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Human Development Reports in India From Analysis to Action K. Seeta Prabhu UNDP India Human Development Reports in India From Analysis to Action K. Seeta Prabhu UNDP India Presented at IGIDR 19 June 2009 India

Structure of Presentation § The Setting § HD Analysis- State HDRs & Challenges § Structure of Presentation § The Setting § HD Analysis- State HDRs & Challenges § Policy Impact § Moving to HD Action § SSPHD § What Next? India

India- The Setting India • 1. 15 billion people- median age: 24. 8 years India- The Setting India • 1. 15 billion people- median age: 24. 8 years • Rich diversity – Hindu : 80. 5 %, Muslim: 13. 4 %, – Christian 2. 3 %, Sikh 1. 9 % – 15 national languages • • Parliamentary Democracy Federal Republic – Focus on Decentralisation Independent Media Right to Information Act

High Growth but Challenge of Inclusion…. . India • High growth rate - poverty High Growth but Challenge of Inclusion…. . India • High growth rate - poverty declined from 36%-27. 5 % between 1994 and 2004 (1$a day- 34. 2%, 2$a day- 80. 4%) • HDI value in 2005 India -0. 619, rank 128 • China -0. 777, rank 81 • Absolute numbers of deprived gigantic • 301 mn Poor >total pop Brazil 181 mn + Japan 128 mn • 296 mn Illiterate > total pop United States 292 mn • 233 mn Undernourished = total pop Indonesia 217 mn + Ghana 21 mn • India’s performance will have impact on MDGs globally

HD Analysis - The Demand India § India’s Eighth Plan (1992 - 1997) ‘Human HD Analysis - The Demand India § India’s Eighth Plan (1992 - 1997) ‘Human development ultimate goal of all planning’ § Global launch of HDR 1993 in New Delhi acted as trigger § First step towards State level HDR by Madhya Pradesh § Govt prepared HDR from own resources - released 1995 § Followed by Govt of Karnataka - 1999 § UNDP role - technical support § Demand from other State governments

The Response Planning Commission (Govt of India) - UNDP project Capacity Development for State The Response Planning Commission (Govt of India) - UNDP project Capacity Development for State HDRs 1999 -2002 -2005 Given India’s size and diversity focus on provincial HDRs UNDP commitment - 500, 000 USD - Dedicated unit formed in August 2000 Principles of HDR preparation- Government ownership Participatory process Independence of analysis India

HDR Preparation Gathers Momentum India Jammu & Kashmir Himachal Pradesh Punja Uttaranc Haryan b HDR Preparation Gathers Momentum India Jammu & Kashmir Himachal Pradesh Punja Uttaranc Haryan b hal a Delhi Rajastha n Arunachal Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Sikki m Jharkhand Gujarat Madhya Pradesh Maharashtr a Andhra Prades h Goa Karnata ka Tamil Nadu Keral a Assa m Bihar Chhattisg Oriss arh a West Beng al Meghala ya Nagalan d Manip ur Tripu ra Mizora m Follow-up underway with Planning Commission-UNDP assistance SHDRs launched SHDRs being finalised Andaman & Nicobar Island

Challenges Govt ownership and participatory process - Initiatives • Wide ranging participation – NGOs, Challenges Govt ownership and participatory process - Initiatives • Wide ranging participation – NGOs, academics, government • Open review of draft • Chhattisgarh- people’s participation • NHDR Award for Participatory processes • Chhattisgarh clip. wmv Government’s fear of public opinion • Adversarial nature of dialogue between NGOs and Govt India

Challenges Govt ownership & Quality of Analysis- Initiatives • Independent institutions/researchers – Madhya Pradesh, Challenges Govt ownership & Quality of Analysis- Initiatives • Independent institutions/researchers – Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Orissa, Kerala • Data from authentic sources- Census, NSS, NFHS • Editors from media – Maharashtra • Reputed academics as lead authors – West Bengal HDR award for Excellence in Quality of Analysis in 2004 Constraints – Defensive government departments – Lack of understanding of product as different from departmental report – Fear of public backlash India

Challenges Govt ownership & independence of analysis-Initiatives • Involving media from the beginning • Challenges Govt ownership & independence of analysis-Initiatives • Involving media from the beginning • Involving wide range of stakeholders • Soft advocacy on potential use for policy action Constraints • Change in political regimes -Chhattisgarh, UP • Proximity of state elections –Himachal Pradesh • Strong opinions of diverse groups – Manipur • Social groups issues not addressed- NHDR evaluation India

Impact of State HDRs • • • India Increased allocation to social sectors Madhya Impact of State HDRs • • • India Increased allocation to social sectors Madhya Pradesh & Maharashtra HD budget Newer Institutional mechanisms- holistic planning and monitoring – Poverty and HD division in Karnataka – HD and poverty chapterin Economic Survey - Karnataka – HD Mission in Maharashtra for low HDI districts More intensive study on priority issues for policy action – Sikkim focus on education system – West Bengal focus on landlessness

NHDR Evaluation India • NHDR Evaluation- India as case study- p. 26 • ‘State NHDR Evaluation India • NHDR Evaluation- India as case study- p. 26 • ‘State Reports have affected social policies most especially those dealing with education and health and have led to more policy oriented research’ • ‘In some States, HDRs have had a particularly strong impact including major media attention, mentioned in State Assembly debates and establishment of new government policies to address issues raised’ • ‘In general, have led to better understanding of the concept of human development’ • Limitation – still equated with HDI – broader concept yet to be understood fully

Moving Beyond Analysis to Action India Planning Commission (Govt Of India) UNDP Project CCF Moving Beyond Analysis to Action India Planning Commission (Govt Of India) UNDP Project CCF II 20042007 Strengthening State Plans for Human Development UNDP core resources – USD 5 million – now close to 11 million USD up to 2009 Thrust Areas – Capacity Building for Human Development – Strengthening State Statistical Systems – Financing for Human Development

Thrust Areas – Capacity Building for HD India • Institutional Mechanisms – HDRC units Thrust Areas – Capacity Building for HD India • Institutional Mechanisms – HDRC units for coordination of HD initiatives – Steering Cmt drawn from all relevant departments • Influencing Planning and Policy – District HDRs in low HDI districts- tools for planning – State Level MDG based PRSPs – Chapters on HD in State Plans/Economic Survey

Capacity Building for HD India Capacity Building -Training in State Administrative Training Insitutes - Capacity Building for HD India Capacity Building -Training in State Administrative Training Insitutes - Curriculum in Universities with UGC support -Gender training added with additional core resources (1. 5 million USD) • Advocacy - State Level Strategies supported with DFID funding (1. 5 million USD) - 23 Films by Film and Television Institute of India - Calendars on MDGs and HD

Financing Options India • Social Sectors mainly in State Government domain in division of Financing Options India • Social Sectors mainly in State Government domain in division of responsibilities between Centre and States • State governments experienced fiscal stringency during period of economic reforms • Initiatives – Action Research on financing options for State Governments – Policy notes on options both on revenue and expenditure sides – Quarterly Training Programme by the Central Bank of the country on Financing for Human Development

Strengthening Statistical Systems India • Partnership with Central Statistical Organisation • Focus on training Strengthening Statistical Systems India • Partnership with Central Statistical Organisation • Focus on training and methodologies for estimating – District level per capita District Domestic Product – District poverty – Advisory Cmt with Planning Commission – District IMR and Life Expectancy – District level HD/MDG indicators for HD monitoring

Progress and Impact India • • • XII Finance Commission’s use of HDI XI Progress and Impact India • • • XII Finance Commission’s use of HDI XI Five year Plan focus on Inclusive growth- HD approach HD chapters in 8 State level Five Year Plans Courses on HD in 3 Universities HD integrated into Indian Administrative Service course 15 State Training Institutes deliver HD modules on regular basis for state & district departmental staff - through satellite in Karnataka for local bodies (17000 at a time) • Project expansion from 8 states to 14 - spur to complete SHDRs

Next Steps India • HD monitoring-people oriented process- PAHELI - HD Report Cards • Next Steps India • HD monitoring-people oriented process- PAHELI - HD Report Cards • Use of HD cards by UNDAF districts for UN system planning – demand from Rajasthan, Orissa and Punjab • Linking NREGS with human development – Swaminathan’s suggestion – action initiated by Rural Development Ministry • Gender disaggregated data and gender budgeting with UNIFEM – training on gender budgeting for State Governments • Special focus on disadvantaged sections

Next Steps India • Integration with Governance portfolio Capacity building initiatives for local bodies Next Steps India • Integration with Governance portfolio Capacity building initiatives for local bodies • Integrated planning surpassing departmental boundaries • Integrated in UNDP Cy Programme • 50 District HDRs at various stages of finalisation – Bankura, Malda and Birbhum already released – used as tools for district planning • State governments extending DHDR preparation to all districts – e. g West Bengal • National HDR in 2009?

What helped • Strong commitment by all concerned • UNDP – Dedicated staff within What helped • Strong commitment by all concerned • UNDP – Dedicated staff within UNDP – Dedicated and sustained core resources over two project cycles • Planning Commission – Strong ownership – Consistent monitoring – Persuasion in State plan discussions • Political commitment – Legislators’ forums in States – Continuous dialogue with parliamentarians on HD India

Looking forward to India HDRs- 50 District HDRs as tools for district planning HDRs- Looking forward to India HDRs- 50 District HDRs as tools for district planning HDRs- 13 city PRSPs owned by municipal corporations Data- district level HD monitoring- report cards Advocacy- Films, MDG oriented PRSPs Research - network of young research scholars on HD Teaching -Graduates and Diploma holders in HD – TISS Certificate Course on HD and Social Accountability in 2009 • Action- District collectors and panchayat members sensitised to HD approach-use DHDRs as tools • Financing options for HD identified and acted upon • HDI used for resource allocation by XIII Finance Cmn • • •

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