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http: //www. inf. ed. ac. uk/teaching/courses/plan/ Planning in Context Planning in the Context of http: //www. inf. ed. ac. uk/teaching/courses/plan/ Planning in Context Planning in the Context of Domain Modelling, Task Assignment and Execution Planning in Context

Literature l O-Plan Papers http: //www. aiai. ed. ac. uk/project/oplan/ l Tate, A. , Literature l O-Plan Papers http: //www. aiai. ed. ac. uk/project/oplan/ l Tate, A. , Dalton, J. and Levine, J. , O-Plan: a Web-based AI Planning Agent, AAAI-2000 Intelligent Systems Demonstrator, in Proceedings of the National Conference of the American Association of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-2000), Austin, Texas, USA, August 2000. (2 pages) l Optimum-AIV Papers http: //www. aiai. ed. ac. uk/project/optimum-aiv/ l Tate, A. , Responsive Planning and Scheduling Using AI Planning Techniques - Optimum-AIV - in "Trends & Controversies - AI Planning Systems in the Real World", IEEE Expert: Intelligent Systems & their Applications, Vol. 11 No. 6, pp. 4 -12, December 1996. (2 pages) l Other Practical Planners l Ghallab, M. , Nau, D. and Traverso, P. , Automated Planning – Theory and Practice, chapter 19, 22 and 23. Elsevier/Morgan Kaufmann, 2004. Planning in Context 2

Overview l l l l Practical AI Planners Planning in the context of execution Overview l l l l Practical AI Planners Planning in the context of execution Nonlin O-Plan Optimum-AIV I-X/I-Planning++ Planning in Context 3

Edinburgh AI Planners in Productive Use Planning in Context http: //www. aiai. ed. ac. Edinburgh AI Planners in Productive Use Planning in Context http: //www. aiai. ed. ac. uk/project/plan/ 4

Overview l l l Practical AI Planners Planning in the context of execution Nonlin Overview l l l Practical AI Planners Planning in the context of execution Nonlin O-Plan Optimum-AIV Planning++ Planning in Context 5

Dynamic Planning Description of Σ Initial State Planner Objectives l l • • • Dynamic Planning Description of Σ Initial State Planner Objectives l l • • • Plans Execution Status Controller Observations Actions System Σ problem: real world differs from model described by Σ more realistic model: interleaved planning and execution l plan supervision plan revision re-planning dynamic planning: closed loop between planner and controller • execution status Events Planning in Context 6

Nonlin (1974 -1977) l Hierarchical Task Network Planning Partial Order Planner Plan Space Planner Nonlin (1974 -1977) l Hierarchical Task Network Planning Partial Order Planner Plan Space Planner Uses State-Variable (Functional) Representation Goal structure-based plan development - considers alternative “approaches” only based on plan rationale QA/Modal Truth Criterion Condition Achievement Condition “Types” to limit search “Compute Conditions” for links to external data and systems (attached procedures) Time and Resource Constraint checks l Nonlin core is basis for text book descriptions of HTN Planning l l l l Planning in Context 7

O-Plan (1983 -1999) Features l l l l l Domain knowledge elicitation and modelling O-Plan (1983 -1999) Features l l l l l Domain knowledge elicitation and modelling tools Rich plan representation and use Hierarchical Task Network Planning Detailed constraint management Goal structure-based plan monitoring Dynamic issue handling Plan repair in low and high tempo situations Interfaces for users with different roles Management of planning and execution workflow Planning in Context 8

O-Plan (1983 -1999) Features Planning in Context 9 O-Plan (1983 -1999) Features Planning in Context 9

O-Plan Project Components 1. 2. 3. Planning in Context User Interface Core Planner Execution O-Plan Project Components 1. 2. 3. Planning in Context User Interface Core Planner Execution System 10

O-Plan 3 Levels Task Assign Plan State Capabilities Constraints Domain Info Planner Plan State O-Plan 3 Levels Task Assign Plan State Capabilities Constraints Domain Info Planner Plan State Capabilities Constraints Domain Info Planning in Context Executor Plan State Capabilities Constraints Domain Info 11

O-Plan Agent Architecture Planning in Context 12 O-Plan Agent Architecture Planning in Context 12

O-Plan Agent Architecture Planning in Context 13 O-Plan Agent Architecture Planning in Context 13

O-Plan Agent Architecture Later became • Issues • Nodes • Constraints • Annotations Planning O-Plan Agent Architecture Later became • Issues • Nodes • Constraints • Annotations Planning in Context Later became Plan Modification Operators 14

O-Planning Workflow Planning in Context 15 O-Planning Workflow Planning in Context 15

O-Plan Unix Sys Admin Aid Planning in Context 16 O-Plan Unix Sys Admin Aid Planning in Context 16

O-Plan MOUT Task Description, Planning and Workflow Aids Planning in Context 17 O-Plan MOUT Task Description, Planning and Workflow Aids Planning in Context 17

O-Plan Web Service http: //www. aiai. ed. ac. uk/project/oplan/ Check out AAAI-2000 “Introductory Demo” O-Plan Web Service http: //www. aiai. ed. ac. uk/project/oplan/ Check out AAAI-2000 “Introductory Demo” Link Password for some demos: “show-oplan” Planning in Context 18

Optimum-AIV Planning in Context 19 Optimum-AIV Planning in Context 19

Optimum-AIV (1992 -4) Features l l l l Rich plan representation and use Hierarchical Optimum-AIV (1992 -4) Features l l l l Rich plan representation and use Hierarchical Task Network Planning Detailed constraint management Planner and User rationale recorded Dynamic issue handling Plan repair using test failure recovery plans Integration with ESA’s Artemis Project Management System Planning in Context 20

Planning Research Areas & Techniques • • • Domain Modelling Domain Description Domain Analysis Planning Research Areas & Techniques • • • Domain Modelling Domain Description Domain Analysis HTN, SIPE PDDL, NIST PSL TIMS • • • Search Methods Graph Planning Algthms Partial-Order Planning Hierarchical Planning Refinement Planning Opportunistic Search Constraint Satisfaction Optimisation Methods Issue/Flaw Handling Heuristics, A* Graph. Plan Nonlin, UCPOP NOAH, Nonlin, O-Plan Kambhampati OPM CSP, OR, TMMS NN, GA, Ant Colony Opt. O-Plan • • • Plan Analysis Plan Simulation Plan Qualitative Mdling NOAH, Critics Qineti. Q Excalibur • • • Plan Repair Re-planning Plan Monitoring O-Plan, IPEM • • • Plan Generalisation Case-Based Planning Plan Learning Macrops, EBL CHEF, PRODIGY SOAR, PRODIGY • • • User Interfaces Plan Advice Mixed-Initiative Plans SIPE, O-Plan SRI/Myers TRIPS/TRAINS • Planning Web Services O-Plan, SHOP 2 • • • Plan Sharing & Comms I-X, NL Generation … Dialogue Management … Planning in Context 21

Planning Research Areas & Techniques se n se es • • e k iqu Planning Research Areas & Techniques se n se es • • e k iqu a • n m ch to te • • • is se • emthe l l b l • o a r f • P o • • Domain Modelling Domain Description Domain Analysis HTN, SIPE PDDL, NIST PSL TIMS • • • Search Methods Graph Planning Algthms Partial-Order Planning Hierarchical Planning Refinement Planning Opportunistic Search Constraint Satisfaction Optimisation Methods Issue/Flaw Handling • • • Heuristics, A* Graph. Plan Nonlin, UCPOP NOAH, Nonlin, O-Plan Kambhampati OPM CSP, OR, TMMS NN, GA, Ant Colony Opt. O-Plan Repair Re-planning Plan Monitoring O-Plan, IPEM Plan Generalisation Case-Based Planning Plan Learning Macrops, EBL CHEF, PRODIGY SOAR, PRODIGY User Interfaces Plan Advice Mixed-Initiative Plans SIPE, O-Plan SRI/Myers TRIPS/TRAINS Planning Web Services O-Plan, SHOP 2 • • • Plan Analysis Plan Simulation Plan Qualitative Mdling NOAH, Critics Qineti. Q Excalibur Planning in Context Plan Sharing & Comms I-X, NL Generation … Dialogue Management … Deals with whole life cycle of plans 22

A More Collaborative Planning Framework l l l Human relatable and presentable objectives, issues, A More Collaborative Planning Framework l l l Human relatable and presentable objectives, issues, sense-making, advice, multiple options, argumentation, discussions and outline plans for higher levels Detailed planners, search engines, constraint solvers, analyzers and simulators act in this framework in an understandable way to provide feasibility checks, detailed constraints and guidance Sharing of processes and information about process products between humans and systems Current status, context and environment sensitivity Links between informal/unstructured planning, more structured planning and methods for optimisation Planning in Context 23

I-X/I-Plan (2000 - ) l Shared, intelligible, easily communicated and extendible conceptual model for I-X/I-Plan (2000 - ) l Shared, intelligible, easily communicated and extendible conceptual model for objectives, processes, standard operating procedures and plans: • • l l l I N C A Issues Nodes/Activities Constraints Annotations Communication of dynamic status and presence for agents, and reports about their collaborative processes and process products Context sensitive presentation of options for action Intelligent activity planning, execution, monitoring, replanning and plan repair via I-Plan and I-P 2 (I-X Process Panels) Planning in Context 24

I-P 2 aim is a Planning, Workflow and Task Messaging “Catch All” l l I-P 2 aim is a Planning, Workflow and Task Messaging “Catch All” l l Can take ANY requirement to: • • Handle an issue Perform an activity Respect a constraint Note an annotation • • • Manual activity Internal capabilities External capabilities Reroute or delegate to other panels or agents Plan and execute a composite of these capabilities (I-Plan) • • • Understand current status of issues, activities and constraints Understand current world state, especially status of process products Help user control the situation Deals with these via: Receives reports and interprets them to: Copes with partial knowledge of processes and organisations Planning in Context 25

I-X Process Panel and Tools Domain Editor Process Panel Messeng Planning in Context er I-X Process Panel and Tools Domain Editor Process Panel Messeng Planning in Context er Map Tool I-Plan 26

I-X for Emergency Response Collaboration and Communication Central Authorities Command Centre Emergency Responders Isolated I-X for Emergency Response Collaboration and Communication Central Authorities Command Centre Emergency Responders Isolated Personnel Planning in Context 27

Summary l l l Practical AI Planning Refinement Planning as a Unifying View Nonlin Summary l l l Practical AI Planning Refinement Planning as a Unifying View Nonlin and O-Plan Features Planning++ I-X/I-Plan Overview Planning in Context 28

Literature - Reminder l O-Plan Papers http: //www. aiai. ed. ac. uk/project/oplan/ l Tate, Literature - Reminder l O-Plan Papers http: //www. aiai. ed. ac. uk/project/oplan/ l Tate, A. , Dalton, J. and Levine, J. , O-Plan: a Web-based AI Planning Agent, AAAI-2000 Intelligent Systems Demonstrator, in Proceedings of the National Conference of the American Association of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-2000), Austin, Texas, USA, August 2000. (2 pages l Optimum-AIV Papers http: //www. aiai. ed. ac. uk/project/optimum-aiv/ l Tate, A. , Responsive Planning and Scheduling Using AI Planning Techniques - Optimum-AIV - in "Trends & Controversies - AI Planning Systems in the Real World", IEEE Expert: Intelligent Systems & their Applications, Vol. 11 No. 6, pp. 4 -12, December 1996. (2 pages) l Other Practical Planners l Ghallab, M. , Nau, D. and Traverso, P. , Automated Planning – Theory and Practice, chapter 19, 22 and 23. Elsevier/Morgan Kaufmann, 2004. Planning in Context 29