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Описание презентации Harmful Hazardous Hazard is the potential по слайдам
Hazard is the potential for harm. A hazard is often associated with a condition or activity that can cause undesired consequences such as injury or illness if left uncontrolled. Basically, a hazard can cause harm or adverse health effects to individuals or to organizations as property or equipment losses.
Types of hazard
1) Chemical hazards Chemicals can affect skin by contact. Chemicals can also enter our body either through the inhalation or digestive system if air is contaminated with chemicals, vapor, mist or dust. The accumulation of chemicals in or on our body will cause acute (immediate) effect or chronic (long-term) effect.
2) Physical hazards Physical hazard will cause injury risks on our body. This category includes the hazards from working in confined spaces, being hit by flying objects, caught in explosions, hurt by collapsing machinery, falling from heights and tripping on obstacles.
3) Biological hazards (biohazards) Biohazards refer to biological substances that pose a harm to the health ofliving organisms. Sources of biological hazards may include insects, bacteria, fungi, plants, worms, animals and viruses. These sources can cause a variety of health effects ranging from skin irritation and allergies to infections, cancer and so on.
4) Ergonomic hazards refer to workplace conditions that pose the risk of injury to the musculoskeletal system of the worker. These injuries can be caused by performing repetitive and forceful movements and awkward postures that arise from improper work methods and improperly designed workstations, tools, and equipment.
5) Noise hazards Excessive noise can disrupt concentration, interfere with communication and result in loss of hearing. High impact noises are particularly damaging. Noise can also mask out signals and affecting communication with others.
What is Hazard Analysis?
Hazard Analysis. Analysing their potential causes First step in a process used to assessrisk Result of a hazard analysis is the identification of different type of hazards. Process of recognizing hazards that may arise from a system or its environment
Job Hazard Analysi s. Technique that focuses on job tasks as a way to identify hazards before they occur Identify hazards potentially created by a product, process or application Technique to identify the dangers of specific tasks in order to reduce the risk of injury to workers. Focuses on the relationshi p between the worker, the task, the tools, and the work environment
Determine the hazards and hazardous events of the equipment under control and the control system Analyse the event sequences leading to the hazardous events identified To analyse therisk associated with the hazardous events. Identify hazards Identify causes Determine risks Hazard Analysis Objective s
Why Hazard Analysis important?
Importance / Benefit To train workers how to do their jobs safely Policies and procedure improvedinvestigat e accidents Increase quality Decrease injury rate.
identify what personal protective equipment Hearing protection Body protection Eye protection Foot protection Material handling aids Hand protection Respirator y protection
Hazard Analysis Procedure
Examine the job and determine the components Identify tasks likely to present hazards Identify and assess hazards Determine and devise controls measures Develop safe work procedures if hazards cannot be eliminated
How to identify and analyze hazard?
Identifying The Hazards Identify the hazards of each step. For each hazard, ask: What can go wrong? What are the consequences? How could it arise? What are other contributing factors? How likely is it that the hazard will occur?
HAZARD ANALYSIS METHODS
Hazard may be realized or unrealized Realized hazard – has happened in the past and can therefore be identified from experience. Unrealized hazard – is a potential for a hazardous situation that has not happened yet but can be recognized by analyzing the characteristic of an environment or failure modes of equipment item.
Hazard analysis methods include : Process Hazard Analysis Event Tree Analysis Failure Modes And Effect Analysis Fault Tree Analysis Cause-consequence Diagram Hazard And Operability Studies
1) PROCESS HAZARD ANALYSIS A systematic method designed to identify and analyze hazards associated with the processing or handling of highly hazardous material PHA analyzes -The potential causes and consequences of fires, explosions and releases of toxic chemicals — the equipment, instrumentation, human actions and other factors which might affect the process.
The Most Hazardous Processes Are First — Most hazardous processes must evaluated first — All PHA must completed as soon as possible — PHA must be updated at least every five years
2) Event Tree Analysis (ETA) ETA defines the consequential events which flow from the primary ‘initiating’ event. Event trees are used to investigate the consequences of loss-making events in order to find ways of mitigating rather than preventing losses.
3) Failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA) To identify which failures in a system can lead to undesirable situation. Particularly suited to electrical and mechanical processes. Result are strongly dependent on analyst’s understanding of the failure modes Effects of failure modes can be quantified
4) Fault tree analysis (FTA) To evaluate the economic justification for carrying out improvement to a system FTA works back from the undesired or “top event” to the contributing causes(backward reasoning logic techniques) To identify the causes of top event
Example of FT
5) Cause-Consequence analysis (CCA) Is proving to be a very useful tool to depict and maintain an up-to date, real-time working riskmanagementsystem enthralled in daily operations (e. g. operational). These diagrams combine the inductive and deductive reasoning of logical diagrams (e. g. ETA, FTA) to identify the basic causes and consequences of potential accidents.
6) Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP) A structured and systematic method that identifies equipment that is being used in a way that it was not designed to be, and which might create hazards and operational problems. HAZOPs are usually conducted by multi-skilled team that studies piping and instrument diagrams. Each pipeline and vessel is evaluated for certain limitations and deviations in flow, temperature, pressure, etc.