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Healthy Cuisine for Kids Seminar Improving Culinary Skills in Child Nutrition Programs 1 Healthy Cuisine for Kids Seminar Improving Culinary Skills in Child Nutrition Programs 1

“The goal of school nutrition professionals must be to teach children eating skills. ”--“There’s “The goal of school nutrition professionals must be to teach children eating skills. ”--“There’s a leadership role inherent in providing for children and eating. You have much to offer, not only to children, but to their families and teachers as well. ” Ellyn Satter. (1995). How school foodservice can help develop children’s eating skills. School Foodservice & Nutrition. Alexandria, VA. School Nutrition Association. 2

Children Buy With Their Eyes First “ High quality, flavor, and attractiveness should be Children Buy With Their Eyes First “ High quality, flavor, and attractiveness should be the keynotes of the CNP food policy” Mary de Garmo Bryan-The School Cafeteria. 1936 3 3

Purpose of the Healthy Cuisine for Kids Seminar • Prepare and serve nutritious, high Purpose of the Healthy Cuisine for Kids Seminar • Prepare and serve nutritious, high quality meals that appeal to the customer • Promote healthy eating behaviors 4

Seminar Objectives 1. Describe the importance of preparing and serving nutritious, high quality meals. Seminar Objectives 1. Describe the importance of preparing and serving nutritious, high quality meals. 2. Demonstrate an understanding of the nutrition principles related to preparing – fruits and vegetables, – meats and meat alternates, and – grains and breads. 5

Seminar Objectives, continued 3. Identify quality standards for fruits and vegetables, meats and meat Seminar Objectives, continued 3. Identify quality standards for fruits and vegetables, meats and meat alternates, and grains and breads. 4. Identify basic culinary skills required to prepare and serve nutritious, high quality meals that appeal to the customer. 6

Seminar Objectives, continued 5. Demonstrate and apply the culinary basics presented in the seminar. Seminar Objectives, continued 5. Demonstrate and apply the culinary basics presented in the seminar. 6. Explain how meals support the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and follow nutrition guidance. 7

Expectations of HCK Seminar Participants • • Participate in HCK. Perform the assigned tasks. Expectations of HCK Seminar Participants • • Participate in HCK. Perform the assigned tasks. Practice the content presented. Participate effectively as a team member to – organize for each assignment in the laboratory. – prepare and evaluate the assigned food products. – prepare products to appear on the serving line, using garnishes and considering food placement. – present the products for tasting and evaluation. 8

Healthy Cuisine for Kids Seminar Modules Module Name Schedule Culinary Basics Day 1 Fruits Healthy Cuisine for Kids Seminar Modules Module Name Schedule Culinary Basics Day 1 Fruits and Vegetables Day 1 Meats and Meat Alternates Day 2 – Part 1, Meats – Part 2, Meat Alternates Breads and Grains Day 3 – Part 1, Breads – Part 2, Grains 9

The Three-Part Plan for Each Module 1. Lesson – a discussion of the nutrition The Three-Part Plan for Each Module 1. Lesson – a discussion of the nutrition contribution and requirement of the meal component to healthy meals 2. Culinary Demonstration – a demonstration of culinary practices that will be used in the culinary laboratory 3. Culinary Laboratory – a hands-on experience of working as a team to prepare, present, and evaluate food items 10

Areas of Emphasis in Modules Module Name Nutrition Focus Basic Skills Culinary Techniques Flavoring Areas of Emphasis in Modules Module Name Nutrition Focus Basic Skills Culinary Techniques Flavoring and Seasoning Presentatio n and Evaluation Culinary Basics Fruits and Vegetables Meats /Meat Alternates Grains and Breads 11

Culinary Basics Building a Nutrition Foundation • • • Healthy school nutrition environment Dietary Culinary Basics Building a Nutrition Foundation • • • Healthy school nutrition environment Dietary Guidelines for Americans Recommended Dietary Allowances Dietary Guidance School nutrition program standards and guidelines • Fat, Carbohydrate, and Protein • Vitamins and Minerals 12

Culinary Basics Foundation in Culinary Techniques • Function of fat, sugar, and salt in Culinary Basics Foundation in Culinary Techniques • Function of fat, sugar, and salt in healthy cooking • Standardized recipes • Accurate weighing and measuring • Production records 13

Culinary Basics, continued • • • Basic preparation Healthy cooking methods Flavoring and seasoning Culinary Basics, continued • • • Basic preparation Healthy cooking methods Flavoring and seasoning Presentation and garnishing Evaluating food products 14

Culinary Basics, continued • Mise en Place • Food Safety • Equipment Review 15 Culinary Basics, continued • Mise en Place • Food Safety • Equipment Review 15

Objectives: Module 1 Culinary Basics 1. Briefly describe how healthy cooking techniques help to Objectives: Module 1 Culinary Basics 1. Briefly describe how healthy cooking techniques help to create a healthy school nutrition environment. 2. State the school nutrition program standards for recommended levels of fat and sodium. 3. List the names of key nutrients required in school lunch menus at a specific level. 4. Briefly state how the dietary guidance materials are useful tools in planning and preparing school meals. 1. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2. Recommended Dietary Allowances 16

Objectives, Culinary Basics, continued 5. Explain the importance of using standardized recipes and following Objectives, Culinary Basics, continued 5. Explain the importance of using standardized recipes and following correct procedures when preparing school meals. 6. Explain the function of fat, sugar, and salt in food preparation. 7. Explain the importance of flavor enhancers in preparing healthy and appealing foods. 8. Briefly discuss how accurate weighing and measuring and production schedules impact the quality and nutritional value of food. 17

Nutrition Focus 18 Nutrition Focus 18

Five Steps to Healthy Cooking Food must be … • • • purchased by Five Steps to Healthy Cooking Food must be … • • • purchased by specification number received correctly and stored properly, handled safely, prepared using healthy cooking techniques, served in a healthy and appealing manner and, • served in a safe and attractive dining area. 19

A Healthy School Nutrition Environment Gives Student Customers • Clear and consistent messages that A Healthy School Nutrition Environment Gives Student Customers • Clear and consistent messages that reinforce healthy eating and physical activity habits. • Opportunities to learn to make healthy choices. • Opportunities to practice healthy habits. 20

Dietary Guidelines for Americans The national nutrition policy reviewed and updated every five years Dietary Guidelines for Americans The national nutrition policy reviewed and updated every five years 21 21

It’s the Law! The Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act as amended in It’s the Law! The Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act as amended in 1994 states “Schools participating in the school lunch or school breakfast programs shall serve lunches and breakfasts under the program that are consistent with the Guidelines. ” 22

Key Messages Dietary Guidelines for Americans 1. Consume a variety of foods within and Key Messages Dietary Guidelines for Americans 1. Consume a variety of foods within and among the basic food groups while staying within energy needs. 2. Control calorie intake to manage body weight. 3. Be physically active every day. 4. Increase daily intake of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and nonfat or lowfat milk and milk products. 23

Key Messages Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. continued Choose fats Key Messages Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. continued Choose fats wisely for good health. Choose carbohydrates wisely for good health. Choose and prepare foods with little salt. If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation. Keep foods safe to eat. 24

Dietary Guidelines for Child Nutrition Programs • Offer a variety of foods within each Dietary Guidelines for Child Nutrition Programs • Offer a variety of foods within each of the food groups. • Serve meals that help maintain a healthy body and weight. • Promote the need for physical activity every day • Serve plenty of vegetables, fruits, and whole grain products. • Serve a variety of nonfat and low-fat milk and milk products. 25

Dietary Guidelines for Child Nutrition Programs, continued • Offer meals low in fat, saturated Dietary Guidelines for Child Nutrition Programs, continued • Offer meals low in fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and trans fat. • Select foods with natural sweeteners and use sugars only in moderation. • Choose and prepare foods with little salt. • Promote an alcohol and drug-free lifestyle. • Practice safe food handling from receiving through clean-up. 26

The Food Groups Provide Important Nutrients Food Group Fruits Vegetables Grains Milk, Yogurt, and The Food Groups Provide Important Nutrients Food Group Fruits Vegetables Grains Milk, Yogurt, and Cheese Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, Nutrients Provided carbohydrate, fiber, potassium, folate, vitamin A, vitamin C complex carbohydrate, fiber, vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, potassium, iron, magnesium, vitamin E complex carbohydrate, fiber, riboflavin, niacin, thiamin, folate, iron, vitamin E (whole grains) protein, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin A, vitamin B-12 Note: Foods in this group contain tat, trans fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol protein, iron, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, vitamin E Note: Meat, poultry, fish, and eggs may contain saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol 27

Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) “ the average daily amounts of nutrients considered adequate to Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) “ the average daily amounts of nutrients considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people. " 28

Nutrient Standards in School Meals Nutrient Major Menu Source of Nutrient Calorie Calcium Iron Nutrient Standards in School Meals Nutrient Major Menu Source of Nutrient Calorie Calcium Iron Protein Vitamin A Vitamin C 29

Menu Planning Systems • • Traditional Food-Based Menu Planning Enhanced Food-Based Menu Planning Nutrient Menu Planning Systems • • Traditional Food-Based Menu Planning Enhanced Food-Based Menu Planning Nutrient Standard Menu Planning Assisted Nutrient Standard Menu Planning 30

Getting Customer Acceptance Sight Smell Touch Taste Sound Customers eat with their eyes first. Getting Customer Acceptance Sight Smell Touch Taste Sound Customers eat with their eyes first. The food must look good to be acceptable. Good food has a pleasing aroma. How it feels in the mouth. Food flavors should appeal to students’ taste. The crunch of celery or a fresh apple helps to whet the appetite. 31

Ideas for Getting Customer Acceptance • Introduce new foods – gradually along with old Ideas for Getting Customer Acceptance • Introduce new foods – gradually along with old favorites for greater acceptance. – by offering a small taste with the meal. • • Provide a high-quality, nutritious product. Observe, ask, and listen to customers. Create a dining experience. Understand respect differences among students. 32

Calories • What is a calorie? • Why should we count calories? • Where Calories • What is a calorie? • Why should we count calories? • Where do calories come from? – Fat – Protein – Carbohydrate – Alcohol 33

Maximum Recommended Fat Intake Age Child Total Daily Fat Calories Grams (gm) Fat Grams Maximum Recommended Fat Intake Age Child Total Daily Fat Calories Grams (gm) Fat Grams Per Meal (gm) 1800 60 gm 2000 67 gm 22 gm 2500 83 gm 28 gm 2200 73 gm 24 gm 3000 100 gm 33 gm 4 -6 Child 7 -10 Male 11 -14 Female 11 -18 Male 15 -18 34

Fiber 35 35 Fiber 35 35

Fiber Facts § § § Fiber may be lost in peeling as it is Fiber Facts § § § Fiber may be lost in peeling as it is often concentrated in the skin and other outer layers of fruits and vegetables. Processing methods frequently reduce fiber content; for example, white flour and white rice have less fiber than whole-grain flour and brown rice. Research indicates possible protective effects of dietary fiber against colon cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. 36

Fiber Facts, continued • Plants contain different kinds and amounts of fiber components. • Fiber Facts, continued • Plants contain different kinds and amounts of fiber components. • Foods containing soluble fiber may help reduce blood cholesterol levels. • Eating foods containing insoluble fiber is important • for proper bowel function and • can reduce symptoms of chronic constipation, diverticular disease, and hemorrhoids. 37

Functions of Protein 1. Growth and maintenance 2. Helps maintain fluid and acid base Functions of Protein 1. Growth and maintenance 2. Helps maintain fluid and acid base balance 3. Can supply calories for energy 4. Helps fight infections and build immunity 5. Aids in blood clotting 6. Other: Serves as a transportation system in the body for other nutrients and replacing body tissues and cells. 38

Building Blocks of Protein Amino Acids ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS 39 Building Blocks of Protein Amino Acids ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS 39

Complementary Proteins Meat Alternates § § § Bread and Peanut Butter Rice and Beans Complementary Proteins Meat Alternates § § § Bread and Peanut Butter Rice and Beans Tofu and Rice Pasta and Beans Corn and Lima Beans Hummus and Pita Bread 40

Vitamins and Minerals • Vitamins – Fat and Water Soluble • Minerals – Sodium Vitamins and Minerals • Vitamins – Fat and Water Soluble • Minerals – Sodium and Calcium • Food Groups • Missing Nutrients 41

Fat in the Menu • Fat is used in baking for tenderizing, adding flakiness, Fat in the Menu • Fat is used in baking for tenderizing, adding flakiness, flavor, and other reasons. • Fat is used to emulsify or thicken sauces and gravies. • Is used in cooking to transfer heat to foods. 42

Functions of Sugar in Foods and Cooking • Sugar tastes good and adds flavor Functions of Sugar in Foods and Cooking • Sugar tastes good and adds flavor • Sugar preserves foods • Sugar is a tenderizer and adds volume 43

Functions of Sugar in Foods and Cooking, continued • Sugar adds color by aiding Functions of Sugar in Foods and Cooking, continued • Sugar adds color by aiding in browning • Sugar provides thickening to food products • Sugar feeds the yeast during the fermentation process in yeast breads 44

Functions of Sugar in Foods and Cooking, continued • Sugar helps to retain moisture Functions of Sugar in Foods and Cooking, continued • Sugar helps to retain moisture • Sugar discourages browning, adds firmness, and retards flavor loss in canned fruit • Sugar adds firmness to cooked fruits 45

Function of Salt in Foods and Cooking • Salt adds flavor • Salt and Function of Salt in Foods and Cooking • Salt adds flavor • Salt and other sodium-containing ingredients act as preservatives in many processed foods • Salt aids in the control of the rate of yeast fermentation in bread making 46

Hidden Sources of Sodium Product Function Baking powder Leavening agent Baking soda. Leavening agent Hidden Sources of Sodium Product Function Baking powder Leavening agent Baking soda. Leavening agent Monosodium glutamate Flavor enhancer Sodium benzoate Preservative Sodium caseinate Thickener and binder Sodium phosphate Emulsifier, stabilizer Sodium propionate Mold inhibitor Sodium saccharin Artificial sweetener Sodium citrate Added to soft drinks and fruit drinks Sodium nitrite Curing agent in meat, provides color, prevents botulism 47

Standardized Recipes A standardized recipe is one that has been tried, adapted, and retried Standardized Recipes A standardized recipe is one that has been tried, adapted, and retried several times for use by a given food service operation and has been found to produce the same food results and yield every time when the • exact procedures are used, • with the same type of equipment, and • the same quantity and quality of ingredients. Source: A Menu Planner for Healthy School Meals (1998). USDA. 48

Why Use A Standardized Recipe? • • Quality Control Portion Control No Substitutions Cost Why Use A Standardized Recipe? • • Quality Control Portion Control No Substitutions Cost Control Time Savings Inventory Control Consistent Results 49

Parts of a Standardized Recipe • • Recipe Title Recipe Category Ingredients Weight/Volume of Parts of a Standardized Recipe • • Recipe Title Recipe Category Ingredients Weight/Volume of Each Ingredient Nutrients per Serving Variations Critical Control Points 50

Parts of a Standardized Recipe, continued • • Preparation Instructions Cooking Temperatures and Time Parts of a Standardized Recipe, continued • • Preparation Instructions Cooking Temperatures and Time Serving Size Recipe Yield Equipment and Utensils to be Used Marketing Guide for Selected Ingredients Nutrient Analysis 51

Steps in Using a Recipe 1. 2. 3. 4. Study the recipe carefully. Understand Steps in Using a Recipe 1. 2. 3. 4. Study the recipe carefully. Understand terms and definitions. Ask questions to clarify information. Check the yield, temperature, and cooking time. 5. Assemble in order of use– tools, utensils, and equipment. 52

Steps in Using a Recipe, continued 6. Assemble ingredients. 7. Do prepreparation – grease Steps in Using a Recipe, continued 6. Assemble ingredients. 7. Do prepreparation – grease pans, wash and cut fruits/vegetables, preheat oven, measure and weigh ingredients. 8. Follow the recipe exactly. 9. Cook for the time and at the temperature stated in the recipe or procedure. 53

Purpose of Production Schedules They provide • Information about the menu, foods and recipes Purpose of Production Schedules They provide • Information about the menu, foods and recipes to use, and portion sizes. • A systematic method and place for staff to record information about amount prepared and leftover. • Documentation of quantities prepared and served • Information forecasting. 54

Measuring Tools • Measuring Spoons • Liquid Measuring Containers • Dry Measuring Containers 55 Measuring Tools • Measuring Spoons • Liquid Measuring Containers • Dry Measuring Containers 55

Seven Measures Measuring Spoons • Used for measuring small quantities • Available in variety Seven Measures Measuring Spoons • Used for measuring small quantities • Available in variety of styles • 1/4 teaspoon • 1/3 teaspoon • 1/2 teaspoon • 1 tablespoon 56

Seven Measures Ounce to Gallon Conversion • • • Fluid ounce Cup = 8 Seven Measures Ounce to Gallon Conversion • • • Fluid ounce Cup = 8 ounces Pint = 2 cups or 16 ounces Quart = 4 cups or 32 ounces or 2 pounds Gallon= 4 quarts or 128 ounces or 8 pounds 57

Common Conversions • • • 3 teaspoons = 1 tablespoon 2 tablespoons = 1 Common Conversions • • • 3 teaspoons = 1 tablespoon 2 tablespoons = 1 fluid ounce 2 tablespoons = 1/8 cup 4 tablespoons = 1/4 cup 5 1/3 tablespoons = 1/3 cup 58

Common Conversions, continued • • 8 tablespoons = 1/2 cup 10 2/3 tablespoons = Common Conversions, continued • • 8 tablespoons = 1/2 cup 10 2/3 tablespoons = 2/3 cup 12 tablespoons = 3/4 cup 16 tablespoons = 1 cup 59

Common Conversions, continued • • 8 fluid ounces = 1 cup 2 cups = Common Conversions, continued • • 8 fluid ounces = 1 cup 2 cups = 1 pint 4 cups = 1 quart 4 quarts = 1 gallon 60

Liquid Measuring Containers 61 Liquid Measuring Containers 61

Liquid Measuring Containers, continued • Available in metal and plastic • Plastic have graduations Liquid Measuring Containers, continued • Available in metal and plastic • Plastic have graduations on both sides; more accurate for liquid measuring • Available in a variety of sizes 62

Dry Measuring Containers • Usually metal for durability • Flat top edge for leveling Dry Measuring Containers • Usually metal for durability • Flat top edge for leveling contents 63

Weighing Tools • Balance Scales • Spring Scales • Electronic Scales 64 Weighing Tools • Balance Scales • Spring Scales • Electronic Scales 64

Balance Scales • Balance product weight against lead weights • Require several sizes of Balance Scales • Balance product weight against lead weights • Require several sizes of lead weights as cobalance Edlund Company™ 65

Spring Scales • Come in a variety of sizes • Dial may be fixed Spring Scales • Come in a variety of sizes • Dial may be fixed or adjustable • Pointer should be set to zero before using Edlund Company™ 66

Electronic Scales • Digital read out • Units of measure changed easily by flipping Electronic Scales • Digital read out • Units of measure changed easily by flipping switch • Should be reset after each measurement AJ A ntunes & Company™ 67

Portion Control Tools • • Scoops/Dishers/Dippers Spoodles Ladles Spoons 68 Portion Control Tools • • Scoops/Dishers/Dippers Spoodles Ladles Spoons 68

Scoops/Dishers/Dippers • Often are color coded • Range in size from 6 100 • Scoops/Dishers/Dippers • Often are color coded • Range in size from 6 100 • Size = number of level scoops/quart • Size on blade or handle 69

Spoodles • Combination spoon and ladle • Available in sizes from 2 oz to Spoodles • Combination spoon and ladle • Available in sizes from 2 oz to 8 oz • May be solid or perforated 70

Ladles • Available in sizes from 2 oz to 8 oz • Good for Ladles • Available in sizes from 2 oz to 8 oz • Good for soups, sauces, creamed foods, or other similar foods 71

Serving Spoons • Least accurate portion tool • Good for serving preportioned items • Serving Spoons • Least accurate portion tool • Good for serving preportioned items • May be solid, slotted, or perforated • Are not identified by a number 72

Basic Kitchen Skills • Desirable work habits; • Ability to organize the work to Basic Kitchen Skills • Desirable work habits; • Ability to organize the work to be done. Mise en place; • Correct use of standardized recipes, weights, and measures; • Proper use of equipment; and • Strict adherence to rules of food safety and sanitation. 73

Basic Cooking Methods • Moist Heat – Poaching, simmering, boiling, steaming, blanching, and shocking Basic Cooking Methods • Moist Heat – Poaching, simmering, boiling, steaming, blanching, and shocking • Dry Heat – Roasting, baking, sautéing, and stir-frying 74

Enhancing Flavors Enhance flavor by Examples Adding spices Nutmeg, Cinnamon, Cardamom Adding herbs Dill, Enhancing Flavors Enhance flavor by Examples Adding spices Nutmeg, Cinnamon, Cardamom Adding herbs Dill, Rosemary, Thyme, Cilantro, Oregano Adding seasoning foods Garlic, Onion, Leek, Lemon, Orange Tabasco, Soy Sauce, Worcestershire Browning, grilling, marinating, caramelizing Additional seasonings Cooking method 75