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How to Teach Writing in CALL: Some Approaches Kazunori Nozawa Faculty of Economics Ritsumeikan University Kusatsu, Shiga
Using search engines to gather appropriate information on the chosen topics on the World Wide Web resources (database), completing a series of the e-mail homework and their necessary follow-up revision work, completing group/individual-oriented projects on the WWW, and giving group/individual oral presentations using the final products promote reading, writing and speaking skills in English by providing authentic audience for students' writing. These projects also help students develop computer literacy and Internet skills as they use the computer and the network for real purposes. E-mail and Web projects can be used with students at any grade level and any English proficiency level. The presenter will provide some practical approaches that he has found successful in teaching English to university students. They are also applicable at high school level.
Computers, Composition, and EFL (1) _ Overview on computer-assisted writing (See Pennington, 1999) – Pennington contributes the discussion of the special effects of the computer medium on writing and how these effects are achieved by examining the relationship between attitudes, quality of writing, and quantity of writing.
Computers, Composition, and EFL (2) _ The computer in English as a subsequent language writing: Roles & relationships (See Mc. Garrell, 1998) – Mc. Garrel explores various roles (tutor, stimulator, workhorse, accessor of information, and facilitator of communication) the computer and its peripherals take in the development of non-native writing skills. She demonstrates that the computer provides a situational and methodological potential required for the successful development of such skills.
Computers, Composition, and EFL (3) _ Computers, compositions, and second language teaching (See Phinney, 1989) – Phinney discusses researches on computer assisted composition and novice writers, computers as writing aids, the computer in the writing workshop. She concludes, that the students of ESL make slow changes of their writing behavior, that the computer is not a panacea for basic writing problems, that students need to be taught revision strategies that are appropriate to word processing, and that depending on the language proficiency and writing experience of the students, certain aspects of software crucial.
Computers, Composition, and EFL (4) _ Basics and practical reports in Kluge et al. (eds). (1994). _ Re-imaging computers and composition by Hawisher & Le. Blanc (eds. ). (1992) _ Computers and EFL writing: Basic principles and student reactions (See Susser et al. 1992)
Word-processing _ exercise approach = process writing _ composition approach = genre writing _ Model writing as a guide is useful. _ Thinking is very important for writing because if the thought is NOT clear, the result of the writing is NOT clear. _ Necessary to be alert about the differences of word-processors
Word processing and related writing tools _ Machine Assisted Translation _ Foreign language word processor _ Thesaurus _ Spelling checker _ Grammar checker _ Dictionary _ Writing assistants
Discussion Topic on Word Processing (1) _ Q. 1. Why do we use a word processor? There are basically 5 benefits of using word-processors especially in the teaching of writing. What are they? _ _ _ Ease of editing Clean copy Ownership of text Collaboration Typing skills
Discussion Topic on Word Processing (2) _ Q. 2. The word processor is primarily a writing tool and can be used with foreign language classes in two basic ways which are not mutually exclusive. What are those two ways? _ _ Exercise approach Composition approach
Discussion Topic on Word Processing (3) _ _ _ Q. 3. How can you choose a word processor? There are some evaluations you should consider before actually purchasing their packages. What are they? the student (user) groups that will use the wordprocessor the features and limitations of the word-processor the ease with which text maybe edited on screen language documentation, manuals, language used
Discussion Topic on Word Processing (4) _ Q. 4. What are the advantages to use traditional pen-and-paper rather than a word processor? _ Not mechanical/express emotional or spiritual condition/quicker to compose sentences/no skills required/no restrictions on font, size, format of the writing/remember words and sentences better/cheap tools/easy to identify who has written with strokes of the writings/no electricity required/express one's personality/flexible work is possible/
Using a Word Processor (1 -1) _ Composing and editing wordprocessing mastery (See Huntley, 1997) – Levels: High beginning + – Aims: Master word-processing skills – Class time: One class period – Preparation time: 5 -20 minutes – Resources: Computer for everyone to two students, word-processing software, printer
Using a Word Processor (1 -2) Sample Directions _ _ _ _ _ Type in the text given (200 -250 words) using 12 -point New York font. Save the text. Give a title to the text. Center the title. Make it bold and in 14 -point type. Change the subject (e. g. Tom to Susan) throughout the text. Change pronouns if necessary. Delete a sentence. Put Sentence 4 before sentence 3. Write two sentences of your own after the last sentence to continue the story. Add your name to the top right corner. Use the spelling checker to check for any spelling errors. Save your text. Print your text.
Using a Word Processor (2 -1) _ Checking the spelling checker (See Gardner, 1997) – Levels: Intermediate + – Aims: Learn to the limits of a computerized spelling checker – Class time: 45 minutes – Preparation time: 30 minutes – Resources: Computer for every three students, word-processing software with spelling checker , printer
Using a Word Processor (2 -2): Procedure _ The original text with typing errors should be given to the students. _ The text after the spelling checker has made its suggestions should be given. _ What the writer actually wants the text to say should be given. _ Summarize the process and the result using the chart - “Word the spelling checker stopped at, ” “First solution offered, ” “Solution you chose”
Using a Word Processor (Useful References) _ Hyland (1993) _ Windeatt (1987) _ Jones & Fortescue (1987) Plenty of its references can be found in CALL research papers and books.
Computer Skills & a Process Writing _ Interactive writing: Integrating computer skills into a process writing syllabus (See Toff & Curran, 1998) – The Keyboard – Practical activities • Teaching basic computer commands • Saving • Preparing a paper to hand in (Typing, Saving, and Printing) • Communal viewing of screen revision • Peer review on the computer
Promoting Writing through the Internet (1) _ Using the Internet to promote writing in an international English composition class (See Freiermuth, 1997) – Web search of articles and summary writing – Critical writing and posting on a BBS or newsgroup
Using computers at a distance to develop writing skills Australskan Writing Project (1988) _ "Computer Pals across the world" _ - High school students as computer pals _ - cultural differences motivated them a lot. _ - practice of letters, reports, poetry, newspaper writings _ - intrinsically interesting _There were enormous educational benefits for the schools
Promoting Writing through the Internet (2): Electronic Mail (E-mail) _ E-mailing Basics and Netiquette - The elements of e-mail style by Angell & Heslop (1993) _ Using Email or Mailing List system you can persuade students write and read more communicative sentences among students themselves or between the teacher and students.
Promoting Writing through the Internet (3): Mailing Lists _ SL-LISTS: International EFL/ESL E-mail Student Discussion Lists _ _ _ _ _ To make your students subscribe, you have to send a blank message to: [email protected] edu. au and find out what you are supposed to do first. CHAT-SL (Student EFL/ESL General Discussion List - Low Level) DISCUSS-SL (Student EFL/ESL General Discussion List - High Level) BUSINESS-SL (Student EFL/ESL Discussion List on Business English) ENGL-SL (Student EFL/ESL Discussion List on Learning English) EVENT-SL (Student EFL/ESL Discussion List on Current Events) MOVIE-SL (Student EFL/ESL Discussion List on the Cinema) MUSIC-SL (Student EFL/ESL Discussion List on Music) SPORT-SL (Student EFL/ESL Discussion List on Sports) SCITECH-SL (Student EFL/ESL Discussion List on Science and Technology)
Promoting Writing through the Internet (4): Newsgroups _ There are more than 15, 000 newsgroups in the world. A good place to practice posting to newsgroups without annoying everyone. – alt. usage. english – mis. education. language. english – soc. penpals
Promoting Writing through the Internet (5): Bulletin Board System (BBS)/Web Discussion Boards _ Using BBS or Web discussion boards students can exchange their own ideas on topics which they are interested in and learn about the cultural differences.
Promoting Writing through the Internet (6): Chat IRC (Internet Relay Chat): The biggest online conversation in the world _ client-server/realtime/multiusers/textbased/worldwide _ Send an email to get the document to: [email protected] kyoto-u. ac. jp _
Promoting Writing through the Internet (7): MOO (MUD Object Oriented) _ Using MOOs or IRC, students can chat with their partners in real-time situation and discuss a certain topic or share the ideas. (Writing and Communication Practice) – This can be integrated into more complicated systems with the use of sound and motion picture communication tools.
AVideo Clip from ABC News
Promoting Writing through the Internet (8): Audio _ Students can listen to a variety of sources such as famous people’s speeches or ESL/EFL materials and improve their listening skills, increase vocabulary and grammar knowledge, and some writing skills. _ Listening Dictation: For example, Randall’s ESL Listening Lab (http: //www. esl-lab. com)
Promoting Writing through the Internet (9): Web projects _ School/Class/Group Web Projects: After learning the basic HTML (Hyper. Text Markup Language) or HTML function of some software such as Word or Netscape Composer, students can collect the necessary information as texts, graphics, sounds, etc. to write bilingual/bicultural homepages. (Cooperative Learning)
Peer Correction (1 -1) _ Correct my work, please (See Fitzgerald, 1997) – Levels: Intermediate + – Aims: Learn to correct peers’ work; learn independently – Class time: 30 minutes – Preparation time: About 15 minutes – Resources: Computer for each group of students, word-processing software, printer(s)
Peer Correction (1 -2) : Procedure _ _ _ Decide which area of language to focus on. Prepare a copy of an appropriate text on disk for each group of students. Give the groups the same text or different texts. Have each group copy their text onto the hard disk of the computer to ensure that the original text is not lost. Ask the students to alter the text by making specific areas of language incorrect. (e. g. punctuation) Ask the students to save the altered text on the hard disk with a different file name. Have them change places with another group of students and correct as much as possible. Have the students return to their own computer to check the corrected versionof their text. If there any mistakes, have them print the text, and give it to the correcting group of students to check again. Have the students decide on a method for showing the group where the mistakes are.
References (1) _ _ Angell, David & Heslop, Brent. (1993). The elements of e -mail style: Communicate effectively via electronic mail, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Felix, Uschi. (1999). Virtual language learning: Finding the gems amongst the pebbles, Language Australia: The National Languages and Literacy Institute of Australia Ltd. Fitzgerald, Sue. (1997). Correct my work, please, in New ways of using computers in language teaching edited by Tim Boswood, TESOL, Inc. 11 -12. Freiermuth, Mark R. (1997). Using the Internet to promote writing in an international English composition class, in CALL: Basics and beyond edited by Paul Lewis & Tadashi Shiozawa, JALT CALL N-SIG, 89 -96.
References (2) _ _ Hawisher, Gail E. & Le. Blanc, Paul. (eds. ). (1992). Reimagining computers and composition: Teaching and research in the virtual age. Boynton/Cook Publishers, Inc. Hyland, Ken. (1993). ESL computer writers: What can we do to help? System, 21(1), 21 -30. Huntley, Helen. (1997). Composing and editing wordprocessing mastery, in New ways of using computers in language teaching edited by Tim Boswood, TESOL, Inc. 5 -6. Jones, Christopher & Fortescue, Sue. (1987). Using computers in the language classroom, Longman, 48 -62.
References (3) _ _ _ Kluge, David et al. (eds). (1994). The proceedings of the national conference on computers and composition 1993, JALT CALL N-SIG & JALT Nagoya Chapter. Mc. Garrell, Hedy M. (1998). The computer in English as a subsequent language writing: Roles & relationships, in Teachers, Learners, and Computers: Exploring relationships in CALL edited by Paul Lewis, JALT CALL N-SIG, 137146. Pennington, Martha C. (1999). The missing link in computer-assisted writing, in CALL: Media, design & aplications edited by Keith Cameron, Swets & Zeitlinger, 271 -292.
References (4) _ _ _ Phinney, Marianne. (1996). Exploring the virtual world: Computers in the second language writing classroom, in The power of CALL edited by Martha C. Pennington, Athelstan, 137 -152. Phinney, Marianne. (1989). Computers, composition, and second language teaching, in Teaching languages with computers edited by Martha C. Pennington, Athelstan, 81 -96. Susser et al. (1992). Computers and EFL writing: Basic principles and student reactions, Sogo Bunka Kenkyujo Kiyo, Doshisha Women’s College, 27 -48.
References (5) _ _ _ Toff, Mika & Curran, Beverley. (1998). Interactive writing: Integrating computer skills into a process writing syllabus, in Teachers, learners, and computers: Exploring relationships in CALL edited by Paul Lewis, JALT CALL N-SIG, 51 -60. Warschauer, Mark. (ed. ). (1995). Virtual connections, Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa. Windeatt, Scott. (1987). The use of word-processors in language teaching, in Computer assisted language learning and innovative EFL methodology edited by Lienhard Legenhausen & Dieter Wolff, Universitat Augsburg, 145 -163.
Useful Journals _ ON-CALL (The Australian Journal of Computers and Language Education) (19861998) _ CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning) - An International Journal _ CALICO (Computer Assisted Language Instruction Consortium) Journal _ Learning and Leading with Technology (Formerly the Computing Teacher)
Useful Online Resources _ CALL-EJ Online (http: //www. lerc. ritsumei. ac. jp/callej/index. html) _ Language Learning and Technology Journal (http: //polyglot. cal. msu. edu/llt/) _ The Internet TESL Journal (http: //www. aitech. ac. jp/~iteslj/) _ Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication (http: //www. ascusc. org/jcmc/)
For further info. , contact: Prof. Kazunori Nozawa Faculty of Economics Ritsumeikan University 1 -1 -1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 5258577 Phone: 077 -561 -4816 (Dial-in) E-mail: [email protected] ritsumei. ac. jp http: //www. ritsumei. ac. jp/ec/~nozawa/inde x. html