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Historic Development of Languages (The Monster) By Alan D. De. Santis Historic Development of Languages (The Monster) By Alan D. De. Santis

Geographic Distribution of Living Languages, 1996 Area of World # of Languages % of Geographic Distribution of Living Languages, 1996 Area of World # of Languages % of World Languages The Americas Africa Europe Asia The Pacific 1, 000 2, 011 225 2, 165 1, 302 15% 30% 3% 32% 19% TOTAL 6, 703

The population figures in this table refer to first language speakers in all countries The population figures in this table refer to first language speakers in all countries (* = U. N. Languages) *1 CHINESE, MANDARIN China 885, 000 *2 SPANISH Spain 332, 000 *3 ENGLISH UK 322, 000 4 BENGALI Bangladesh 189, 000 5 HINDI India 182, 000 6 PORTUGUESE Portugal 170, 000 *7 RUSSIAN Russia 170, 000 8 JAPANESE Japan 125, 000 9 GERMAN, STANDARD Germany 98, 000 10 CHINESE, WU China 77, 175, 000 11 JAVANESE Indonesia, Java, Bali 75, 500, 800 12 KOREAN Korea, S. 75, 000 *13 FRENCH France 72, 000 14 VIETNAMESE Viet Nam 67, 662, 000 15 TELUGU India 66, 350, 000 16 CHINESE, YUE China 66, 000 17 MARATHI India 64, 783, 000 18 TAMIL India 63, 075, 000 19 TURKISH Turkey 59, 000 20 URDU Pakistan 58, 000 *ARABIC’S Total Middle East 150, 000

Introduction to World Languages • There are over 6, 000 languages currently spoken in Introduction to World Languages • There are over 6, 000 languages currently spoken in the world • English is the most spoken language – Most use it as their second (2 Billion) • Many are unstudied languages – New Guinea has 3 million people and 900 languages, many in remote communities • Most of these emerged out of four common parents!!

The World’s 4 Major Language Families Aus-tro-ne-sian Af-ro-as-i-at-ic The World’s 4 Major Language Families Aus-tro-ne-sian Af-ro-as-i-at-ic

Example of “Comparative Reconstruction” in the Romance Languages Example of “Comparative Reconstruction” in the Romance Languages

The Big Problem • Language reconstruction is not an exact science • “Truth” emerges The Big Problem • Language reconstruction is not an exact science • “Truth” emerges by consensus • Consensus is harder and harder to reach as we go back further and further – Many of these “families” are debated/contested • It is argued that every 10, 000 years, the continuous cycle of change completes itself – Nothing exists from the initial (first generation) language

I. Indo-European Languages • Proto Indo-European spoken 5, 000 BC • This is the I. Indo-European Languages • Proto Indo-European spoken 5, 000 BC • This is the group we are most influenced by – English, French, Spanish, Italian, German • Of the 12 languages with more than 100 million speakers, 8 of them are I-E – The widespread use of I-E languages is due to colonization, imperialism, and missionaries • But of the thousands of languages in the world, only about 150 are I-E

Major Indo-European Language Family (First and Second Generation) more Major Indo-European Language Family (First and Second Generation) more

Minor Indo-European Language Family (First, Second, & Third Generations) more Minor Indo-European Language Family (First, Second, & Third Generations) more

Ia. Germanic Languages (Second, Third, & Fourth Generations) -Afrikaans is a derivative of Dutch Ia. Germanic Languages (Second, Third, & Fourth Generations) -Afrikaans is a derivative of Dutch -Gothic, spoken in central Europe, disappeared in 8 th century

Ib. Italic Languages (Second, Third, & Fourth Generations) -Latin Derivatives are known as Romantic Ib. Italic Languages (Second, Third, & Fourth Generations) -Latin Derivatives are known as Romantic Languages -Fathered by “vulgar Latin” (language of Roman Empire) not “formal Latin. ” -Provencal is spoken in the South of France -Catalan is spoken in northern Spain -Rumanian is the most different -Oscan and Umbrian were languages of southern Italy

Ic. Slavonic Languages (Second, Third, & Fourth Generations) -All Slavonic languages are remarkably similar Ic. Slavonic Languages (Second, Third, & Fourth Generations) -All Slavonic languages are remarkably similar -Russian is the most widely spoken

Id. Indo-Iranian Languages (Second, Third, & Fourth Generations) -Persian, also called Farsi, is spoken Id. Indo-Iranian Languages (Second, Third, & Fourth Generations) -Persian, also called Farsi, is spoken in Iran -Pashto is spoken in Afghanistan and northern Pakistan -All the other languages are spoken in different parts of India by its 1 billion people

II. Sino-Tibetan Family • 300 East Asian Languages – Many of which remain unexplored II. Sino-Tibetan Family • 300 East Asian Languages – Many of which remain unexplored • There are Two Major Divisions: – 1) Sinitic/Chinese (1 Billion Speakers) • 5 Major Dialects – 2) Tibeto-Burman • Many different languages, very few speakers • Burmese (20 mill) and Tibetan (3 mill) are the only members with more than million speakers

II. Sino-Tibetan Family II. Sino-Tibetan Family

III. Austronesian Family • 1, 000 Different Languages • Two Major Sub-Divisions • 1) III. Austronesian Family • 1, 000 Different Languages • Two Major Sub-Divisions • 1) Formosan – 3 Ancient Languages • Spoken only in the hills of Taiwan • 2) Malayo-Polynesian – West: Malayo Polynesian • Indonesia, Malaysia, Madagascar, Philippines • Recently Thai (40 mil) and Lao (10 mil) have been added – East: Oceanic • Papua New Guinea, Fijian, Islands of Pacific

III. Austronesian Family –Indonesian-Malay (150 mill) in Indonesian and Malaysia –Javanese (60 mill) in III. Austronesian Family –Indonesian-Malay (150 mill) in Indonesian and Malaysia –Javanese (60 mill) in Java and Indonesia –Pilipino is the official language of Philippines –Malagasy (9 mill) of Madagascar –Most others have under 1 mill

IV. Afroasiatic Family • Comprises about 250 Languages – Arabic being the biggie--150 Mill IV. Afroasiatic Family • Comprises about 250 Languages – Arabic being the biggie--150 Mill • From northern Africa and the Middle East: – Iran, Iraq, Chad, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt, Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan, • It is the language of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam – Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed

IV. Afroasiatic Family -Hausa is one of Africa’s major languages spoken in Chad & IV. Afroasiatic Family -Hausa is one of Africa’s major languages spoken in Chad & Nigeria (20 mill) -Akkadian was the first written language (Semitic) -Jesus spoke Palestinian Aramaic

V. Sub-Saharan Africa • South of the Sahara Desert, there are three other language V. Sub-Saharan Africa • South of the Sahara Desert, there are three other language families: – 1) Niger-Congo Family • Several hundred languages • From Senegal to Kenya to South Africa – 2) Nilo-Saharan Family • 100 languages by 10 million people – 3) Khoisan (Coisan) Family • Southern Africa (uses click sounds) • 50 languages spoken by fewer than 75, 000 – *Remember, North Africa is Afroasiatic

VI. Other Families of Asia and Europe • 1) Altaic Family (many speakers) – VI. Other Families of Asia and Europe • 1) Altaic Family (many speakers) – 250 Mil Speakers Total – Vast area from USSR to China – Turkic, Mongolian, Manchu – Recently, Japanese (150 mil) and Korean (50 mil) have been added • 2) Dravidian Family (many speakers) – Southern India

VI. Other Families of Asia and Europe • 3) Austro-Asiatic (many speakers) – 100 VI. Other Families of Asia and Europe • 3) Austro-Asiatic (many speakers) – 100 Languages in Southeast Asia – Found in Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand • 4) Caucasian Family – Georgian is best known – 30 Languages of Soviet Union, Turkey, and Iran • 5) Uralic Family – Finland, Hungary, Estonia

VII. The Americas • It was assumed that there were 300 Languages belonging to VII. The Americas • It was assumed that there were 300 Languages belonging to 50 families • Greenburg has found that there are only 3 – Eskimo Aleut • Upper and most of the Eastern regions of Canada – Na-Dene • Western and Central Canada (not touched by E A) • Also, Navaho and Apache (Texas, OK) – Amerind • Everything Else from California to New York to Mexico to Brazil to Argentina

VII. The Americas • Each year more and more Native American Languages are dying VII. The Americas • Each year more and more Native American Languages are dying out with no speakers left: Since 1965. . . – Tillamook, Wiyot, Algonquian, Huron, Chumash, Salinan, Chinook, Natchez, Tonkawa have died. • Languages with fewer than 50 speakers: – Abnaki-Penobscot, varieties of Apache, Coeur d’Alene, Squamish, Cupeno, Miwok, Yokuts, Pmo, Shasta, Tuscarora

VIII. Pidgin and Creole • Pidgin – Members of the subordinate (colonized) area create VIII. Pidgin and Creole • Pidgin – Members of the subordinate (colonized) area create a simplified variety of the dominant language – Used in very limited situations (work, business) • Bamboo, China Coast, Cameroon – Many based on English and French • Creole – Today, most pidgins give way to Creole – Used in many contexts – More complex and developed over generations • Louisiana, Jamaican, Caribbean

And the totals are. . . • • 1. Indo-European--2 Bill (Europe) 2. Sino And the totals are. . . • • 1. Indo-European--2 Bill (Europe) 2. Sino Tibetan--1, 040 Bill (Asia) 3. Niger-Congo--260 Mill (Africa) 4. Altaic--250 Mill (Asia) 5. Austonesian--250 Mill (Asian Pacific) 6. Afroasiatic--230 Mill (N. Af & M. East) 7. Dravidian--140 Mill (Asia) 8. Austro-Asiatic--60 Mill (Asia)

Nostratoc Super Family • Researchers from Russia and US have found a Super Family Nostratoc Super Family • Researchers from Russia and US have found a Super Family of 10, 000 BC • It gave birth to the Indo-European, Afroasiatic, Uralic, Altaic, Dravidian, and Eskimos Aleut families • This being the case, English, Hebrew, Arabic, Finnish, Korean, Turkish, and Eskimo would all be cousins • But this is still highly contested