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HELPING STUDENTS CATCH ON AND PICK UP VERB-PARTICLE CONSTRUCTIONS Svetlana Nedelcheva Shumen University [email protected] com
There is systematicity hidden behind the apparent arbitrariness.
Prototype theory (formulated in the 1970 s by Eleanor Rosch in her study "Natural Categories") ¡ ¡ ¡ Categorization in cognitive science; Features of a bird - [+feathers], [+beak] and [+ability to fly]; Central and peripheral members of a category
Prototype theory has also been applied in linguistics. ¡ Furniture - a noun, no plural form ¡ Bird and horse vs. furniture ¡ Smile, see, and run vs. must ¡ Small, beautiful, and happy vs. asleep (*an asleep cat).
The semantics of ON ¡ Contact with a surface, e. g. The cat is on the mat; feed on, gorge on, put on, pull on, put on, switch on, etc. Support, e. g. be based on, build on, capitalize on, count on, depend on, fix on, be founded on, model on, rely on, etc. ¡ Potential contact, e. g. border on, front on, round on, etc. T R ¡ T R
¡ ¡ ¡ Focus of attention, e. g. bring on, call on, cast on, chance on, cheat on, check on, concentrate on, etc. Topic, e. g. expand on, dwell on, chew on, crap on, gabble on, etc. Goal oriented, e. g. close on, come on, converge on, descend on, etc. Continuing (progressing), e. g. carry on, draw on, drive on, drone on, follow on, hurry on, keep on, linger on, move on, etc. T R ¡ T R The semantics of ON
Contact with a surface Support Potential contact Focus of attention Goal oriented Topic Continuing
Total: 231 VPC with on Continuing sense Topic sense Potential-contact sense Contact sense Focus-of-attention sense Goal-oriented sense Support sense
The semantics of UP – 435 VPC with up More, e. g. add up, brighten up, fatten up, ¡ Improvement/damage, e. g. brush up, ¡ Completion, e. g. drink up, block up, heap up, heat up, pile up, etc. catch up, cheer up, dress up, freshen up / break up, blow up, chop up, etc. blow up, bottle up, box up, etc. T R ¡ go up, grow up, pick up, etc. T R Upwards, e. g. bob up, beam up, get up, T R ¡
Upward More Improvement Completion Damage
Completion Enclosed, safe, protected, covered, e. g. bang up, bandage up, box up, buckle up, colour up, etc. Depletion, e. g. blot up, dry up, etc. End of activity, finish, e. g. belt up, block up, bag up, clam up, clog up, close up, etc. Goal reached, e. g. brew up, boot up, bunch up, button up, cash up, catch up, etc.
Future work An idea how to teach VPC more effectively ¡ Hasn’t been tested ¡ An experiment should be performed ¡ Statistical results acquired ¡ Would probably reveal certain gaps in our thinking ¡ Will lead to new insightful analyses ¡
Bibliography ¡ http: //www. slideshare. net/paulakz/phrasal-verbs-withon ¡ Longman Phrasal Verbs Dictionary. 2000. Pearson Education Limited. ¡ Nedelcheva, S. 2013. Space, Time and Human Experience: A Cognitive View on English and Bulgarian Prepositions. Shumen Univerrsity Publishing House, Shumen. ¡ Rosch, E. H. 1973. "Natural categories". Cognitive Psychology 4 (3): 328– 50. ¡ Tyler, A. , Evans, V. 2003. The Semantics of English Prepositions: Spatial Scenes, Embodied Meaning and Cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ¡ Wittgenstein, L. 1953. Philosophical investigations. (Anscombe, G. E. M. , trans. ). Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
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