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History Of Geographic Information Systems And Global Positioning Systems And Their Introduction Into Precision Agriculture Amy Overturf
History • A large country needs to inventory natural resources for resource management purposes (lumber, ores, water, farmland, rangeland, etc. ) • The enormity of this undertaking and the huge amount of data produced by this inventory • It’s 1960 and this thing called a computer is just starting to come into prominence
Canada In The 1960’s • Computers were big and cumbersome, but, they could store large amounts of data • Started gathering data in “themes” or layers • Computer printer made maps from dots. Maps were not very good, but they were a beginning • Made different maps for different themes • Stored information in electronic databases picture provide by The Computer Hall of Fame
GIS and GPS Before the Computer • During the civil war at Fredericksburg the general used panes of glass to compare creeks with enemy lines. • If I want to plant a tomato in my back yard I use “mental GIS” by combining themes to determine the best spot to plant
Computers Improve • • • Computers continued to improve More memory Smaller More processing power Cheaper
GIS Programs Improve • • In the 1990’s, GIS Programs improve ESRI Arc/Info LT Plus Grass – Uses a special UNIX system computer • ESRI Arc/View – Can be done on a PC
Computers and Programs • Computers improved and GIS programs improved • Without the computer, GIS programs would not have improved • Computers got cheaper and more available • Programs got cheaper and more available
Today • GIS programs can combine spatial and non-spatial data • DOQQ’s (corrected aerial photos) • Existing maps or digitized maps • Satellite Imagery (Infrared, thermal) • All types of databases (weather, soils, land use, pesticide history, fertilizer history, crop history, etc. ) can be combined into one database
Global Positioning Systems • Developed by Department of Defense • Use 27 satellites to pinpoint position • Selective availability (scrambling) has been discontinued. • Can be mounted of agriculture equipment to monitor yields and make Variable Rate Application of chemicals and fertilizers possible.
Precision Agriculture • Combines GIS, GPS and VRT technology with agriculture • Available to farmers • User friendly • Online Classes (www. esri. com) – Cost of courses online $40. 00 - $100 • Affordable
Site Specific Technologies • Develops specific programs for crops and range land • Free Programs valiable to farmers over internet. – www. agronomix. mb. ca • SST – Company based to write Ag. programs and compile information for farmers.
The Future • Sensors improve – http: //www. asb 1. com/ – Free info • Satellites improve • Monitoring (both on-site and Remote sensing)