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• How have China and India faced similar struggles to feed their huge populations? How have they achieved success? • 10 points
India’s developing economy Citation (MLA) Thomas Friedman Reporting: The Other Side of Outsourcing. Discovery Education. 2005. Discovery Education. 6 April 2009
South Asia in the World Today Chapter 10
Regional and Global Issues in South Asia
India and the Subcontinent • Conflict over Kashmir – India & Pakistan – Irrigation – Pride • Nuclear Weapons – India & Pakistan • Flood control – India & Bangladesh • Humanitarian Aid – India & Bangladesh
India and the World • Nonalignment during the Cold War • India received aid from both the US & USSR • Relations with China – Conflict over Tibet – Nuclear Weapons
Pakistan and the World • The Cold War – US aided Pakistan against the USSR – Pakistan has become more aligned with Middle East after collapse of USSR • Terrorism
Afghanistan and the World • Buffer State – a small country located between larger, hostile powers • Fought against the Soviets during brutal wars – Rise of Al Qaeda (the Network) – Osama bin Laden • Taliban government
Current Conflicts in South Asia
A. India and Pakistan
Conflict between Pakistan and India continues over Kashmir.
1947: Pakistan invaded Kashmir
1965: Second war over Kashmir
1998: India tested their first nuclear weapon. Pakistan followed with nuclear tests.
1999: Fighting breaks out. Both sides back off from war.
Nine killed in violence in India's Kashmir March 21, 2001 JAMMU, India -- Nine people have been killed in a series of military skirmishes in India's troubled northern state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Nuclear Weapons • India first tested a nuclear device in 1974 • Pakistan proclaims possession of nuclear weapons in 1997 • Neither nation has signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty – 1968 – limit the spread of nuclear weapons
India & Bangladesh • India supported the freedom movement by East Pakistan, which became Bangladesh • Bangladesh wants more support for flooding problems • Refugees flee Bangladesh to escape poverty; India has shut down its borders
India & USA • No direct alignment with the USA or USSR during the Cold War • The USA provided aid to Pakistan; India distrusted the USA
India & China • India sought friendly relationships with its neighbors after independence • India & China disagreed over Chinese occupation of Tibet • India keeps a close eye on its northern border with China
Pakistan & the World • India & Pakistan did not like communists, USSR, because they felt like their independence could be threatened • Possible home of Terrorists & Al-Qaida
B. Issues in India
₨ India’s economy today • Top Industries – Textiles, Chemicals, Food Processing, Steel • Indian Unemployment – 6. 8 % • Exchange Rate – 43. 32 Rupees = 1$ US • Arts & Literature – Based on traditional stories from religion – Dance and Theatre are very important – Tagore – one of India’s most famous writers
Bollywood – Home to Hindi language movies • Bombay/Mumbai – home to India’s movie industry • India’s first movie made in 1913 • India is the largest motion picture industry in the world; 900 films a year • Hollywood 600 films a year
Apr. Population: 1, 095, 352, 000 Second largest pop. in the world
Population – growth rate 1. 6% • Problems associated with a huge population (25 cities 1 million +) – Food – Homes – Water – Modernizing – Disease
Cities Today • Thousands move to major cities every day, like Calcutta, Karachi, Mumbai • People live in makeshift slums • Major divisions exist between rich and poor
India’s Economy Today • 60% of people work in agriculture • 28% of people work in new service industries • New Technology has helped expand the economy • Important Industries – Textiles, chemicals, steel, software, mining
Environmental Issues • Irrigation & Water Pollution – Narmada Valley Project – Building of 30 major & 3, 000 minor dams – Electric power will be created • Bhopal Accident – American chemical plant accident, killed 2, 000 • Modernizing vs. Environmental Protection
1. Muslim/Hindu violence continues
1992: Hindu mob destroyed the mosque in Ayodhya.
Riots followed killing over 2000 people.
Hindu fundamentalists want to build a Hindu temple in place of the mosque.
2. Hindu fundamentalism opposes INC secularism.
1996: Fundamentalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) won the election.
But they did not have a majority and had to form a coalition government.
The coalition only lasted a month, and the United Front took over.
The United Front was a coalition of small leftist parties including the Communists.
1997: BJP came back to power. Atal Bihari Vajpayee became Prime Minister.
The current president of the INC and candidate in recent elections has been Sonia
Sonia Gandhi is the Italian born wife of Rajiv.
Priyanka Vadra and Rahul Gandhi, children of Rajiv and Sonia Gandhi.
Rahul is in politics with his mother.
Maneka Gandhi, wife of Sonjay, and her son, Varun, have joined the BJP.
Indian Elections • President Elected every 5 years with no term limits • Prime Minister Elected within every 5 years by members of Parliament – Last election 2004 – Next election not after May 2009 • Parliament elected every 5 years
Indian Elections • Prime Minister is elected through majority within Indian Parliament – Coalitions must exist for majority to exist • Current Make up of India’s Parliament – INC 153, BJP 122, CPI (M) 42, SP 33, RJD 24, BSP 17, DMK 16, NCP 11, SS 11, BJD 10, CPI 10, SAD 7, JD (U) 6, PMK 6, JMM 5, LJSP 4, TDP 3, MDMK 2, TRS 2, plus some empty seats and independents
Indian Elections • Begin April 16, 2009 • End May 28, 2009 • Major Parties in Current Government – BJP – Bharatiya Janta Party (BJP) – INC – Indian National Congress – CPI – Communist Party of India – SP – Samajawadi Party
Election Symbols • Used because electorate is not fully literate • http: //www. indianelections. com/candidates/party-electionsymbols. html
• • The Democratic Donkey and the Republican Elephant Ever wondered what the story was behind these two famous party animals? The now-famous Democratic donkey was first associated with Democrat Andrew Jackson's 1828 presidential campaign. His opponents called him a jackass (a donkey), and Jackson decided to use the image of the strong-willed animal on his campaign posters. Later, cartoonist Thomas Nast used the Democratic donkey in newspaper cartoons and made the symbol famous. Nast invented another famous symbol—the Republican elephant. In a cartoon that appeared in Harper's Weekly in 1874, Nast drew a donkey clothed in lion's skin, scaring away all the animals at the zoo. One of those animals, the elephant, was labeled “The Republican Vote. ” That's all it took for the elephant to become associated with the Republican Party. Democrats today say the donkey is smart and brave, while Republicans say the elephant is strong and dignified.
In 2004 the INC won the elections
Sonia Gandhi refused to become Prime Minister
Unable to change her mind, the INC chose Manmohan Singh
For the first time, a Sikh leads India
3. Sikh nationalism in the Punjab
Resentment follows partition of the Punjab between Pakistan and India.
Sikh nationalists demand their own nation called Khalistan.
1984: Sikh seperatists take over the Golden Temple. The Indian army attacks the temple.
Over 600 die in the attack.
Indira Gandhi assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards.
1985: Sikh terrorists blow up Air India plane flying out of Toronto, Canada, killing 329.
Sikh nationalism continues, but lacks any force
Dr Jagjit Singh Chauhan
4. Ethnic divisions have created nationalist movements
The state of Assam also has seperatist nationalists
The Boro separatist movement is another example.
National Democratic Front of BOROLAND
Tamil separatists want their own nation
They are called the Tamil Nadu Liberation Front.
Tamil Nadu is the name of a state in India
The area demanded by the Tamil nationalists includes most of southern India and northern Sri Lanka
C. Sri Lanka
Tamil Nationalism: Sri Lanka has a majority of Sinhalese and a minority of Tamils.
Following independence the Tamils demanded their own nation called Eelam
Fighting continued from 1976 to present.
Sri Lankan missing in Tamil sea raid March 21, 2001 TRINCOMALEE, Sri Lanka -- Seven sailors were killed when a Sri Lankan navy boat was sunk by Tamil Sea Tigers in an attack.
February 2003: Truce signed by both sides.
Nepalese Communist Rebels have been fighting to overthrow the government since 1996.
Communists control 70% of the rural areas
Over 13, 000 people have died in the civil war
In 2001, the heir to the throne killed 11 members of the royal family…
Including the king, queen, and himself
His brother Gyanendra became king
As rebellions continued, Gyendra took complete control in 2002
During the first months of 2006 there were daily protests in the streets of the capital.
th, On April 24 2006, Gyendra restored Parliament to power
th the On April 27 Communist rebels declared a ceasefire and the new government reciprocated.
th the On May 18 Parliament stripped Gyanendra of most of his power
E. Conflicts in Pakistan
Afghanistan, the U. S. , 9/11 and Islamic Fundamentalism
Pakistan supported the Taliban takeover in 1995
1996: Al Qaeda and Osama Bin Laden move to Afghanistan
Greatest support for Islamic fundamentalism comes from the Pashtun
Pakistan dropped support for the Taliban
And opened military bases for use by the U. S. military
They continue to pursue Al Qaeda and Taliban members on the Afghan-Pakistan border
Official: U. S. troops train commandos in Pakistan Wednesday, April 27, 2005 Posted: 1610 GMT (0010 HKT)
Death to Israel