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HUMAN FACTORS CHALLENGES FOR AUTOMATED VEHICLES Peter Campbell Burns Chief, Ergonomics and Crash Avoidance Motor Vehicle Safety ITU-UNECE Symposium on The Future Networked Car March 5, 2014 Geneva The views or opinions presented herein are solely those of the author and do not necessarily represent those of Transport Canada.
Outline 1. Technology trends 2. Levels of vehicle automation 3. Human Factors challenges 4. Other safety concerns for automation 5. Guidelines and research needs 6. Summary 2
TECHNOLOGY TRENDS Three distinct technology efforts are occurring simultaneously in vehicle automation (NHTSA, 2013): 1. Available and emerging in-vehicle Crash Avoidance Systems 2. V 2 V communication in Connected Vehicles 3. Self-driving Automated Vehicles 3
Levels of Automation 0 1 2 No Driver Automation Assistance 3 4 5 Partial Conditional High Full Driver must monitor system 0 seconds < 2 seconds No need to monitor system < 10 seconds ~5 minutes never Time for driver to re-take control Adapted from - SAE J 3016 Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to On-Road Motor Vehicle Automated Driving Systems.
TECHNICAL AND POLICY CONSIDERATIONS FOR AUTOMATION § System technical performance, reliability and deployment § Cybersecurity, data ownership, privacy § Testing, certification and licensing § Liability, insurance and risk Benefits… Human Considerations 5
Scared Curious 6 Amused Cool
Arms crossed Reading Hands-up 7 Hand-held
TRANSFER OF CONTROL / HAND-OFF § Manually engaging/ disengaging the automation § Automatically engaging/ disengaging § Resuming control in normal vs critical driving situations § Controls should be easy to access /activate quickly (Vienna Convention) and difficult to activate inadvertently. 9
MODE CONFUSION & AUTOMATION SURPRISES Who is driving? Is auto-pilot engaged? What is my car doing? Will it brake? Why did it do that? § Surprises occur when a system behaves in unexpected ways. § Caused by incorrect observation of system status or poor understanding of system capabilities. § Drivers (and other road users) must not be surprised by automation. 10
NEGATIVE TRANSFER/ INTEROPERABILITY Variations in the look and performance of automation across vehicles will create issues for interoperability. § Drivers change vehicles and different vehicles interact on our roads. § Automation should behave consistently so as not to violate driver and road user expectations § Automation controls and displays should be uniform (e. g. lane keeping assist). 11
BEHAVIOURAL ADAPTATION AND MISUSE Unintended behaviours that occur following the introduction of changes to the road transport system (OECD, 1990). § Assume drivers will do anything but pay attention when automation is engaged (e. g. , SMS, social media, watch videos, read, sleep, …). § People will dream up unanticipated ways to use their automated vehicle operating it outside of design parameters. § Identify potential unsafe side effects of automation and design for any reasonably foreseeable misuse and unintended use. Unintended uses of a steering wheel 12
SKILL DECAY & REDUCED DRIVING SATISFACTION Drivers can become over-reliant upon automated systems. § With the passage of time and lack of opportunity to practice skills decline, i. e. , slower and less accurate performance. § Without regular practice, drivers are less able to respond when they are needed most in critical situations. § Automation may reduce the driving pleasure: “… unrestrained automation may eliminate activities that provide intrinsic enjoyment and purpose to life” (Nickerson, 1999). § “Piloted driving: taking the fun of driving to a whole new dimension” (Audi, 2014) § Automated vehicles should encourage regular manual driving to maintain driver skill and enjoyment. 13
Driver-in-the-Loop § Driver is involved in the driving task and is aware of the vehicle status and road traffic situation. § Driver plays an active role in the driver-vehicle system. Out-of-the-Loop § Reduced situational awareness - driver is not immediately aware of the vehicle and the current or developing road traffic situation. § Not actively monitoring, making decisions or providing input to the driving task. § Diminished ability to detect system errors and manually respond. 14
UNECE GUIDELINES FOR KEEPING DRIVERS INTHE-LOOP Principles to allow drivers to easily and accurately understand driving situations and effectively use partial-automation; e. g. , § System actions should be easy to override at any time under normal driving situations; § Drivers should have a means to transition from ON to OFF manually; § Drivers should be provided with clear feedback informing them when the system is actively controlling the vehicle; § Drivers should be informed of the system status when system operation is malfunctioning or when there is a failure; § Drivers should be notified of any system-initiated transfer of control between the driver and vehicle; § Drivers should be notified of the proper use of the system prior to general use. UNECE WP. 29 ITS-IG (2013). Design Principles for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP. 29), ITS Informal group.
RESEARCH NEEDS § EU research projects have lead the way on vehicle automation and human factors, e. g. , RESPONSE X, PREVENT, HAVEit, City. Mobil, SARTRE, Adapt. IVe. § TRB Automation Workshop (TRB, 2013) identified 4 top human factors research priorities (www. vehicleautomation. org): 1. How do we re-engage the driver in manual driving? 2. What does the user interface contain to convey limitations? 3. What kind of misuse will occur and does automation need to monitor the driver to address this? 4. Should drivers be allowed to personalize automation to accommodate their own tolerances?
Other safety concerns… 17
Steven M. Johnson, New York Times, 2013 19
OCCUPANT PROTECTION CHALLENGES FOR AUTOMATION Minor changes in occupant position can have a significant impact on their interaction with safety systems. § Keep occupants in position § Protect out-of-position occupants, otherwise § Perfect reliability and have failsafe automation. 20 Small overlap frontal collisions, IIHS, 2013
Summary § Automation should provide users with safe, comfortable, convenient and efficient mobility. Design should be user-centred: – Controls should be easy to access /activate quickly and difficult to activate inadvertently. – Status of automation should be clearly visible to drivers at all times. – Drivers must have a clear understanding of system capabilities and limitations and have appropriate trust - proper instructions, supporting materials and accurate marketing are essential. – Identify potential unsafe side effects of automation and design foreseeable misuse. – Automated vehicles should encourage regular manual driving to maintain driver skill and enjoyment. – Establish standards for consistent ‘look and feel’ to limit interoperability issues. § Must not neglect traditional vehicle safety issues like occupant protection. § Design in fail-safe modes. 21
Thank you/ Merci 22 1958 Concept Car: Ford La Galaxie