecooking. com/Images/Fruits/Apple. jpg http: //vilenski. org/science/safari/classifyall/eukaryotic. html http: //dustconnection. com/images/stories/cleaning_bucket_sm. jpg SOURCES http: //www. oldetimecooking. com/Images/Fruits/Apple. jpg http: //vilenski. org/science/safari/classifyall/eukaryotic. html http: //dustconnection. com/images/stories/cleaning_bucket_sm. jpg

Core High School Nature of Science Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the Core High School Nature of Science Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the ADVANCED level: given a scientific discovery, evaluate how different societal, cultural, and personal beliefs influenced the investigation and its interpretation; High school students performing at the PROFICIENT level: given a scientific discovery narrative, determine and describe how societal, cultural, and personal beliefs influenced the investigation and its interpretation; High school students performing at the BASIC level: describe the role of observation in the development of hypotheses, theories, and laws and conduct student investigations; given a scientific discovery narrative, identify the cultural and personal beliefs that influenced the investigation.

Core High School Life/Earth Science Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the ADVANCED Core High School Life/Earth Science Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the ADVANCED level: predict the effect of an interruption in a given cycles; predict how human activity may change the land, ocean, and atmosphere of Earth. High school students performing at the PROFICIENT level: predict how life systems respond to changes in the environment; describe how various factors may affect global climate; explain how human activity changes the land, ocean, and atmosphere of Earth High school students performing at the BASIC level: describe one factor that may affect global climate; give an example of human activity that changes the land, ocean, or atmosphere of Earth

Core High School Technology, Environment, Society Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the Core High School Technology, Environment, Society Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the ADVANCED level: modify a technology taking into consideration limiting factors of design; given a narrative of a scientific discovery, defend a position on the impact of the ethical issues. High school students performing at the PROFICIENT level: given a narrative of a scientific discovery, identify and evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of scientific issues evaluate factors that could limit technological design; given a narrative description of a resource, analyze and describe the benefits, limitations, cost, and consequences involved in its use, conservation, or recycling High school students performing at the BASIC level: given a narrative of a scientific discovery, identify the immediate consequences of scientific issues; identify ethical roles and responsibilities concerning a given research project; identify factors that could limit technological design; given a narrative description of a resource, describe a benefit and limitation involved in its use, conservation, or recycling.

Core High School Nature of Science Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the Core High School Nature of Science Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the ADVANCED level: given a scientific discovery, evaluate how different societal, cultural, and personal beliefs influenced the investigation and its interpretation; High school students performing at the PROFICIENT level: given a scientific discovery narrative, determine and describe how societal, cultural, and personal beliefs influenced the investigation and its interpretation; High school students performing at the BASIC level: describe the role of observation in the development of hypotheses, theories, and laws and conduct student investigations; given a scientific discovery narrative, identify the cultural and personal beliefs that influenced the investigation.

Core High School Life/Earth Science Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the ADVANCED Core High School Life/Earth Science Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the ADVANCED level: predict the effect of an interruption in a given cycles; predict how human activity may change the land, ocean, and atmosphere of Earth. High school students performing at the PROFICIENT level: predict how life systems respond to changes in the environment; describe how various factors may affect global climate; explain how human activity changes the land, ocean, and atmosphere of Earth High school students performing at the BASIC level: describe one factor that may affect global climate; give an example of human activity that changes the land, ocean, or atmosphere of Earth

Core High School Technology, Environment, Society Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the Core High School Technology, Environment, Society Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the ADVANCED level: modify a technology taking into consideration limiting factors of design; given a narrative of a scientific discovery, defend a position on the impact of the ethical issues. High school students performing at the PROFICIENT level: given a narrative of a scientific discovery, identify and evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of scientific issues evaluate factors that could limit technological design; given a narrative description of a resource, analyze and describe the benefits, limitations, cost, and consequences involved in its use, conservation, or recycling High school students performing at the BASIC level: given a narrative of a scientific discovery, identify the immediate consequences of scientific issues; identify ethical roles and responsibilities concerning a given research project; identify factors that could limit technological design; given a narrative description of a resource, describe a benefit and limitation involved in its use, conservation, or recycling.