- Количество слайдов: 18
Holland’s Theory The Psychology of Vocational Development-PSY 714 Instructor: Emily E. Bullock, Ph. D.
Theory Organization • Brown (2007) – – – – Trait-and-Factor Developmental Theories Learning Theory-Based Postmodern Socioeconomic Decision-making theories Value-based Multicultural approaches
Theory Organization • Reardon et al. (2000) – Structured and Process Theories • Active vs. Inactive • Structured vs. Unstructured • Sharf (2006) – – – Trait and Type Theories Life-Span Theory Special Focus Theories • Niles & H-B (2005) – Established theories – Emerging theories
Career Intervention Effectiveness • Whiston, S. C. , Brechiesen, B. K. , & Stephens, J. (2002). Does treatment modality effective career counseling effectiveness? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 62, 390 -410.
Holland’s Theory • 4 Main Assumptions • Classification of people (personality) and environments – – – Realistic Investigative Artistic Social Enterprising Conventional • Secondary Constructs
Interest Assessment: Holland Hexagon
Measures Developed by Holland – – – – Self-Directed Search My Vocational Situation Position Classification Inventory Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory Dictionary of Holland Occupational Codes Vocational Preference Inventory Vocational Exploration and Insight Kit (VEIK) • Schema for organizing occupations, programs of study, positions, leisure activities
Interest Testing: Self-Directed Search (SDS) • Utilizes Holland’s RIASEC theory as a way of • • classifying an individual’s interests Assign each test taker with a three-letter code that best represent the personality of the test taker Possible to self administer, score, and interpret Latest version 1994 Adaptable to individual or group administration settings
Interest Testing: SDS • Forms of the SDS – – – Regular-Form R Easy-Form E (4 th grade reading level) Career Planning-Form CP – Adaptations for Culture, Language, and Disability – Australia, Canada, China, Finland, France, Greece, Guyana, Hungary, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Slovenia, South Africa, South America, Spain, Switzerland'; English -Canadian, Spanish, Vietnamese, and Braille; children's version – Online http: //www. self-directed-search. com/ – Paper & Pencil – Computer (non-online) program
Interest Testing: SDS Psychometric Properties of Form R • Norm group – 2, 602 students and working adults spread over 25 states and the District of Columbia. – more females than males, – age ranged from 17 to 65; mean age was 23. 5 • Internal consistency: r = 0. 90 to 0. 94 • Test-retest reliability: 0. 76 to 0. 89 • Predictive validity demonstrated with respect to • occupational choice and college major in high school, college, and adult samples. Construct validity has been reported in over 500 investigations
Interest Testing: SDS • In terms of the RIASEC areas individuals rate their – – – Activities Competencies Preferences Occupations self-estimates • List their occupational aspirations, which are referred to as occupational daydreams.
Interest Testing: SDS • Main Scores Yielded through Professional Summary and Interpretation – – – – Summary Code Aspiration Summary Code Coherence of Aspirations Congruence Consistency Differentiation Commonness
Interest Testing: SDS • Strengths – Linked to a myriad of career-planning resources – Multiple versions and adaptations to meet the needs of the test taker – Format appealing to clients and created to be easily accessible • Weaknesses – Developed to be self interpretable but could be misused in such settings – Lack of predictive validity studies
Interest Testing: Strong Interest Inventory • Designed to “identify general areas of interests as well as specific activities and • occupations” for further exploration Five Main uses – To aid educational and occupational decision making – Structure the career assessment and counseling process – Stimulate client self-exploration – Assist in personnel hiring and staffing decisions – Explore reasons for job dissatisfaction
Interest Testing: SII • Originally the Strong Vocational Interest Blank in 1927 (Has also been named the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory) • Current version revised in 2004 • Administration time is 35 -40 minutes • Normative Sample: 2, 250 employed adults; 370 occupations represented; average of 34 yrs & 9 yrs work experience; representative of the US culturally & ethnically based on 2000 US Census
Interest Testing: SII • Available in multiple languages; 9 th grade • reading level Item format: Strongly Like, Indifferent, Dislike, Strong Dislike • Scales – – – General Occupational Themes Basic Interest Scales Occupational Scales Personal Style Scales Typicality Index
Interest Testing: SII Psychometric Properties • Reliability – – GOT: Internal Consistency. 91 -. 93; Test Retest. 84 -92 BIS: Internal Consistency. 87 OS: Test Retest. 86 PSS: Internal Consistency. 82 -. 87 • Validity-from the 1994 version – Concurrent Validity examples • auto mechanics and carpenters had the highest Realistic GOT results; childcare providers and public relations directors had the lowest scores.
Interest Testing: SII • Strengths – Attractive interpretative report – Strong empirical basis and recent psychometric revision – Addition of “new” occupations • Weaknesses – Difficult to interpret scores due to empirical basis – Not as applicable to group interpretations