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HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY 3 rd Edition Marks Murray Evans Estacio Chapter 7 Food and the HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY 3 rd Edition Marks Murray Evans Estacio Chapter 7 Food and the Environment Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC

Chapter 7 Food and the Environment ● ● ● ● Eating and Obesity An Chapter 7 Food and the Environment ● ● ● ● Eating and Obesity An Evolutionary Perspective Hunter–Gatherers Past and Present The Agricultural Revolution The Industrial Revolution An Ecological Model Environmental Influences on Food Choices Food Promotion/advertising Influences on Children Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behaviour Content and Flavour of Foods Learning Food Preferences Interventions Summary Health Psychology (3 rd edition) Marks Murray Evans Estacio Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC

Eating and Obesity ● The World Health Organization predicts there will be 2. 3 Eating and Obesity ● The World Health Organization predicts there will be 2. 3 billion overweight adults in the world by 2015 and more than 700 million of them will be obese. ● Voluntary agreements with industry have proved completely ineffective. ● Food industry uses strategies to maintain their profits. ● A recent concern is a linking of eating habits to climate change. ● There also biological influences on body fat levels including genetic predisposition. Health Psychology (3 rd edition) Marks Murray Evans Estacio Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC

An Evolutionary Perspective ● Early humans were hunter–gatherers, killing and processing their food with An Evolutionary Perspective ● Early humans were hunter–gatherers, killing and processing their food with weapons and tools fashioned from pieces of volcanic obsidian. ● Because phylogenetic evolution is slow, the genetic make-up of contemporary humans remains adapted to a nomadic existence of gathering and hunting. ● Contemporary humans are not fitted to the lifestyle and forms of social organization that exist in today’s post-agricultural, postindustrial societies. ● The vast majority of humans live in cities, towns and villages. However, the toxic ecology of urban lifestyles are generating illhealth and disease on a massive scale. Health Psychology (3 rd edition) Marks Murray Evans Estacio Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC

Hunter–Gatherers Past and Present ● The hunter–gatherer hypothesis can be evaluated in the light Hunter–Gatherers Past and Present ● The hunter–gatherer hypothesis can be evaluated in the light of studies of contemporary hunter–gatherers. ● Four groups have been studied: Australian aboriginals; the San (or ‘Bushmen’) of the Kalahari Desert, especially of the !Kung language group; pygmies in the Congo Basin; and the Hadza of East Africa. ● It is believed that early hunter–gatherers spent less time working, building shelters and obtaining food than most humans did after the agricultural revolution. ● Powles (1992) suggested that the average daily energy expenditure for a male in post-industrial society is more than 25% less than that among hunter–gatherers. Health Psychology (3 rd edition) Marks Murray Evans Estacio Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC

The Agricultural Revolution ● About 10, 000 years BP (before present) ● Humans in The Agricultural Revolution ● About 10, 000 years BP (before present) ● Humans in the Middle East started living in densely populated villages and towns, cultivating wheat, barley and other cereals. ● Sheep and goats were kept in captivity and slaughtered for meat. ● The stabilizing influence of settlement also had adverse consequences: • Diet became less varied; • Levels of energy expenditure decreased; • Malnutrition, disease and infections became more prevalent; • Birth rate increased. Health Psychology (3 rd edition) Marks Murray Evans Estacio Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC

The Industrial Revolution ● About 200 years ago. ● Modern digital inventions and labour-saving The Industrial Revolution ● About 200 years ago. ● Modern digital inventions and labour-saving products have allowed for reductions in energy expenditure in tasks of daily living. ● The availability of Ready Meals, instant desserts and snacks means that food preparation is being moved from the domestic kitchen to the food-processing industry. ● Industry is slow to make improvements voluntarily. ● Health only becomes a higher priority than profit when there is a heavy consumer demand backed by policy and legislation. Health Psychology (3 rd edition) Marks Murray Evans Estacio Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC

An Ecological Model Fat and Feeling Fat ● A pan-European survey about body image An Ecological Model Fat and Feeling Fat ● A pan-European survey about body image found disparity between ideal and current body image was generally greater for females than males (European Commission, 1999). ● The obesity debate has focused on two main subjects: high fat foods and overweight people. ● A high level of ‘bad’ cholesterol in the blood – hypercholesterolemia – is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. ● Models of obesity have placed the cause at one of two levels: • individual overweight and obese people have been blamed for their ‘sloth’ and ‘gluttony’; • overweight and obese people are assumed to have a genetic predisposition to lowered metabolic rate (Webb, 1995). Health Psychology (3 rd edition) Marks Murray Evans Estacio Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC

The Toxic Environment ● The ecological approach to obesity sees obesity in the context The Toxic Environment ● The ecological approach to obesity sees obesity in the context of the individual’s relationship to the surrounding environment. ● Obesity is seen not as a disorder of individuals requiring treatment but an expected consequence of living in an environment that is designed to produce obesity. ● The average level of energy intake is falling more slowly than the average level of energy output. This imbalance has caused increases in average weight levels and prevalence of obesity. ● Without intervention at a policy level, the currently high prevalence of obese and overweight people is likely to remain evident for some considerable time. Health Psychology (3 rd edition) Marks Murray Evans Estacio Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC

Environmental Influences on Food Choices ● At the macro level are the consequences of Environmental Influences on Food Choices ● At the macro level are the consequences of policy, laws and regulations at a societal level. ● Micro level influences are at a family or individual level. ● The influences are also divisible into physical, economic and socio -economic categories. ● Remick, Polivy and Pliner (2009) argued that variety – how many different foods are accessible and available – is a key factor in determining food intake. ● Variety of food in the school environment certainly appears to play a key role in children’s food choices. ● Access to healthy food is a primary environmental factor at both macro and micro levels. Health Psychology (3 rd edition) Marks Murray Evans Estacio Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC

Food Promotion/advertising Influences on Children ● Every day in the US, children view an Food Promotion/advertising Influences on Children ● Every day in the US, children view an average of 15 TV food advertisements, 98% of these promoting high fat, sugar and/or sodium products. ● The Food Standards Agency (2003) published a systematic review finding a link between the amount of television viewing and diet, obesity and cholesterol levels. ● Dixon, Scully, Wakefield, White and Crawford (2007) surveyed children's TV viewing habits and associated these with foodrelated attitudes and behaviour. ● They found that changing the food-advertising environment on children's TV towards more nutritious foods would help to normalize and reinforce healthy eating. Health Psychology (3 rd edition) Marks Murray Evans Estacio Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC

Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behaviour (Harris, Bargh and Brownell, 2009) Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behaviour (Harris, Bargh and Brownell, 2009) ● Tested whether TV food advertising is capable of priming an increase in snack food consumption. ● One-half of the children were randomly assigned to watch a cartoon that included four 30 -second food commercials inserted during two advertising breaks. The commercials promoted snack and breakfast foods of poor nutritional quality using a fun and happiness message. ● The other half watched the same cartoon with four non-food commercials. ● Harris et al. found that children who saw food advertising ate 8. 8 g more during the 14 minutes of TV viewing. Health Psychology (3 rd edition) Marks Murray Evans Estacio Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC

Content and Flavour of Foods Fat and Fibre • Vegetables and fruit are protective Content and Flavour of Foods Fat and Fibre • Vegetables and fruit are protective for almost all of the major cancers. • Consumption of meat, especially red meat and processed meat, is linked with bowel, breast, prostate and pancreatic cancer. Salt • The Food Standards Agency (2009) stated that 26 million adults in the UK eat too much salt. • Salt (sodium chloride) has long been associated with essential hypertension. Sugar • Increasing obesity rates can be attributed in part to the prominence in our diet of the ‘empty’ calories of sugar that carry no nutritional value. Caffeine • Caffeine is the most popular drug on earth with more than 80% of the world’s population consuming it daily. • Because of its widespread usage even small increases in relative risk for heart disease or cancers could have large absolute effects. Health Psychology (3 rd edition) Marks Murray Evans Estacio Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC

Learning Food Preferences ● Although experience generally determines food choices, sweet tastes and possibly Learning Food Preferences ● Although experience generally determines food choices, sweet tastes and possibly fatty tastes are innately attractive while bitter tastes are innately avoided. Capaldi (1996) suggests that preferences for foods are modifiable in four ways: • Mere exposure; • Flavour–flavour learning: flavours that are repeatedly associated with an already preferred flavour such as saccharin will themselves become preferred. A sweetener produces liking in almost any other food with which it is mixed; • Flavour–nutrient learning: flavours that are repeatedly associated with a nutrient such as a protein become preferred; • Taste aversion learning: this occurs when a novel taste solution (the CS) is followed by an unpleasant stimulus (the UCS) that produces transient gastrointestinal illness or vomiting (the UR). Health Psychology (3 rd edition) Marks Murray Evans Estacio Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC

Interventions Individual-Level Interventions ● The quality of the research used to evaluate the interventions Interventions Individual-Level Interventions ● The quality of the research used to evaluate the interventions is of varied quality but mostly rather poor. ● Campbell and colleagues (2002) systematically reviewed interventions for preventing obesity in children but the results were non-significant overall. ● A second systematic review evaluated interventions for treating obesity in children (Summerbell et al. , 2004). These studies were too small to have the power to detect the effects of the treatment. ● A third systematic review assessed the evidence on advice on lowfat diets for obesity (Pirozzo et al. , 2004). Authors concluded that low-fat diets do no better than low-calorie diets in terms of longterm weight loss. Health Psychology (3 rd edition) Marks Murray Evans Estacio Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC

Bariatric Surgery ● Bariatric or weight loss surgery reduces the size of the stomach Bariatric Surgery ● Bariatric or weight loss surgery reduces the size of the stomach with an implanted device, by removal of a portion of the stomach or by resecting and re-routing the small intestines to a small stomach pouch. ● Such procedures are capable of producing significant long-term loss of weight, recovery from diabetes, improvement in cardiovascular risk factors and a reduction in mortality of 23% to 40% (Robinson, 2009). ● There are three main types of procedure: malabsorptive, restrictive and mixed. ● In the UK, the NHS is rationing the treatment to those with a BMI of 50 or even 60. Health Psychology (3 rd edition) Marks Murray Evans Estacio Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC

Community-Level Approaches ● These use legislation to control promotion of unhealthy foods and health Community-Level Approaches ● These use legislation to control promotion of unhealthy foods and health education to better inform consumers. ● Legislation suggestions are: • international standards on marketing unhealthy food products; • restrictions on the advertising and availability of unhealthy products in schools; • standard packaging and labelling of food products; • potential price or tax measures to reduce the demand for unhealthy products. ● De. Mattia and Denney (2008) note that a coordinated community approach is often missing from interventions designed to influence childhood obesity. ● Community approaches have a higher impact, provide a more efficient use of funds and are more cost effective than individual-level approaches (Tolley, 1985). Health Psychology (3 rd edition) Marks Murray Evans Estacio Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC

Summary ● The genetic make up of humans is adapted to a nomadic existence Summary ● The genetic make up of humans is adapted to a nomadic existence of hunting and gathering. ● The agricultural revolution brought deleterious changes to diet and lifestyle. ● Eating a balanced diet and setting an optimum balance between energy input and energy expenditure are key aspects of health. ● Four leading causes of death – cancer, coronary heart disease, stroke and obesity – are associated with Western diets. ● Obesity has multiple causes with inactivity playing a key role. ● Food preferences are influenced very early in life. ● An ecological approach analyses eating in the context of the surrounding environment. ● A diet high in fruit, vegetables and cereals and low in meat and fat is protective against cancer and chronic diseases. ● Community and population approaches to healthy eating have the potential for high impact and cost effectiveness. Health Psychology (3 rd edition) Marks Murray Evans Estacio Los Angeles | London | New Delhi Singapore | Washington DC