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Handover Control in CDMA Radio Networks Hongying Yin Feb. 11 th 2003 Helsinki University Handover Control in CDMA Radio Networks Hongying Yin Feb. 11 th 2003 Helsinki University of Technology hongying. [email protected] com 1 S-72. 333 Post–graduated Course in Radio Communication,

Content 1. Handover • • • Soft handover Softer handover Inter-frequency handover Intra-frequency handover Content 1. Handover • • • Soft handover Softer handover Inter-frequency handover Intra-frequency handover Inter-system handover 2. Cell info for Handover Measurement Reporting • • Neighbour cell definitions Cell List 3. Measurement Reporting Criteria • Intrafrequency measurements • • Interfrequency and Intersystem Measurements UE Internal Measurements 4. Reporting Measurement Results 2 S-72. 333 Post–graduated Course in Radio Communication,

Soft Handover (1/2) In a soft handover, a terminal is connected simultaneously to more Soft Handover (1/2) In a soft handover, a terminal is connected simultaneously to more than one base station via several handover branches. The group of base stations communicating with the terminal during soft handover is called the active set. Based on signal strength decisions involving various thresholds, branches can be added to or removed from the connection at any time, in other words base stations can be added to or removed from the active set. Such actions are referred to as ”active set update” procedures. 3 S-72. 333 Post–graduated Course in Radio Communication,

Soft Handover (2/2) 4 S-72. 333 Post–graduated Course in Radio Communication, Soft Handover (2/2) 4 S-72. 333 Post–graduated Course in Radio Communication,

Softer Handover (1/2) A softer handover is performed between two adjacent sectors of the Softer Handover (1/2) A softer handover is performed between two adjacent sectors of the same base station. w In downlink, soft and softer handover is very similar from the terminal point of view (signal replicas are simply combined in the Rake receiver). w In uplink, there is a major difference between soft and softer handover. – In soft handover branches, signal replicas can only be combined within the Radio Network Controller (RNC) – In softer handover branches, signal replicas can be combined earlier - within the base station. 5 S-72. 333 Post–graduated Course in Radio Communication,

Softer Handover (2/2) 6 S-72. 333 Post–graduated Course in Radio Communication, Softer Handover (2/2) 6 S-72. 333 Post–graduated Course in Radio Communication,

Hard Handover This type of handover is well-known from GSM. A hard handover may Hard Handover This type of handover is well-known from GSM. A hard handover may take place: w Between channels carried by two different frequencies within the same cell or adjacent cells (both cases are referred to as interfrequency handovers); w Between UTRA FDD and UTRA TDD channels (intermode handover); w Between UMTS and GSM channels (intersystem handover) w In addition, in such situations where the Iur interface between two RNCs is not available for soft handover, a hard handover can be performed - using the same frequency from a cell belonging to one RNC to a cell belonging to the other RNC (intrafrequency handover). 7 S-72. 333 Post–graduated Course in Radio Communication,

Hard/Interfrequency Handover 8 S-72. 333 Post–graduated Course in Radio Communication, Hard/Interfrequency Handover 8 S-72. 333 Post–graduated Course in Radio Communication,

Hard/Intrafrequency Handover 9 S-72. 333 Post–graduated Course in Radio Communication, Hard/Intrafrequency Handover 9 S-72. 333 Post–graduated Course in Radio Communication,

Inter-System Handover 10 S-72. 333 Post–graduated Course in Radio Communication, Inter-System Handover 10 S-72. 333 Post–graduated Course in Radio Communication,

Handover Measurement Reporting - Neighbour cell definitions w Intrafrequency neighbour list: The UE must Handover Measurement Reporting - Neighbour cell definitions w Intrafrequency neighbour list: The UE must be able to monitor at least 32 cells on the same WCDMA carrier frequency as the serving cell. w Interfrequency neighbour list: The UE must be able to monitor at least 32 cells in all on two WCDMA carrier frequencies in addition to the serving cell. w Intersystem neighbour lists: A separate list is needed for each neighbouring PLMN. Max of 32 interfrequency neighbour must be supported by UE. 11 S-72. 333 Post–graduated Course in Radio Communication,

Handover Measurement Reporting - WCDMA Neighbour Cell List Info w Global RNC Identifier (PLMN Handover Measurement Reporting - WCDMA Neighbour Cell List Info w Global RNC Identifier (PLMN id MCC and MNC, RNC id) w Cell ID w Location Area Code (LAC) w Routing Area Code (RAC) w UTRA Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (UARFCN) w Scrambing code of the Primary Common Pilot Channel (P -CPICH) 12 S-72. 333 Post–graduated Course in Radio Communication,

Handover Measurement Reporting - GSM Neighbour Cell List Info w Cell Global ID CGI Handover Measurement Reporting - GSM Neighbour Cell List Info w Cell Global ID CGI = MCC + MNC + LAC + CI w BCCH frequency w Base Station ID Code BSIC = BCC + NCC 13 S-72. 333 Post–graduated Course in Radio Communication,

Measurement Reporting Criteria - Intrafrequency Measurements w Mobile Equipment Handover Type (MEHO) w RAN Measurement Reporting Criteria - Intrafrequency Measurements w Mobile Equipment Handover Type (MEHO) w RAN broadcasts the measurements reporting criteria for intrafrequency measurements in BCCH. w When criteria is fulfilled, UE reports the measurement results to RNC. w RNC makes the HO decisions. 14 S-72. 333 Post–graduated Course in Radio Communication,

Measurement Reporting Criteria - Interfrequency and Intersystem Measurements w Network Handover Type (NEHO) w Measurement Reporting Criteria - Interfrequency and Intersystem Measurements w Network Handover Type (NEHO) w Interfrequency and Intersystem measurements are made only when RNC sends orders. w A separate measurements reporting criteria is sent to UE. w UE will periodically reports the results to RNC. w The measurement is controlled by: – Reporting duration – Reporting interval 15 S-72. 333 Post–graduated Course in Radio Communication,

Measurement Reporting Criteria - UE Internal Measurements w UE internal measurements criteria are controlled: Measurement Reporting Criteria - UE Internal Measurements w UE internal measurements criteria are controlled: – cell-by-cell basis and – parameters common to all cells in the whole RNC. w Network sends the measurement information on DCCH rather than BCCH. w UE reports the measurement results to RNC when the measurement criteria is fulfilled. 16 S-72. 333 Post–graduated Course in Radio Communication,

Measurement Results Reporting w Event-triggered intrafrequency measurement report w Periodic intrafrequency measurement report w Measurement Results Reporting w Event-triggered intrafrequency measurement report w Periodic intrafrequency measurement report w Intersystem measurement report w Measurement reports on common channels w Quality deterioration report 17 S-72. 333 Post–graduated Course in Radio Communication,

Measurement Results Reporting - Reporting of the Intrafrequency Measurements w UE is constantly monitoring Measurement Results Reporting - Reporting of the Intrafrequency Measurements w UE is constantly monitoring – P-CPICH Ec/I 0 neighbor cells – Evaluating the reporting criteria w UE sends an event-trigger report when one of the events is fulfilled. w Some other factors also taken into accounts during the measurements. 18 S-72. 333 Post–graduated Course in Radio Communication,

Report of the Measurement Results - Time-to-Trigger Mechanism w Frequent reporting excessive signalling load Report of the Measurement Results - Time-to-Trigger Mechanism w Frequent reporting excessive signalling load w Each report event can be connected with timer 19 S-72. 333 Post–graduated Course in Radio Communication,

Report of the Measurement Results - Event-Triggered/Periodic Reporting w Event-triggered reporting results in an Report of the Measurement Results - Event-Triggered/Periodic Reporting w Event-triggered reporting results in an access stratum update. w If access stratum can not be updated because of lack of capabilities or HW resources, UE will send periodic report. 20 S-72. 333 Post–graduated Course in Radio Communication,

Exercise w Explanation of what is soft handover, softer handover and hard handover. 21 Exercise w Explanation of what is soft handover, softer handover and hard handover. 21 S-72. 333 Post–graduated Course in Radio Communication,

Abbreviation and Definition w w w BCCH: broadcast control channel CPICH: common pilot channel Abbreviation and Definition w w w BCCH: broadcast control channel CPICH: common pilot channel DCCH: dedicated control channel Ec/I 0: ratio in decibels (d. B) of the pilot energy accumulated over one PN chip period (Ec) to the total power spectral density in the received bandwidth (I 0) FDD: frequency division duplex Iur: logical interface for the interconnection of two radio network controller (RNC) components of the UMTS terrestrial radio access network (UTRAN) system. MCC: mobile country code MNC: mobile network code TDD: time division duplex UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecommunications System UTRA: UMTS terrestrial radio access Uu: Radio interface between the UMTS terrestrial radio access network (UTRAN) and user equipment (UE) 22 S-72. 333 Post–graduated Course in Radio Communication,

References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Jaana Laiho, Achim Wacker, and Tomás Novosad: References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Jaana Laiho, Achim Wacker, and Tomás Novosad: “Radio Network Planning and Optimisation for UMTS”, Wiley 2002. Jens Zander and Seong-Luyn Kim: “Radio Resource Management for Wirless Networks”, Artech House 2001. Holma & Toskala: "WCDMA for UMTS, Radio Access for Third Generation Mobile Communications", John Wiley & Sons. T. Ojanpera &etc. ”wideband CDMA for Third Generation Mobile Communications” , Artech House Publishers. Gordon L. Stüber: ”Principle of Mobile Communication”, 2 nd edition, Kluwer Academic Publishers. Nokia Internal training materials for CDMA/WCDMA/UMTS. 23 S-72. 333 Post–graduated Course in Radio Communication,