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History Of Geographic Information Systems And Global Positioning Systems And Their Introduction Into Precision History Of Geographic Information Systems And Global Positioning Systems And Their Introduction Into Precision Agriculture Amy Overturf

History • A large country needs to inventory natural resources for resource management purposes History • A large country needs to inventory natural resources for resource management purposes (lumber, ores, water, farmland, rangeland, etc. ) • The enormity of this undertaking and the huge amount of data produced by this inventory • It’s 1960 and this thing called a computer is just starting to come into prominence

Canada In The 1960’s • Computers were big and cumbersome, but, they could store Canada In The 1960’s • Computers were big and cumbersome, but, they could store large amounts of data • Started gathering data in “themes” or layers • Computer printer made maps from dots. Maps were not very good, but they were a beginning • Made different maps for different themes • Stored information in electronic databases picture provide by The Computer Hall of Fame

GIS and GPS Before the Computer • During the civil war at Fredericksburg the GIS and GPS Before the Computer • During the civil war at Fredericksburg the general used panes of glass to compare creeks with enemy lines. • If I want to plant a tomato in my back yard I use “mental GIS” by combining themes to determine the best spot to plant

Computers Improve • • • Computers continued to improve More memory Smaller More processing Computers Improve • • • Computers continued to improve More memory Smaller More processing power Cheaper

GIS Programs Improve • • In the 1990’s, GIS Programs improve ESRI Arc/Info LT GIS Programs Improve • • In the 1990’s, GIS Programs improve ESRI Arc/Info LT Plus Grass – Uses a special UNIX system computer • ESRI Arc/View – Can be done on a PC

Computers and Programs • Computers improved and GIS programs improved • Without the computer, Computers and Programs • Computers improved and GIS programs improved • Without the computer, GIS programs would not have improved • Computers got cheaper and more available • Programs got cheaper and more available

Today • GIS programs can combine spatial and non-spatial data • DOQQ’s (corrected aerial Today • GIS programs can combine spatial and non-spatial data • DOQQ’s (corrected aerial photos) • Existing maps or digitized maps • Satellite Imagery (Infrared, thermal) • All types of databases (weather, soils, land use, pesticide history, fertilizer history, crop history, etc. ) can be combined into one database

Global Positioning Systems • Developed by Department of Defense • Use 27 satellites to Global Positioning Systems • Developed by Department of Defense • Use 27 satellites to pinpoint position • Selective availability (scrambling) has been discontinued. • Can be mounted of agriculture equipment to monitor yields and make Variable Rate Application of chemicals and fertilizers possible.

Precision Agriculture • Combines GIS, GPS and VRT technology with agriculture • Available to Precision Agriculture • Combines GIS, GPS and VRT technology with agriculture • Available to farmers • User friendly • Online Classes (www. esri. com) – Cost of courses online $40. 00 - $100 • Affordable

Site Specific Technologies • Develops specific programs for crops and range land • Free Site Specific Technologies • Develops specific programs for crops and range land • Free Programs valiable to farmers over internet. – www. agronomix. mb. ca • SST – Company based to write Ag. programs and compile information for farmers.

The Future • Sensors improve – http: //www. asb 1. com/ – Free info The Future • Sensors improve – http: //www. asb 1. com/ – Free info • Satellites improve • Monitoring (both on-site and Remote sensing)