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Health Literacy Starter Kit: Basic Information and Resources for the Newcomer Paul D. Smith, Health Literacy Starter Kit: Basic Information and Resources for the Newcomer Paul D. Smith, MD Julie Mc. Kinney UW Department of Family Medicine Paul. Smith@fammed. wisc. edu World Education julie_mc. Kinney@worlded. org

Topics today n Definitions of literacy and health literacy n Why it matters n Topics today n Definitions of literacy and health literacy n Why it matters n Current trends n Resources

What is Literacy? National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL 2003) “Using printed and written What is Literacy? National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL 2003) “Using printed and written information to function in society, to achieve one's goals, and to develop one's knowledge and potential. ”

What is Literacy? n Literacy is a combination of skills: n Verbal Listening n What is Literacy? n Literacy is a combination of skills: n Verbal Listening n Reading Writing n Numeracy n Critical analysis

More than just reading grade level n Prose Literacy n Written text like instructions More than just reading grade level n Prose Literacy n Written text like instructions or newspaper article n Document literacy n Short forms or graphically displayed information found in everyday life n Quantitative Literacy n Arithmetic using numbers imbedded in print

What is Health Literacy? The Institute of Medicine 2004 “The degree to which individuals What is Health Literacy? The Institute of Medicine 2004 “The degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic information and services needed to make appropriate decisions regarding their health. ” http: //iom. edu/Reports/2004/Health-Literacy-A-Prescription-to-End-Confusion. aspx

What is Health Literacy? Calgary Charter, 2008 “Health literacy allows the public and personnel What is Health Literacy? Calgary Charter, 2008 “Health literacy allows the public and personnel working in all health-related contexts to find, understand, evaluate, communicate, and use information. “ centreforliteracy. qc. ca/health_literacy/calgary_charter

Health Literacy Includes: n Finding health information n Understanding it n Evaluating it n Health Literacy Includes: n Finding health information n Understanding it n Evaluating it n Communicating it n Using it…acting on it…to live longer and better!

Latest HL Concept? A Quiz: 1. Who’’s responsible for having good Health Literacy? A. Latest HL Concept? A Quiz: 1. Who’’s responsible for having good Health Literacy? A. The patient B. The health care providers C. Health care systems D. All of the above

Latest HL Concept? A Quiz: 1. What is the end result? A. People can Latest HL Concept? A Quiz: 1. What is the end result? A. People can find health info B. People can understand it C. People can evaluate it D. People communicate well about health needs and information E. People can take action to improve their health F. All of the above

Literacy and Health Literacy n Almost everyone will have difficulty with health literacy at Literacy and Health Literacy n Almost everyone will have difficulty with health literacy at some point. n Much harder for those that do not: n n Read very well. Speak English as their primary language.

Two Sides to the Equation n The Info-seekers: n Patients, Students, All of us! Two Sides to the Equation n The Info-seekers: n Patients, Students, All of us! n The Info-givers: n Health care providers, public health educators, health systems

People (Info-seekers) need to learn to: n Find health information n Understand it n People (Info-seekers) need to learn to: n Find health information n Understand it n Evaluate it n Communicate their needs and questions n Use what they learn…act on it…to live healthier!

The Info-givers need to learn to: n Help people to find health information n The Info-givers need to learn to: n Help people to find health information n Help them understand health information n Assure that we understand our patients and their concerns n Communicate clearly with patients n

The Info-givers need to learn to: n Anticipate and encourage questions n Help people The Info-givers need to learn to: n Anticipate and encourage questions n Help people evaluate choices n Evaluate our own programs to assure the outcomes we anticipate n Make it easier for people to use information: remove barriers to people taking action! n

In Their Own Words n Insert video clip here In Their Own Words n Insert video clip here

So What? n Who’s at risk? n What happens? So What? n Who’s at risk? n What happens?

2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy n Data released 12/05 n ~17, 000 people 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy n Data released 12/05 n ~17, 000 people participated n Over age 15 n Living in households and prisons

2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy n NAAL health literacy assessment n 28 questions 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy n NAAL health literacy assessment n 28 questions specifically related to health n 3 clinical n 14 prevention n 11 system navigation

2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy n 4 categories of literacy n Below basic 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy n 4 categories of literacy n Below basic n Basic n Intermediate n Proficient

NAAL Health Literacy Assessment n Below Basic literacy – one piece of information n NAAL Health Literacy Assessment n Below Basic literacy – one piece of information n Can: n Sign name on a document n Identify a country in a short article n Total a bank deposit slip

NAAL Health Literacy Assessment n Below Basic literacy – one piece of information n NAAL Health Literacy Assessment n Below Basic literacy – one piece of information n Cannot: n Enter information on a social security card application n Locate an intersection on street map n Calculate the total cost on an order form

NAAL Health Literacy Assessment n Basic literacy – two related pieces of information n NAAL Health Literacy Assessment n Basic literacy – two related pieces of information n Can: n Identify YTD gross pay on a paycheck n Determine price difference between tickets for 2 shows

NAAL Health Literacy Assessment n Basic literacy – two related pieces of information n NAAL Health Literacy Assessment n Basic literacy – two related pieces of information n Cannot: n Use a bus schedule n Balance a check book n Write a short letter explaining error on a credit card bill

Health literacy of U. S. Adults (NAAL, 2003) PLUS: 3% could NOT be tested Health literacy of U. S. Adults (NAAL, 2003) PLUS: 3% could NOT be tested 88% of U. S. Adults below Proficient level That is nearly 9 out of every 10 adults! ~ Andrew Pleasant, Canyon Ranch Institute

NAAL Health Literacy Assessment n Basic and Below Basic Health Literacy n Entire population NAAL Health Literacy Assessment n Basic and Below Basic Health Literacy n Entire population 36% n White 28% n Native Americans 48% n Blacks 58% n Hispanics 66%

NAAL Health Literacy Assessment n Basic and Below Basic by education level n In NAAL Health Literacy Assessment n Basic and Below Basic by education level n In High School, GED or HS grad 34 -37% n Less than/some High School 76%

Wisconsin Population Facts n Over 780, 000 adults n >age 15, n Are not Wisconsin Population Facts n Over 780, 000 adults n >age 15, n Are not in school n Do not have a high school diploma or equivalent

NAAL Health Literacy Assessment n Basic and Below Basic by Self -reported health status NAAL Health Literacy Assessment n Basic and Below Basic by Self -reported health status n Excellent 25% n Very Good 28% n Good 43% n Fair 63% n Poor 69%

The Impact of Low Literacy on Health Poorer health knowledge Poorer health status Higher The Impact of Low Literacy on Health Poorer health knowledge Poorer health status Higher mortality

The Impact of Low Literacy on Health Increased hospital use Increased Emergency Department use The Impact of Low Literacy on Health Increased hospital use Increased Emergency Department use Mixed results for: Use of preventive services Chronic health care Tobacco use

Poorer Health Knowledge Understanding prescription labels 395 patients 19% low literacy (6 th grade Poorer Health Knowledge Understanding prescription labels 395 patients 19% low literacy (6 th grade or less) 29% marginal literacy (7 -8 th grade) 52% adequate literacy (9 th grade and over) 5 prescription bottles Literacy and Misunderstanding Prescription Labels. Davis et al. Ann Intern Med 2006; 145: 887 -894

Poorer Health Knowledge At least one incorrect 63% low literacy 51% marginal literacy 38% Poorer Health Knowledge At least one incorrect 63% low literacy 51% marginal literacy 38% adequate literacy Literacy and Misunderstanding Prescription Labels. Davis et al. Ann Intern Med 2006; 145: 887 -894

Poorer Health Knowledge “Take two tablets twice daily” Stated correctly Demonstrated correctly 71% low Poorer Health Knowledge “Take two tablets twice daily” Stated correctly Demonstrated correctly 71% low literacy 35% 84% marginal literacy 63% 89% adequate literacy 80% “Show me how many pills you would take in one day. ” Counted out 4 tablets-correct

Poorer Health Status Diabetics with retinopathy 36% 19% Poorer Health Status Diabetics with retinopathy 36% 19%

Increased Mortality Age 70 -79 2512 participants Reading level 8 th grade or less Increased Mortality Age 70 -79 2512 participants Reading level 8 th grade or less Five Year Prospective Study Sudore R, et al. Limited Literacy and Mortality in the Elderly. J Gen Intern Med 2006; 21: 806 -812.

Increased Mortality Risk of Death Hazard ratio: 1. 75 Increased Mortality Risk of Death Hazard ratio: 1. 75

More Hospitalizations 2 year hospitalization rate for patients visiting ED 31% 14% More Hospitalizations 2 year hospitalization rate for patients visiting ED 31% 14%

A New Cause for Non-Compliance? n Medications n No-shows n Testing n Referral A New Cause for Non-Compliance? n Medications n No-shows n Testing n Referral

Where do we go from here? Vision: Every patient or their caregiver understands what Where do we go from here? Vision: Every patient or their caregiver understands what the health issue is, what to do about it and why it’s important.

How do we get there? n Education n Effective Communication n Universal Design n How do we get there? n Education n Effective Communication n Universal Design n If it works for people with limited literacy or limited English skills, it will work for everyone.

Re-Designing What We Do n Someone takes ownership of Health Literacy n Grass roots Re-Designing What We Do n Someone takes ownership of Health Literacy n Grass roots n Leadership buy in = resources : people and $ n Infuse health literacy concepts in new programs and redesign of current materials and processes

Trends: What People are Doing n Research and Interventions n Prescription labeling n Integrating Trends: What People are Doing n Research and Interventions n Prescription labeling n Integrating health literacy into medical education

Trends: What People are Doing n Policy initiatives n Regional health literacy efforts n Trends: What People are Doing n Policy initiatives n Regional health literacy efforts n National health literacy association n Effective communication

Research and Interventions n Literacy research in medicine only goes back about 25 years Research and Interventions n Literacy research in medicine only goes back about 25 years n Research idea to published article: Foundation funding: 2 -3 years or more Federal funding: 5 -9 years n Interventions are just starting to be tested

Prescription Labeling n Michael Wolf and other’s work: n Spanish, Chinese, Vietnamese, Russian, Korean Prescription Labeling n Michael Wolf and other’s work: n Spanish, Chinese, Vietnamese, Russian, Korean prescription instructions n http: //www. pharmacy. ca. gov/publications/translations_spanish. pdf n Food n and Drug Administration (FDA) Communicating Risks and Benefits http: //www. fda. gov/downloads/About. FDA/. . . /UCM 268069. pdf n United n States Pharmacopeia (USP) New prescription labeling requirements http: //www. pharmacy. ca. gov/laws_regs/labeling_requirements. pdf

Integrating HL into Medical Education n History n Cliff Coleman presentation n Video and Integrating HL into Medical Education n History n Cliff Coleman presentation n Video and Power. Point will be available n New standards coming out soon

Trends: Policy Supports for HL n Joint Commission standards n http: //www. jointcommission. org/assets/1/6/2009_CLASRelated. Trends: Policy Supports for HL n Joint Commission standards n http: //www. jointcommission. org/assets/1/6/2009_CLASRelated. Standards. CAH. pdf n National Action Plan n http: //www. health. gov/communication/hlactionplan/ n Accountable Care Act n http: //www. healthcare. gov/law/index. html n 10 attributes of a health literate organization n http: //iom. edu/Global/Perspectives/2012/Health. Lit. Attributes. aspx

Regional Health Literacy Efforts n At least 21 states have initiatives at various stages Regional Health Literacy Efforts n At least 21 states have initiatives at various stages of development and reach n Summit pre-conference meeting n CDC website + map n http: //www. cdc. gov/healthliteracy

National HL Association n Early efforts under way n Summit pre-conference meeting n Pre-conference National HL Association n Early efforts under way n Summit pre-conference meeting n Pre-conference meeting at IHA next month

Effective Communication n Verbal communication n Teach Back n Shared Decision Making n CAPHS Effective Communication n Verbal communication n Teach Back n Shared Decision Making n CAPHS questions n Written communication n It’s harder than it looks n Reading grade level matters, but much more to making a document understandable n Plain Language

Why are Literacy Programs a good venue to address health literacy? • Environment Population Why are Literacy Programs a good venue to address health literacy? • Environment Population Teacher

Trends: Adult Education and HL n Integrating health literacy into literacy and English instruction Trends: Adult Education and HL n Integrating health literacy into literacy and English instruction n Empowering people to self advocate n Addressing health care access

Trends: Adult Education and HL n Partnering with health centers and other organizations n Trends: Adult Education and HL n Partnering with health centers and other organizations n Advising health care delivery n Preparing people and health care for the Accountable Care Act

Partnerships Between Literacy & Health Organizations n Health curricula in literacy/English classes n Guest Partnerships Between Literacy & Health Organizations n Health curricula in literacy/English classes n Guest speakers from local health centers n Mini exams from nursing students n Health fairs

Newer Partnerships n Student navigation assessments for hospitals n Students testing written materials n Newer Partnerships n Student navigation assessments for hospitals n Students testing written materials n Teachers advising health care providers n Teachers and students consulting to helath programs

Newer Partnerships n Statewide and multi-state coalitions n Cross referrals n Dual Projects Newer Partnerships n Statewide and multi-state coalitions n Cross referrals n Dual Projects

Adult Education Jargon n ABE = Adult Basic Education n ASE = Adult Secondary Adult Education Jargon n ABE = Adult Basic Education n ASE = Adult Secondary Education n ESL = English as a Second Language n ESOL = English for Speakers of Other Languages n ELL =English Language Learners

Adult Literacy Curricula n Health Literacy Wisconsin n http: //www. healthliteracywisconsin. org/article. jsp? cat Adult Literacy Curricula n Health Literacy Wisconsin n http: //www. healthliteracywisconsin. org/article. jsp? cat =adult. Literacy. Curricula n Health Literacy Special Collection n http: //www. healthliteracy. worlded. org/curricula 1. htm

Health Care Access n Study Circle for Adult Literacy Teachers n ncsall. net/index. html@id=891. Health Care Access n Study Circle for Adult Literacy Teachers n ncsall. net/index. html@id=891. html n List of resources & curricula for health care access n healthliteracy. worlded. org/docs/family/easy. ht ml#healthcare

Accountable Care Act n Summary and download: n healthcare. gov/law/index. html n Health Literacy Accountable Care Act n Summary and download: n healthcare. gov/law/index. html n Health Literacy implications of the Affordable Care Act n chcs. org/publications 3960/publications_show. htm? doc_id=1261193

Affordable Care Act Tomorrow here at the Summit: Plenary Presentation n Wed. 10 -11: Affordable Care Act Tomorrow here at the Summit: Plenary Presentation n Wed. 10 -11: 00 a. m. n Health Literacy and the Affordable Care Act n n Bonnie Braun, Ph. D Caroline Gomez, MSW

Resources for Partnering: n Health Literacy Wisconsinwww. healthliteracywisconsin. org/co llaboration n Health Literacy Special Resources for Partnering: n Health Literacy Wisconsinwww. healthliteracywisconsin. org/co llaboration n Health Literacy Special Collection www. healthliteracy. worlded. org/initiatives. htm n America’s Literacy Directory www. literacydirectory. org

Join the LINCS Community! Community of Practice for health literacy advocates from all over Join the LINCS Community! Community of Practice for health literacy advocates from all over https: //community. lincs. ed. gov/ n Register for free and join the Health Literacy Group n Share with and learn from over 1, 000 others n Keep up on the latest HL news n Enrich your HL experience! n

What can YOU do? n Learn more n Find partners n Start re-designing n What can YOU do? n Learn more n Find partners n Start re-designing n Processes n Forms and other documents n Curricula and training

More Resources More Resources

Collections n Health Literacy Wisconsin n http: //www. healthliteracywisconsin. org/resourc es. jsp n Health Collections n Health Literacy Wisconsin n http: //www. healthliteracywisconsin. org/resourc es. jsp n Health Literacy Special Collection n http: //www. healthliteracy. worlded. org/index. ht m n CDC Health Literacy Page n http: //www. cdc. gov/healthliteracy/index. html

Using the National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy n Summary and download: n Using the National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy n Summary and download: n cdc. gov/healthliteracy/planact/ n Planning Guide n At link above n What People are Doing with it n lincs. ed. gov/lincs/discussions/healthliteracy/11 actionplan_transcript

Universal Precautions Toolkit n Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit n http: //www. ahrq. gov/qual/literacy/ Universal Precautions Toolkit n Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit n http: //www. ahrq. gov/qual/literacy/

AHRQ Summary n AHRQ Summary of Literacy and Health Outcomes n http: //www. ahrq. AHRQ Summary n AHRQ Summary of Literacy and Health Outcomes n http: //www. ahrq. gov/downloads/pub/evidence/ pdf/literacyup. pdf

RED: Discharge Project n Re. Engineering Discharge project (RED) n Decrease 30 -day rehospitalization: RED: Discharge Project n Re. Engineering Discharge project (RED) n Decrease 30 -day rehospitalization: 20% to 15% n Decrease Emergency Dept. use: 24% to 16% n https: //www. bu. edu/fammed/projectred/

Evaluate Current Environments n Advancing Effective Communication, Cultural Competence, and Patient- and Family-Centered Care- Evaluate Current Environments n Advancing Effective Communication, Cultural Competence, and Patient- and Family-Centered Care- A Roadmap for Hospitals (2010) n http: //www. jointcommission. org/assets/1/6/ARoadmapf or. Hospitalsfinalversion 727. pdf n Is Our Pharmacy Meeting Patients' Needs? Pharmacy Health Literacy Assessment Tool User's Guide n http: //www. ahrq. gov/qual/pharmlit/

CAHPS: Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems n Created for the federal Agency CAHPS: Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems n Created for the federal Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) n General CAHPS website n http: //cahps. ahrq. gov/ n Health literacy supplement of CAHPS n https: //www. cahps. ahrq. gov/clinician_group/cgsurvey/ aboutitemsetaddressinghealthliteracy. pdf