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History of English part 2 History of English part 2

SEMANTIC CHANGE meaning: combination of the semantic components of a concept = distinctive features SEMANTIC CHANGE meaning: combination of the semantic components of a concept = distinctive features of a referent which the speakers consider contrastive and relevant

“girl” not adult female human blond mob (un)married lovely playful long-haired “girl” not adult female human blond mob (un)married lovely playful long-haired

strong-willed mob pig-headed mob positive negative connotation = subjective/cultural association strong-willed mob pig-headed mob positive negative connotation = subjective/cultural association

Semantic change = the change of meaning: - metaphorical/metonymical use > secondary meaning > Semantic change = the change of meaning: - metaphorical/metonymical use > secondary meaning > primary meaning? girl not adult bird female human blond mob (un)married playful lovely long-haired mob lovely ? playful ?

Semantic components are added/dropped/ turned prominent/trivial appliance electrical made by Hoover by vacuum suction Semantic components are added/dropped/ turned prominent/trivial appliance electrical made by Hoover by vacuum suction cleaner hoover

Examples of semantic changes: metaphorical: gay (cheerful), alarm (to the arms), big (strong) bitter Examples of semantic changes: metaphorical: gay (cheerful), alarm (to the arms), big (strong) bitter (biting), spinster (spinning woman), tall (hadsome), travel (labour) metonymical: prison (capturing), marathon, road (ride), sky (cloud) budget (bougette ‘leather bag’), cash (caisse, cassa ‘box), courage (heart) farm (firma – rent) expansion: hooligan < Houlihan (Irish surname), Yankee, awful (inspiring awe), friend (lover)… narrowing: meat (food), accident, advice, kill (strike), knight, loaf, maid, husband (house bound), penthouse (appendage) cattle, chattel (capital ‘wealth), science deterioration: negro (black), conceit (thought), imbecile (weak) jeopardy (jeu parti), poison (potion), silly (happy) amelioration: nice (ignorant), amuse (deceive), humour (moisture), pretty (crafty, sly) complex: toilet < toile > toilette > grooming, dressing up > lavatory

IDIOMS AND PHRASES: time out, big league, out of someone’s league… front runner, head IDIOMS AND PHRASES: time out, big league, out of someone’s league… front runner, head start, also-ran, give s. o. a run for their money, neck to neck… give it the best shot, bark up the wrong tree, hot shot, big shot, long shot… hat-trick, rain check, curve ball, ballpark (figure), strike three/out, grand slam, step up to the plate kick-off, throw in the towel, real Mc. Coy, hit below the belt blue-chip, under the table, call the shots learn the ropes

bootleg, highjack, kidnap freelance, (wear) heart on one’s sleeve, round table, Pyrrhic victory (“one bootleg, highjack, kidnap freelance, (wear) heart on one’s sleeve, round table, Pyrrhic victory (“one more such victory and we are lost”) peeping Tom red tape on/off the wagon rain cats and dogs kick the bucket, spitting image

POLYSEMY – WHICH MEANING IS THE RIGHT ONE? PRAGMATIC INFERENCE RELYANCE ON PRAGMATIC INFERENCE POLYSEMY – WHICH MEANING IS THE RIGHT ONE? PRAGMATIC INFERENCE RELYANCE ON PRAGMATIC INFERENCE – PUSHING THE BOUNDARIES

THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH PHONEMIC SYSTEM SOUND CHANGE phonetic innovation easing the transition between THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH PHONEMIC SYSTEM SOUND CHANGE phonetic innovation easing the transition between segments maintaining (increasing) contrastiveness phonetic variation free: economic, begin, poor… positional: sport - put, works - plays, bank - band… phonetic change → phonemic split, phonemic merger phonemic split: sing – sin , zip – sip, very – ferry phonemic merger: beet – beat, male – mail, tower - tyre

Types of sound (phonetic) changes: dependent, independent changes: a) assimilation = one or more Types of sound (phonetic) changes: dependent, independent changes: a) assimilation = one or more articulatory feature(s) linger(s) or is anticipated impossible, irregular, illegal…. < in + possible/regular/legal

b) dissimilation = one or more articulatory feature(s) become(s) different Late Latin an(i)ma > b) dissimilation = one or more articulatory feature(s) become(s) different Late Latin an(i)ma > French ȃme (assimilation) : Spanish alma

c) intrusion prothesis: OE ān > ME ǭn > wō n NE wūn, wun c) intrusion prothesis: OE ān > ME ǭn > wō n NE wūn, wun > [wʌn] one epenthesis: OE ganra > NE gander law and order, vanilla ice cream… anapthesis: ice cream > aisukuremu

d) weakening and loss = articulation with lower energy input • lenition of consonants d) weakening and loss = articulation with lower energy input • lenition of consonants (sonorisation) In ME, voiceless fricatives became voiced in final position: off, with, is, was, has, Greenwich, churches… Also: intervocalic alveolar flapping in AE, approximation of l in Cockney: Paul, milk… • centralization of vowels in unaccented syllables In ME, unaccented vowels were levelled to [ə] → syncretism of cases

 • elision (apheresis, syncope, apocope) ‘im, knight, gnaw, write; vegetable; sing, comb, hand • elision (apheresis, syncope, apocope) ‘im, knight, gnaw, write; vegetable; sing, comb, hand in hand

Independent phonetic changes Grimm’s Law (the First or Proto-Germanic Consonant Shift) IE voiceless plosives Independent phonetic changes Grimm’s Law (the First or Proto-Germanic Consonant Shift) IE voiceless plosives → Germ voiceless fricatives pet : five, prijatelj : friend, tri : three, tanek : thin … IE voiced non-aspirated plosives → Germ. voiceless plosives blato : pool, slab : sleep, dva : two, drevo : tree… IE voiced aspirated plosives → Germ. voiced fricatives → voiced plosives brat : brother, biti : be, duri : door ….

OE PHONEMIC SYSTEM short monophthongs: long monophthongs; short diphthongs: long diphthongs: consonants: p. t, OE PHONEMIC SYSTEM short monophthongs: long monophthongs; short diphthongs: long diphthongs: consonants: p. t, k b, d, ʒ f, þ, s, h n, m, l, r w, x i, y, u, e, o, æ, a ī, y , ū, ē, ō, æ , ā eo, ea, ie ēo, ēa, īe

9 th century: lengthening of short vowels before certain clusters: OE [short vowel] > 9 th century: lengthening of short vowels before certain clusters: OE [short vowel] > [long] / _ [sonorant + homorganic voiced C]{#, V} OE [short vowel] > [long] / _ {nd, ld, rd, mb, ƞg} {#, V} OE cild > cīld > ME chīld > NE [ʧaɪld] child OE cildru > ME childre, childeren > NE [ʧɪldrən] children

Positional variation of OE consonants: fricatives voiced in completetly voiced environment /f/ = [f], Positional variation of OE consonants: fricatives voiced in completetly voiced environment /f/ = [f], [v] /þ/ = [θ, ð] /s/ = [s, z] OE wulf, pl. wulfas OE wulfas > ME wulves > [wʊlvz] wolves

OE y > ME i <i, y> (most dialects) > ME e <e> Southeastern OE y > ME i (most dialects) > ME e Southeastern dialects > ME y West Midland FROM OE TO ME short vowels: i bury [berɪ] – southeastern pronunciation, Midland spelling y u e o æ a u i o e ɒ a /

long vowels ū y ī ī ū ē ē ō æ ā diphthongs: OE long vowels ū y ī ī ū ē ē ō æ ā diphthongs: OE eo > ME e OE ea > ME a OE ie > ME i, e OE ēo > ME ē OE ēa > ME ę OE īe > ME ī ō ę ǭ ā

Middle English vocalic system – more stable, more symmetrical The change of the length Middle English vocalic system – more stable, more symmetrical The change of the length of vowels: a) Long vowels > short before two consonants or long consonants: OE cēpan, pret. cēpte ME k epen kepte NE [ki: p] [kept] Also: meet – met, bleed – bled, read – read (OE mētte, blēdde, ræ dde) Long vowels became short also in unaccented position: OE ān > ME ǭn > NE [wʌn] one OE ān > ME an, a > NE [ən, ə] a, an

Long vowels became short in long words: Cf. : southern, wild : wilderness, holy, Long vowels became short in long words: Cf. : southern, wild : wilderness, holy, holiday… b) Short vowels became long in open penultimate syllables: OE sceadu, sceadwe ME shade > shāde > NE [ʃeɪd] shade ME shadwe > shadow > NE [ʃædəʊ ] shadow Also: cap (Latin cappa) : cape (< Late Latin capa) Adding the letter at the end of the word became the graphic inciator of the length of the vowel in the preceding syllable

VOWELS IN UNACCENTED SYLLABLES LEVELLED TO [ə], which was subsequently lost in final position VOWELS IN UNACCENTED SYLLABLES LEVELLED TO [ə], which was subsequently lost in final position and grammatical endings lost their contrastiveness > the colapse of case system? OE cynges cynge cyng ME cyngas cynga cyngum cyngas kinges kinges *kingem kinges

ME CONSONANTS: LENITION (VOICING) OF FRICATIVES after unaccented vowels [f, θ, s] > [v, ME CONSONANTS: LENITION (VOICING) OF FRICATIVES after unaccented vowels [f, θ, s] > [v, ð, z] / o. V _ churches [z], spinach [ʤ], with [ð] , off [‘ɒf] : of [əv]

In ME the spelling (based on French orthography) still reflects the pronunciation phoneme written In ME the spelling (based on French orthography) still reflects the pronunciation phoneme written as pronounced i ī + word-final [i] [i: ] bit, time e ē ę [e] [e: ] [ɛ: ] set feet a ā + word-final [a] [a: ] cat name o ō ǭ [o] [o: ] [ɔ: ] pot fool boat u ū [u] [u: ] cup mouth stream

ME long vowels ī ū ɪi ʊu about 1450 ou about 1600 ei ai ME long vowels ī ū ɪi ʊu about 1450 ou about 1600 ei ai ME ī > ɪi ME ū > ʊu > ei > ou au > > [aɪ] [aʊ] about 1700 rīsan > [raɪz] rise hūs > [haʊs] house

ē ō ę ME ē > [i: ] ME ō > [u: ] fē ē ō ę ME ē > [i: ] ME ō > [u: ] fē t > [fi: t] feet fō l > [fu: l] fool ME ē > ē ME ǭ > ō > NE [i: ] > NE ou > [əʊ] ǭ strē m > [stri: m] stream bǭt > [bəʊt] boat

ā ME ā > æ > ē > NE eɪ] nāme > [neɪm] ā ME ā > æ > ē > NE eɪ] nāme > [neɪm]

The Great Vowel Shift (1500 – 1700) 1400 ī ū 1500 rīsan > [raɪz] The Great Vowel Shift (1500 – 1700) 1400 ī ū 1500 rīsan > [raɪz] rise hūs > [haʊs] house [i: ] [u: ] fē t > [fi: t] feet fō l > [fu: l] fool [i: ] [ou] strē m > [stri: m] stream bǭt > [bəʊt] boat ē [eɪ] ī ū ē ǭ ā [aɪ] [aʊ] ē ō 1700 ei ou ɪi ʊu 1600 æ nāme > [neɪm]

The complexity and interdependence of linguistic change grammaticalisation of phonetic variation The complexity and interdependence of linguistic change grammaticalisation of phonetic variation

GRAMMATICAL CHANGES grammar – a system of morpho-syntactic tools which the speakers of a GRAMMATICAL CHANGES grammar – a system of morpho-syntactic tools which the speakers of a language use to convey mandatory information (grammatical categories) two aspects of grammatical change: - the number (list) grammatical categories changes: the emergence of feminine gender in Indo-European languages, the loss of dual in most Indo-European languages, the general loss of grammatical categories in pidgin languages, the emergence of grammatical categories in creole languages - the encodement of grammatical categories changes grammaticalization – full content words become function words and function words can subsequently turn into bound morphemes

grammatical categories associated with the noun: OLD ENGLISH number: singular, plural, (dual) case: nominative, grammatical categories associated with the noun: OLD ENGLISH number: singular, plural, (dual) case: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative gender: grammatical MODERN ENGLISH singular, plural common case, possessive case, (objective case) natural

grammatical categories associated with the verb: OLD ENGLISH person: 1 st, 2 nd, 3 grammatical categories associated with the verb: OLD ENGLISH person: 1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd tense: present, preterite mood: indicative, imperative, subjunctive aspect: voice: active, passive MODERN ENGLISH 1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd present, present perfect, past perfect, future perfect indicative, imperative, (subjunctive) progressive, non-progressive active, passive

OLD ENGLISH – INFLECTIONAL LANGUAGE: Grammatical categories namena, wulfas number case (gender) inflections OLD ENGLISH – INFLECTIONAL LANGUAGE: Grammatical categories namena, wulfas number case (gender) inflections

OLD ENGLISH – INFLECTIONAL LANGUAGE: Grammatical categories inflections mannes nama, wulfum gegiefen number case OLD ENGLISH – INFLECTIONAL LANGUAGE: Grammatical categories inflections mannes nama, wulfum gegiefen number case (gender) person number tense mood MODERN ENGLISH – MORE ANALYTICAL (a) man’s name, the name of a man (b) given to wolves (c) … that they should do … … þæt hīe dyden

OLD ENGLISH – concordial language Grammatical categories encoded redundantly agreement, concord, redundancy = adjustment OLD ENGLISH – concordial language Grammatical categories encoded redundantly agreement, concord, redundancy = adjustment of forms within phrases and/or between the subject and the predicator Geongum mannum gedafenaþ þæt hīe leornien sumne wīsdōm. MODERN ENGLISH – agreement kept only in the 3 rd person sg of the present indicative It behoves young people that they acquire some knowledge.

GENDER In OE gender grammatical, discernible mostly through adjectives/determiners and pronominal reference se gōda GENDER In OE gender grammatical, discernible mostly through adjectives/determiners and pronominal reference se gōda mann (hē) sēo gōde sunne (hēo) þæt gōde wīf (hit) The grammatical gender was lost in Middle English. pronominal reference the good man (he) natural gender the good sun (it) the good wife (she)

Gender encodement in NE: man girl bull woman boy cow prince tiger princess tigress Gender encodement in NE: man girl bull woman boy cow prince tiger princess tigress tom cat billy goat cock sparrow he wolf tabby cat nanny goat hen sparrow she wolf ox

NUMBER OLD ENGLISH nouns: sg pl stān nama mann hūs sunu gesceaft stānas naman NUMBER OLD ENGLISH nouns: sg pl stān nama mann hūs sunu gesceaft stānas naman men hūs suna gesceafta

sg pl N. G. D. A. stānes stāne stānas stāna stānum stānas naman naman sg pl N. G. D. A. stānes stāne stānas stāna stānum stānas naman naman namena namum naman mannes menn manna mannum menn N. G. D. A. hūses hūse hūs hūsa hūsum hūs gesceafte gesceafta gesceaftum gesceafta

DECLENSIONS = patterns/assortment of case/number endings 5 major, several minor: vocalic or strong, consonantal DECLENSIONS = patterns/assortment of case/number endings 5 major, several minor: vocalic or strong, consonantal or weak, root declensions

MIDDLE ENGLISH two “declensions” expanded: the a-declension and the weak declension (in the south) MIDDLE ENGLISH two “declensions” expanded: the a-declension and the weak declension (in the south) OE stānas > ME stǭnes OE naman > ME nāmen OE hūs > ME hūs, hūsen OE bēc > ME beech, bookes, booken Eventually the {es} morpheme prevailed. All other endings are relics of the old declensions and considered irregular: - the –en plurals: oxen, children, bretren, kine - the mutalion plurals: feet, mice, lice, men, geese… - the zero plurals: sheep, deer, fish… -the voicing of final fricatives: wolf-wolves

NUMBER CONCORD (AGREEMENT) within the NP: OE modifiers and determiners displayed number agreement with NUMBER CONCORD (AGREEMENT) within the NP: OE modifiers and determiners displayed number agreement with the headword of the nominal phrase ān gōd mann, fīf gōd-e menn mīn bōc, mīn-e bēc The most common plural ending of adjectival words was –e in OE, which weakened to [ə] and disappeared in ME. The number agreement survived only in demonstratives: this – these, that - those

Number agreement between the subject and the verb: OE wē/ʒē/ hī wrītaþ > NE Number agreement between the subject and the verb: OE wē/ʒē/ hī wrītaþ > NE we/you/they write (present indicative) OE NE writon > wrote (preterite indicative)

THE ENCODEMENT OF NUMBER IN PERSONAL PRONOUNS 1 st person: singular: ic > NE THE ENCODEMENT OF NUMBER IN PERSONAL PRONOUNS 1 st person: singular: ic > NE I plural: wē > NE we 2 nd person: singular: þū > NE (thou) you plural: ʒē > NE (ye) you 3 rd person singular masc. singular fem. singular neut. plural: OE hē > NE he OE hēo > > NE she OE hit > NE it OE hīe > NE they

CASE definition: formal encodement of semantic roles SEMANTIC ROLES determined by the VALENCY of CASE definition: formal encodement of semantic roles SEMANTIC ROLES determined by the VALENCY of verbs impersonal verbs – 0 argument (It rains) intransitive - 1 argument (He runs) monotransitive verbs – 2 arguments (He loves her)) ditransitive verbs – 3 arguments (He gave her a flower)

semantic roles grammatical (syntactic) function agent, doer subject instrument subject recepient benefactor indirect object semantic roles grammatical (syntactic) function agent, doer subject instrument subject recepient benefactor indirect object patient direct object ….

Panini identified six semantic roles and six cases in SANSKRIT: agent patient means recipient Panini identified six semantic roles and six cases in SANSKRIT: agent patient means recipient source locus ASSIGNING SEMANTIC ROLES: word order, prepositions, morphemes = CASE ENDINGS

The assignment of cases (alignment of semantic roles) differs across languages: nominative-accusative languages (Indo-European) The assignment of cases (alignment of semantic roles) differs across languages: nominative-accusative languages (Indo-European) ergative-absolutive languages (Basque, Caucasian, Native American languages. . . ) trigger languages….

OE = inflexional language > case endings merged with plural endings OE: nominative genitive OE = inflexional language > case endings merged with plural endings OE: nominative genitive dative accusative

sg pl N. G. D. A. stānes stāne stānas stāna stānum stānas naman naman sg pl N. G. D. A. stānes stāne stānas stāna stānum stānas naman naman namena namum naman mannes menn manna mannum menn N. G. D. A. hūses hūse hūs hūsa hūsum hūs gesceafte gesceafta gesceaftum gesceafta

In ME case endings replaced with prepostional phrases, fixed word order: OE …. hit In ME case endings replaced with prepostional phrases, fixed word order: OE …. hit licode Herode and eallum þe him mid sæton… ME … and (it) pleside to Eroude and also to men restynge… In nouns, the only inflected case left present-day English is the Saxon Genitive (“possessive case”)

-es (Genitive singular, a-declension) OE –es > ME – [əz] > NE [z] Mary’s -es (Genitive singular, a-declension) OE –es > ME – [əz] > NE [z] Mary’s > NE [s] Mat’s > NE [ız] Bruce’s From late OE – spreading to all masculine, all neuter, all feminine and plural nouns Apostrophe: since 1650 in singular, since 1780 in plural

1 st singular 2 nd singular 3 rd singular ic mīn mē mē þū 1 st singular 2 nd singular 3 rd singular ic mīn mē mē þū þīn þē þē hē his him hine 1 st plural 2 nd plural 3 rd plural wē ūre ūs ūs ʒē ēower ēow hīera him, hem hīe hēo hiere hēo hit his him hit OE genitive forms preserved as possessive pronouns OE dative forms preserved as objective case forms OE accusative form preserved as objective case in 3 rd p. neuter

THE USE OF SAXON GENITIVE MORE EXTENSIVE IN OE OE Hwæs bidde ic? …. THE USE OF SAXON GENITIVE MORE EXTENSIVE IN OE OE Hwæs bidde ic? …. Iohannes heofod þæs fulluhteres… In NE – mostly restricted to possessive function

REFERENCE: SPECIFIC vs. NON-SPECIFIC In OE specific/non-specific reference of the NP was encoded through REFERENCE: SPECIFIC vs. NON-SPECIFIC In OE specific/non-specific reference of the NP was encoded through a) the use of two different declensions of adjectives (sum) gōd mann… (se) gōda mann …. b) the use of ān, sum (non-specific). . ān mann wæs eardiende on Israhēla þēode… ‘a man lived in Israel’. . . nim sume tigelan… ‘take a tablet’ OE ān > ME ǭn, wōn > NE wūn, wun > [‘wʌn] one OE °ān > ME an, a(n) > NE [ən], [ə] an, a

c) the use of demonstratives masc. sg. fem. sg. neut. sg. pl. N. se c) the use of demonstratives masc. sg. fem. sg. neut. sg. pl. N. se G. þes D. þǣm A. þone sēo þǣre þā þæt þes þǣm þæt þā þāra þǣm þā Ælc þāra þe þās mīn word ʒehīerþ and þā wyrcþ biþ gelīc þǣm wīsan were þe his hūs ofer stān ʒetimbrode. ME the > NE [ðə], [ði: ] the From ME period on, the use of the article spread.

THE ENCODEMENT OF VERBAL CATEGORIES THE PERSON a deictic reference to the participant in THE ENCODEMENT OF VERBAL CATEGORIES THE PERSON a deictic reference to the participant in an event: the speaker, the addressee, none of these two…. personal pronouns personal endings – agreement of the verbal form with the subject The only personal ending in NE –(e)s in the 3 rd person singular of the present indicative OE present tense (indicative) : wrīt-est wrīt-eþ wrīt-aþ

OE –(e)þ, -t (in contracted forms) remains in ME as (e)th, but gradually it OE –(e)þ, -t (in contracted forms) remains in ME as (e)th, but gradually it is replaced with –es from the north OE –es > ME [ə]s, [ə][z] > NE [s], [z], [ɪz] Where are the other personal endings? 1 st person: -e was lost in ME (regular change) 2 nd person singular: the ending dropped when thou gave way to ye/you plural: -aþ replaced with –en in ME, which was subsequently lost (regular change subjunctive: God save the Queen! The subjunctive mood had only two endings in OE –e for the singular and –en for the plural. Both were lost in ME (regular sound change)

THE HISTORY OF TENSE ENCODEMENT TENSE = THE SYSTEM OF ENCODING MANDATORY TEMPORAL INFORMATION THE HISTORY OF TENSE ENCODEMENT TENSE = THE SYSTEM OF ENCODING MANDATORY TEMPORAL INFORMATION OLD ENGLISH: two formal tenses: preterite and present (non-preterite) NON-PRETERITE NOW

PRESENT TENSE: BASE FORM (+ PERSONAL ENDINGS) PRETERITE TENSE: the marking depended on the PRESENT TENSE: BASE FORM (+ PERSONAL ENDINGS) PRETERITE TENSE: the marking depended on the type of the verb 4 types of verbs: 1. 2. 3. 4. STRONG VERBS WEAK VERBS PRETERITE PRESENT VERBS ANOMALOUS VERBS

STRONG VERBS Indo-European vowel gradation (Ablaut) = alteration of vowels in the stems of STRONG VERBS Indo-European vowel gradation (Ablaut) = alteration of vowels in the stems of related words or different grammatical forms of the same word The preterite forms of Germanic verbs from Indo-European perfect forms IE present stem: accented, the vowel *e IE perfect stem: unaccented, the vowel reduced (dynamic accent) or changed in the direction of *o (pitch accent)

SEVEN CLASSES OF STRONG VERBS class Infinitive 1/3 pret. sg Plural preterite Past participle SEVEN CLASSES OF STRONG VERBS class Infinitive 1/3 pret. sg Plural preterite Past participle I wrītan wrāt writon -writen write II cēosan cēas curon -curen choose III drincan dranc druncon -druncen drink IV beran bær bǣron -boren bear V sprecan spræc sprǣcon -sprecen speak VI scacan scōcon -scacen shake VII feallan fēollon -feallen fall

WEAK VERBS Germanic innovation: “the dental preterite” only one stem (present stem) the preterite WEAK VERBS Germanic innovation: “the dental preterite” only one stem (present stem) the preterite tense marked with the dental sufifix OE -ede, -ode > ME [ə]d[ə] > NE [d], [t], [ɪd] played, worked, embedded The origin of the dental suffix the same as the one of the verb ‘do’

FROM OE TO NE • Many strong verbs became “regular” helpen – healp - FROM OE TO NE • Many strong verbs became “regular” helpen – healp - geholpen > helped – helped - helped • Vowel patterns no longer consistent with the OE classes sprecen – spræc – gesprecen > speak – spoke - spoken standen – stōd – gestanden > stand – stood swingan – swang – geswunged > swing – swung • Many weak verbs became irregular due to different sound changes OE cēpan cēpte gecēpt ME kēpen kepte ykept NE [ki: p] [kept] • new, periphrastic tenses emerged and spread in ME

PERIPHRASTIC TENSES COMMON IN OE, BUT THEIR USE NOT CONSISTENT WITH THEIR MODERN ENGLISH PERIPHRASTIC TENSES COMMON IN OE, BUT THEIR USE NOT CONSISTENT WITH THEIR MODERN ENGLISH FUNCTIONS

a) ‘be'+ present participle þā wæs se cyning openlīce andettende þæt hē wolde fæstlīce a) ‘be'+ present participle þā wæs se cyning openlīce andettende þæt hē wolde fæstlīce þǣm deofolgiendum wiþsācan ‘then the king publicly acknowledged that he would resolutely renounce the idols’ Around 1200 the participle in –ende was replaced with the –ing form, possibly under the influence of the construction be on + (do)ing (French influence? ) Since 18 th century in the function of progressive tenses, the use has been increasing since the 16 th century

b) ‘have’ + past participle And specially from every shires ende Of Engelond, to b) ‘have’ + past participle And specially from every shires ende Of Engelond, to Caunterbury they wende, The hooly blisful martyr for to seke That hem hath holpen whan that they were seeke. 20 25 Bifil that in that sesoun, on a day, In Southwerk at the Tabard as I lay Redy to wenden on my pilgrymage To Caunterbury with ful devout courage, At nyght were come into that hostelrye Wel nyne and twenty in a compaignye Of sondry folk. . . OE, ME: habban with transitive, bēon/wesan with intransitive verbs the meaning of the construction not necessarily perfective

ASPECT the internal temporal structure of the action perfective : imperfective dichotomy perfective > ASPECT the internal temporal structure of the action perfective : imperfective dichotomy perfective > punctual (? ), bounded, not marked for temporal structure imperfective > non-punctual, continuous, progressive, habitual, with internal temporal structure …. lexical (encodement of) aspect: I love music telicity (no endpoint : endpoint) I sat quietly Aktionsart I realized the truth

I came home when the phone rang. I was coming home when the phone I came home when the phone rang. I was coming home when the phone rang. I came home when the phone was ringing. grammatical aspect – formal encodement of aspect

c) will/shall + infinitive After the year 1200 shal ‘to be oblidged to’ and c) will/shall + infinitive After the year 1200 shal ‘to be oblidged to’ and will ‘to want’ lost some of their modal meanings and started to be used for future time reference. 18 th century: will reported as expressing simple futurity in the 2 nd and 3 rd person, volition in the 1 st person; shall reported as expressing simple futurity in 1 st person, obligation in 2 nd and 3 rd. FORMAL MARKING OF FUTURE TIME REFERENCE: • will, shall, ‘ll + INF • be going + to INF, be + gonna + INF (imminence? ) • be about + to INF (immediate future) Northern Enland: mun + INF (mun < Norse ‘obligation’)

MOOD and MODALITY modality: the speaker’s evaluation of the proposition realis : irrealis: deontic, MOOD and MODALITY modality: the speaker’s evaluation of the proposition realis : irrealis: deontic, epistemic, (dynamic) obligation, wish, option, possibility, ability…. adjectives, advers, verbs = lexical expression of modality mood: grammatical expression of modality (morphological or syntactic) realis mood: indicative (factual statement) energetic (some Arabic dialects) generic (general truths)…. irrealis mood: imperative (commands) optative (wishes, hopes) conditional (conditions) jussive (mandative for 3 rd p. ) subjunctive/conjunctive

OE: indicative, imperative, subjunctive (verbal, morphological) moods: imperative singular: base form (SV) or base OE: indicative, imperative, subjunctive (verbal, morphological) moods: imperative singular: base form (SV) or base + e/a (WV) imperative plural: same as present indicative plural Lufa þīn nēahstan! Nim sume tiʒele! Bycʒaþ ēow ele! subjunctive singular: present stem + e perfect stem + e subjuntive plural: present stem + en perfect stem + en

The use of subjunctive in OE: • in independent sentences to express wish or The use of subjunctive in OE: • in independent sentences to express wish or command: Gōd sīe þē milde! Ne hē ealu ne drince oþþe wīn! • in dependent clauses after verbs of desire, command, purpose, potentiality, hypothetical comparison, concession… Geongum mannum gedafenaþ þæt hīe leornien sumne wīsdōm. Ic wilnode þæt þū! hām wǣre In ME both subjunctive endings were lost. The only distinctive preterite subjunctive form left is were. ME > from morphology to syntax: verbal mood > modal auxiliaries The use of modal auxiliaries spread in ME and NE.

Modal Verbs OE: full lexical/content verbs (mostly preterite-present), nominal completmentation: cann (inf. cunnan ‘know’) Modal Verbs OE: full lexical/content verbs (mostly preterite-present), nominal completmentation: cann (inf. cunnan ‘know’) > NE can [‘kæn] cūþe (preterite of cann) > NE could (remodelled after would, should) And þas þing hie doþ, forþam þe hi ne cuδon mine fæder, ne me. may < OE mæʒ (inf. magon ‘to be able to) > NE may [meɪ] might < OE meahte, mihte (preterite of mæʒ) > NE might [maɪt] Nether thou shalt not swere bi thin heed, for thou maist not make oon heere white, ne blacke-

must < OE mōste (preterite of mōt, mōton ‘to be allowed to’) The old must < OE mōste (preterite of mōt, mōton ‘to be allowed to’) The old meaning preserved in mustn’t Ne mot ic don þæt ic wylle? shall < OE sceal (inf. sculan ‘to be obliged to’) > NE shall [‘ʃæl] should < OE scōlde (preterite of sceal) >NE should [ʃʊd] and he nam hine þa and cwæþ: “Agif þæt þu me scealt. will < OE wille (inf. willan ‘to want) would < OE wōlde (preterite of wille) > ME wōlde > NE [wʊd] ought to < OE āhte (preterite of āh/āg, inf. āgan ‘to possess and to owe’)