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How important is the local when thinking global? Internationalisation at a research led university How important is the local when thinking global? Internationalisation at a research led university Ian Willis Research Seminar 28 October 2009

‘Local’ - key emergent theme • Journey – Local was NOT starting place – ‘Local’ - key emergent theme • Journey – Local was NOT starting place – 2 nd beginning was on rationales, drivers and restrainers for internationalisation • University is NW & research led! – Confidential – Major changes underway • Internationalisation & globalisation: brief • Theoretical focus • Local considerations – emerged as a strong theme in analysis

Levels Inter-connected Inter-acting Nested • • Global International (Europe) National University (Departmental) Individual All Levels Inter-connected Inter-acting Nested • • Global International (Europe) National University (Departmental) Individual All underpinned by ICT

Globalisation – what on earth is it? Globalisation in terms of: • Ethnicity • Globalisation – what on earth is it? Globalisation in terms of: • Ethnicity • Ideas • Media • Finance • Technology Key notions: Flows Global events induce local responses Appadurai 1996

Global The existence of global economic, political, cultural and environmental interconnections and flows that Global The existence of global economic, political, cultural and environmental interconnections and flows that make many of the existing borders and boundaries irrelevant Steger 2003 Note: Complex Inter-relations, flows, dynamic Beyond states Economic dimension inescapable but much more going on BUT: states remain very powerful including in education

Globalisation and internationalisation Related and interconnected but not the same Internationalisation is one of Globalisation and internationalisation Related and interconnected but not the same Internationalisation is one of the responses that HEIs are making through their strategies, policies and activities (UNESCO 2004, Altbach & Knight 2007) Responses will be local, situated and prescribed by the realities of individual HEIs

Internationalisation The process of integrating an international, intercultural and/or global dimension into the goals, Internationalisation The process of integrating an international, intercultural and/or global dimension into the goals, functions (teaching/learning, research, services) and delivery of higher education (Knight 2005) This is very commonly cited • Note: integration

Rationales – why bother? Rationales Constituent elements or focus Social and cultural Intercultural understanding, Rationales – why bother? Rationales Constituent elements or focus Social and cultural Intercultural understanding, Citizenship, Social and community development Economic competitiveness, Labour market, Income generation Academic International dimension to research and teaching, Institution-building, Profile and status, Enhancement of quality and curriculum, Collaborations Competitive International branding and positioning, Strategic alliances, Knowledge production & exchange Developmental Student and staff development, Institutional learning and exchange, Capacity building

Question: Is it a. . . 1. Theoretical framework 2. Conceptual framework 3. Organising Question: Is it a. . . 1. Theoretical framework 2. Conceptual framework 3. Organising framework 4. Plain old framework

Force field analysis Lewin Social Practice Theory Trowler Transformative globalisation Held et al, Tikly, Force field analysis Lewin Social Practice Theory Trowler Transformative globalisation Held et al, Tikly, Appadurai Knight, Middlehurst & Woodfield Marginson & Rhoades Vaira Internationalisation rationales ‘Glonacal agency’ heuristic Organisational Isomorphism/Allomorphism Structure/Agency ‘Philosophy of Higher Education’ Giddens, Archer, Bhaskar Barnett

Organising the level & complexity • Lewin’s Force field analysis – Driving and restraining Organising the level & complexity • Lewin’s Force field analysis – Driving and restraining forces for change • Social Practice Theory: Trowler – ‘Situates’ change • Transformative globalisation – Emphasises local responses to global flows/forces

Forces potentially acting to restrain internationalisation Global Rejection of globalisation discourse, credit crunch Institutional Forces potentially acting to restrain internationalisation Global Rejection of globalisation discourse, credit crunch Institutional Conflicting university agendas and priorities Existing positions and interests Individual Locally based research, commitment to local concerns Questioning of globalisation discourse & marketisation Views on ‘purpose’ of university Existing positions and interests

Forces: potential to drive internationalisation Global Neo liberal economics, trade agreements New markets, competition, Forces: potential to drive internationalisation Global Neo liberal economics, trade agreements New markets, competition, demand Global research, Global challenges ICT, English worldwide, staff & student mobility National policies Economic view of internationalisation Relative reduction in funding

More Forces: potential to drive Institutional Economic pressure, competition ‘Global University’, Reputation (research led) More Forces: potential to drive Institutional Economic pressure, competition ‘Global University’, Reputation (research led) International league tables Existing traditions & international collaborations Educational drive for international dimension Individual International research interests Acceptance of market discourse Existing positions and interests

‘Glonacal agency’ heuristic • Global - National – Local – All important • Agency: ‘Glonacal agency’ heuristic • Global - National – Local – All important • Agency: looking at how individuals act/influence at all levels • ‘Layers and conditions’ – Changes mediated by local histories and aims Marginson & Rhoades

Structure/Agency • Argued that each level creates a structure within which level below acts Structure/Agency • Argued that each level creates a structure within which level below acts agentially • Global forces create context that calls for a university response – Often meaning internationalisation • University’s internationalisation creates context: individual response These responses can in turn influence ‘up’

Structure/Agency • Provides an explanation of how individual interests (projects) are the locus of Structure/Agency • Provides an explanation of how individual interests (projects) are the locus of concern/action • Shows agential action can shape structures – Over time • Theoretical argument – Why to engage with individual interests – Supported in the findings

University / Individual • University linking internationalisation aims to individual ‘projects’ can be a University / Individual • University linking internationalisation aims to individual ‘projects’ can be a key to successful development • Doing it just for the money won’t work • Need for a nuanced message • Monash require any internationalisation activity to explicitly serve an academic function

Back to the Framework What is it. . ? Theoretical, Conceptual Organising or Plain Back to the Framework What is it. . ? Theoretical, Conceptual Organising or Plain old? Ask the audience! • Does it work OK? • Questions/comments • Thank you

Bonus slides follow Bonus slides follow

How new is it ? Debated – here’s one view Four major cycles: 1. How new is it ? Debated – here’s one view Four major cycles: 1. 1492 - Spain and Portugal colonise S America etc. World (oceanic) trade established 2. Late 17 th Cent – 2 nd European colonisation, slave trade, trade gives over to conquest 3. Late 19 th Cent – huge increase in trade, mass migration to Americas. Last colonies fought for. Ends with 1930 s depression 4. Post WW 2 – trade liberalisation, intensifies 1967 – 1980 s • • • Initial gains unequally distributed, but eventually trickle down (? ) Greater gains overall to those that globalised. Often caused great suffering ‘Elites’ have more in common with elites in other countries than with own people

National messages & pressures • HE as a business is very important to UK National messages & pressures • HE as a business is very important to UK economy – Income: ~ £ 17 bn, Economic impact: £ 42. 5 bn, – 1. 2% of workforce: 330, 000 direct (600, 000 total impact) • Most UK national messages are economic • Knowledge economy is accepted • Most governments want mass education and spending contained – These are real pressures for HEIs – Leads to mix of public/private income – 61% public, 27% private, 12% ‘export’ Figures from Universities UK for 2003 -4

Globalisation: Contested Different views Different assumptions 3 broad approaches - each contains plurality of Globalisation: Contested Different views Different assumptions 3 broad approaches - each contains plurality of views Hyperglobalist: Triumph of global capitalism Demise of nation state Sceptical: Just regionalism Polarisation: developed and developing Nation state now more important in managing crisis in capitalism Education is national Transformational: Interconnectedness; both integration and fragmentation. Some enmeshed in global order others marginalised Relationships cross national boundaries Nations retain power but transformed by ideas of international governance and law

Globalisation – summary notes Flows, Intensity, Speed Homogenisation & localisation Economics (neo-liberal) as major Globalisation – summary notes Flows, Intensity, Speed Homogenisation & localisation Economics (neo-liberal) as major driver Knowledge Economy, Competition, GATs Education: a product and part of globalising process WW educational (credentialing) system, English, Staff & Student mobility Global challenges Global research collaboration All underpinned by ICT