- Количество слайдов: 23
History of Computer Graphics Facts taken from Computer Graphics Comes of Age an Interview with Andres Van Dam published in ACM Communications in July 1984 and from http: //wikipedia. org
History of Computer Graphics (pre-WIMP age) n First Generation (1951 - 1959) n n n UNIVAC (1951) Crude hardcopy devices (line printer pictures) Data was displayed on printers or hardcopy plotters Computers were “number crunchers”; hardware was expensive! First computer-driven display (Late 50 s and early 60 s) n n attached to MIT’s Whirlwind I computer display was CRT similar to one used in TV sets
Computer Graphics History continued n n SAGE air-defense system (mid 50 s) used command & control CRT used CRT display consoles on which operators identified targets with light pens
Computer Graphics History continued n Beginnings of modern interactive graphics attributed to Ivan Sutherland’s doctoral work at MIT presented work at Spring Joint Computer Conference in 1963 in the form of a movie. n He developed the Sketchpad drawing system n
Sutherland’s work continued the system included interactive techniques that used the keyboard and light pen for making choices, pointing, and drawing n the film showed Sutherland sketching a bolt on the screen. He formulated the ideas of n n n display primitives (lines, polygons, arcs, characters) constraints on primitives developed algorithms for dragging, rubberbanding, transforming (rotating, scaling, translating) introduced data structures for storing hierarchies built up via easy replication of standard components
More Sutherland n n Subsequently, Sutherland became director of DARPA, then professor at Harvard and later founder of Evans & Sutherland, a leading edge graphics firm He is considered to be the founder of the computer graphics field Because of his work, CAD & CAM became attractive By the mid-sixties, much research was being done
Computer Graphics of the 60’s n n n Hardware expensive large scale, expensive computing resources needed About 1965, IBM brought out the first widely available interactive computer graphics terminal n n n vector graphics display sold for more than $100, 000 only elite designers could use the display system
More Developments The next landmark was a special type of CRT produced by Tektronix the direct-view storage tube (DVST) n Introduced in 1968 n complete with keyboard, mouse, simple computer interface for $15, 000 n made interactive computer graphics affordable n
Where did graphics go next? n n n By late 60’s many researchers were concerned with dynamic graphics. Realistic flight simulation applications were needed To make them realistic, solid colored surfaces were needed (not wireframe) TV raster displays were used to create such images Systems built by GE for NASA were probably the earliest examples of such displays
Raster Graphics continued n n Xerox Palo Alto Research Center designed a new graphics-based personal minicomputer called the Alto Design was based on: n n cost of computing falling - every “knowledge worker” should have a personal computer Alto computers should be connected for communication & resource-sharing interface between user & computer should be graphical graphics display should be based on raster-graphics technology -- a very bold idea
More Developments n PC’s in the 80’s n n costs decrease drastically built-in raster displays bitmap graphics used First films released n n n TRON (CG used throughout, but quality was low) -- 1982 Star Trek (short section of CG from Lucasfilms) – 1982 Toy Story (first full-length, wholly computergenerated, feature film) -- 1995
Software Developments n n Sketchpad graphics Early days software was non-portable at the assembly language level Push in 70’s for high-level, machine- and deviceindependent graphics subroutine packages Like FORTRAN virtualized I/O, these packages defined virtual screens and virtual input devices n n locater to drive cursor & pass (x, y) back pick to select objects on screen
Software continued n The awareness of the need for standards culminated in n n First graphics standard was GKS (1985) n n specification of the 3 D Core Graphics System produced by an ACM SIGGRAPH Committee in late 70’s used as input to official standards projects within both ANSI and ISO like Core but 2 D PHIGS (Programmer’s Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System) was a 3 D extension of GKS became an ANSI standard in 1988
Software continued n Also in the 80’s X Windows was developed n n goals of X are totally different X is a windowing management system • allows for creation & manipulation of overlapping, resizable windows • provides features of GUIs - pop-up, pull-down menus, dialog boxes, etc. n n n Also includes functions for input devices such as a mouse as well as simple 2 D graphics operations Designed to operate transparently on a network with many dissimilar computers & workstations development began at MIT in 1984
More Software n Open. GL was introduced by SGI in 1992 n n n Open. GL is the “Assembler Language” of Computer Graphics has portable, interactive 2 D and 3 D graphics applications low-level, vendor-neutral software interface broad platform accessibility in the industry To this day, Open. GL remains the only realtime 3 D graphics standard to be portable across a variety of operating systems.
More Software n n n In 1992, Servan Keondjian started a company named Render. Morphics Developed a 3 D graphics API named Reality Lab Microsoft bought Render. Morphics in February 1995, bringing Keondjian on board to implement a 3 D graphics engine for Windows 95. This resulted in the first version of Direct 3 D that shipped in Direct. X 2. 0 and Direct. X 3. 0. Direct 3 D is part of Microsoft's Direct. X API. Direct 3 D is only available for Microsoft's various Windows operating systems (Windows 95 and above) and in the open source software Wine. It is the base for the graphics API on the Xbox and Xbox 360 console systems.
Software n Sun formally announced Java in 1995 n n Developed by James Gosling (originally called Oak) Considered to be a software development platform-- includes graphics & windowing capabilities • Java AWT (Abstract Windowing Toolkit) • Java 2 D • Java 3 D is a scene graph-based 3 D application programming interface (API) for the Java platform. It runs on top of either Open. GL or Direct 3 D.
For a Complete History n http: //www. accad. ohiostate. edu/~waynec/history/timeline. html