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Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC Summary An Evaluation of Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC Summary An Evaluation of the Haiti Earthquake 2010 Meeting Shelter Needs: Issues, Achievements and Constraints Summary of coordination issues & thoughts about actual situation 31 October – IFRC SHELTER COORDINATION WORKSHOP, Geneva www. ifrc. org Saving lives, changing minds.

Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC A. Context & Purpose Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC A. Context & Purpose of the evaluation… Summary 1. IFRC conducted review of the Haiti Shelter Coordination Team’s performance for its deployment till November 2010. During this exercise, the need to evaluate the shelter response as a all was expressed by different stakeholders 2. IFRC commissioned an external evaluation (Consultants: Alfonso Calzadilla Beunza - Ignacio Martin Eresta) to respond to this request: “An Evaluation of the Haiti Earthquake 2010, Meeting Shelter Needs: Issues, Achievements and Constraints”. The objective of the review is to better understand the issues that shelter agencies dealt with in Haiti in 2010. 3. This evaluation covers only the period of Federation-led Shelter Coordination Team , between February 10 th and November 10 th 2010. . 4. It aims to identify achievements and constraints in meeting the short and medium-term shelter needs, considers views on the response by a sample of the affected population who received support, and addresses implications for interim shelter responses, in order to identify key issues to improve upon and to provide information for future responses. www. ifrc. org Saving lives, changing minds.

Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC B. Executive Summary, Meeting Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC B. Executive Summary, Meeting shelter needs… Summary 1. The January 12 th 2010 Haiti earthquake was one of the most severe and complex disasters the international humanitarian system has had to respond to. In this sense, the authors wish to begin this report by acknowledging the enormous effort, commitment and achievements of all the international and national actors who responded to the shelter needs. 2. The first emergency shelter response was relevant and effective; providing emergency shelter support to 1. 5 M people in four months was a great achievement. (BUT) The shelter sector did not accurately measure follow up emergency shelter needs 3. There were many limitations to performing needs and damage assessments and it was unclear whose responsibility it was to undertake them 4. (…)this widely supported strategy was unrealistic in timing and cost-wise and was not flexible enough. 5. There has been reluctance by most shelter agencies to start repairing damaged houses. 6. The transitional shelter response was supply driven to a large extent, with the agencies often taking programming decisions based on their previous know-how, supposed ease of implementation, outcome control, liability concerns and/or visibility, and not so much on the demand (affected population’s plans and needs). www. ifrc. org Saving lives, changing minds.

Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC Summary www. ifrc. org Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC Summary www. ifrc. org Saving lives, changing minds.

Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC C. Executive Summary, Strategy, Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC C. Executive Summary, Strategy, planning and coordination … Summary 1. Analysis of the Haiti shelter response shows the need for having and implementing a long term comprehensive approach, with flexible demand-driven ranges of responses, an integrated lead and a clear national shelter sector’s scope. 2. The scale and context of the disaster (…) challenge was well managed in the emergency phase by the massive delivery of standardized support for the emergency shelter solutions 3. In the transitional stage, this leap could have been addressed in more innovative ways by promoting more self-driven responses and adapting solutions to the Haitian post-earthquake context. 4. The Shelter Cluster lead’s advocacy role should be reinforced and become more assertive and intensive, pressing and challenging the shelter agencies to commit to a broader approach regarding transitional shelter, and addressing their specific challenges. 5. A continuous review and updating of strategies, plans and goals could have been done, making them flexible enough to be adapted to on-going findings. The transitional shelter strategy could have been revised when it became obvious that goals and deadlines would not be met, resulting in a more comprehensive longer-term transitional shelter or permanent housing approach for part of the targeted population (…) but shelter agencies’ programmes were not flexible enough www. ifrc. org Saving lives, changing minds.

Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC D. Executive Summary, Strategy, Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC D. Executive Summary, Strategy, planning and coordination … Summary 1. Planning should integrate a more realistic timeframe and budget and establish milestones to solve constraints that must be dealt with to continue. 2. While the shelter response was initially planned with a contiguum approach as a simultaneous combination of emergency, transitional and permanent shelter, its implementation soon developed to a linear sequence, in a continuum approach 3. Carrying out the three types of shelter support side by side, in order to respond effectively to all aspects and areas, could have allowed a faster delivery of the transitional solutions and an earlier engagement in permanent shelter (housing repair or reconstruction). 4. The contiguum approach may have also been hampered by some opposed positions within the shelter sector and between clusters, leading to shelter sector groups (e. g. land tenure, host families) and others outside the shelter sector (e. g. Lodgement quartier group) to work in shelter related issues too independently and not linking their outcomes or (not) complementing each other’s efforts enough. www. ifrc. org Saving lives, changing minds.

Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC E. Executive Summary, Strategy, Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC E. Executive Summary, Strategy, planning and coordination … Summary 1. The shelter sector initially assumed a leading position within a multi-cluster approach, and soon narrowed its strategic focus, formally delegating key issues (rubble clearance, land tenure, housing repair) to other clusters, but without considering the other clusters’ real capacities to deal with them 2. The shelter sector scope at country level should be more clearly stated, and discussion on key issues for shelter response should be based on the skills and abilities of shelter actors. 3. Coordination of the international response (…), was complex and that, added to the great number of humanitarian actors (…), made it difficult to agree upon all aspects of the response hence to achieve a common response plan from relief to reconstruction. 4. The Inter-cluster and Humanitarian Coordination should also ensure that there are no gaps or overlapping of responsibilities among clusters, therefore safeguarding an integrated performance. www. ifrc. org Saving lives, changing minds.

Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC F. Findings of the Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC F. Findings of the review , General Coordination System difficulties… Summary 1. Unilateral action over coordination and lack of reliable tracking of aid According to estimations private funding amounts to 80% of the total aid (…) Consequently, the tracking of the aid became less reliable. 2. Unknown number of humanitarian actors The exact number of actors remains unclear, estimations fall in a wide range of between 400 to 8. 000 organizations. 3. High staff turnover OCHA Head of Office was only appointed in August 2010; UNDP appointed a definitive ER Cluster coordinator after August 2010, following several short-term coordinators; between January and November 2010, there were seven personnel changes in the post of SC Coordinator, three of which took place before the IFRC became cluster lead. Only CCCM Cluster had the same coordinator since February 2010. 4. Complexity and weaknesses of the response coordination structure complex accumulation of several coordination structures, whose linkage was never clear, creating both overlapping and gaps between MINUSTAH, IHRC, JOTC and the Cluster system. 5. National-International coordination. ( What About the French? ) extended opinion of the existence of constraints to local participation in the strategic decisions (…) to build a barrier between the international response system and the Haitian institutions. www. ifrc. org Saving lives, changing minds.

Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC Summary 1. G. Findings Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC Summary 1. G. Findings of the review , The inter-cluster roles distribution and the SC’s narrowed Scope… First days after the earthquake Cluster Responsibility Clearing surface water drainage Rubble removal, especially when land is released for shelter or reconstruction Early Recovery Cluster Recovery and livelihoods CCCM Cluster Sites used for transitional settlements WASH Cluster Water and sanitation provision Protection Cluster Protection monitoring and support www. ifrc. org Saving lives, changing minds.

Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC Summary 1. H. Findings Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC Summary 1. H. Findings of the review , The inter-cluster roles distribution and the SC’s narrowed Scope… Mid March Cluster (Haiti) Responsibility Emergency Shelter Transitional Shelter Cluster Shelter NFIs Host Families (SC Core responsibility, but including other clusters work) Land Tenure and Property Early Recovery Cluster Permanent Housing Urban Planning Rubble Removal CCCM Cluster www. ifrc. org Saving lives, changing minds. Site selection, Camp Planning

Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC Summary 1. I. Findings Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC Summary 1. I. Findings of the review , The inter-cluster roles distribution and the SC’s narrowed Scope… Evolution of the Coordination Capacities of the Haiti Shelter Cluster and Early Recovery Cluster 30 25 24 20 21 18 15 13 10 12 17 14 12 8 5 4 3 0 Jan. 10 Feb. 10 Early Recovery Cluster Shelter Cluster Jan 2010 IOM lead Coord 2 -3 pers in Capacities Pa. P Mar. 10 Apr. 10 Feb 2010 IOM handover to IFRC. 6 pers in Pa. P + 1 in Léogâne 1 in Jacmel 2 pers in Pa. P Coord + 1 in 3 pers in Pa. P Capacities Léogâne 1 in Jacmel www. ifrc. org Saving lives, changing minds. May. 10 Mar 2010 Jul. 10 Apr 2010 Aug. 10 May 2010 Sept. 10 Jul 2010 Oct. 10 Aug 2010 Nov. 10 Sep 2010 Oct 2010 Dec. 10 Nov 2010 8 pers in 9 pers in Pa. P 8 pers in 14 pers in Pa. P+2 in + 2 in Pa. P+3 in Léogâne & 2 Léogâne & 1 2 in in Jacmel 2 in Jacmel 17 pers in 18 pers in Pa. P+3 in Léogâne & 1 Léogâne & in Jacmel 1 in Jacmel 2 pers in 4 pers + 2 Pa. P + 1 in pers for Léogâne+ 1 LQG in Jacmel 2 pers in 1 pers in Pa. P + 1 in Jacmel IFRC to 14 pers in UNHABIT Pa. P+2 in AT - From Léogâne & 14 to 4 1 in Jacmel pers

Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC J. Conclusions… Summary 1. Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC J. Conclusions… Summary 1. An earthquake with huge impact 2. Limited needs and damages assessment and unclear responsibilities to do them 3. The first emergency shelter response was relevant and effective 4. Protracted emergency shelter needs impacted the overall shelter response 5. It cannot be affirmed that humanitarian aid in camps was a main pull factor 6. Progressive weakness of the shelter strategy’s leading role 7. Conflicting positions within the shelter actors and between clusters 8. Scale of the disaster and quantitative leap in shelter response www. ifrc. org Saving lives, changing minds.

Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC J. Conclusions… Summary 1. Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC J. Conclusions… Summary 1. Response’s deficient adaptation to the context. Imported approaches failure 2. Narrowed transitional shelter approach. Supply driven response and bottlenecks emergence 3. Scope and “Tracking power” (How to make shelter cluster strength spreading? ) 4. T-Shelter strategy was unrealistic time and cost-wise and not flexible enough 5. T-Shelter approach’s critical time of relevance 6. Low synergy with the affected population capacities 7. Half-way satisfaction of the local authorities and the affected population www. ifrc. org Saving lives, changing minds.

Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC K. Recommendations… Summary 1. Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC K. Recommendations… Summary 1. Integration of “constraints management” in the response schedule and budget. 2. Facing / dodging constraints. Innovative approaches integration 3. Strategy’s flexibility and updating 4. Solution diversification and bottlenecks reduction 5. Context appraisal as a base for agencies’ response engagement 6. Demand driven options 7. Reinforce SC lead’s advocacy role www. ifrc. org Saving lives, changing minds.

Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC L. Recommendations… Summary 1. Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC L. Recommendations… Summary 1. Cost-opportunity analysis 2. Operational contiguum and link between relief, rehabilitation and development 3. Integrated lead 4. Towards a clearer Shelter Cluster’s scope www. ifrc. org Saving lives, changing minds.

Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC Summary Extended thoughts about Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC Summary Extended thoughts about actual context and Shelter Cluster coordination… (Xavier Génot & Irantzu Serra) The 4 periods of cluster lead in 21 months… 1. IOM lead, from January 10 th to February 3 rd 2010 – (almost 1 month) 2. IFRC lead, from January 3 rd to November 10 th 2010 – (10 months) 3. UN Habitat lead, from November 10 th 2010 to September 1 st 2011 – (10 months) 4. IOM lead (shelter and CCCM merged), from September 1 st 2011 - (almost 2 months) www. ifrc. org Saving lives, changing minds.

Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC Summary Extended thoughts about Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC Summary Extended thoughts about actual context and Shelter Cluster coordination… (Xavier Génot & Irantzu Serra) What is the context after 21 months… 1. IDPs number decreased from 1, 5 M to 550, 000. The decreasing curve is flattening. People remaining in camps were in far majority homeless or renters before the earthquake… 2. More than 100, 000 (so called) T Shelters (all except permanent housing solutions) have been implemented (84% of planned solutions)… 3. More than 11, 000 Permanent Shelter Solution (construction and repairs) have been implemented (44% of planned solutions) The (so called) T Shelter has perhaps not been the ideal solution, but it has allowed half million people to find a safer solution. In the meantime which other solution had responded to such massive shelter needs? Not the permanent ones which did 1/10 of all solutions… When people (humanitarian community in Haiti) is saying that T Shelter was not good and you ask them what would have been the solution, they confess they have no clue… www. ifrc. org Saving lives, changing minds.

Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC Summary Extended thoughts about Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC Summary Extended thoughts about actual context and Shelter Cluster coordination… (Xavier Génot & Irantzu Serra) What is the context after 21 months… 1. UN Habitat had handed over the lead of shelter cluster lead to OCHA on August 31… 2. OCHA has handed over the shelter cluster lead to IOM on September 1 st , with merging shelter and CCCM… 3. The IHRC mandate has ended without handover of responsibilities to any entity. The new Government has just been installed. No reconstruction agency (as BRR like) is announced…. 4. No overall clear strategy has been pushed forward (yet) by any donor/recovery/development/humanitarian entity for the road to permanent housing (as social fabric, community involvement, implementation process, design, building code)… 5. No strategy to tackle land tenure issues, which is key for permanent housing… 6. www. ifrc. org Saving lives, changing minds.

Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC Summary Extended thoughts about Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC Summary Extended thoughts about actual context and Shelter Cluster coordination… (Xavier Génot & Irantzu Serra) What is the context after 21 months… 1. People have re occupied dangerous building (yellow, red houses), when Haiti is still on earthquake threat… 2. Alternative shelter solution (rental, hosted accommodation) start to be on the trend, but it would face “a wall” if Housing rental stock is not reinstalled/developed… 3. Work has started in neighborhood recovery, but at small and limited scale, but without real coordination… 4. There is still not agreed cross coordination entities tracking system on shelter/housing solutions… Due to all these combined factors, a new (so called) T shelter programming is at the corner. . . www. ifrc. org Saving lives, changing minds.

Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC Summary MESI ANPIL www. Haiti Welcome. Shelter Meeting to Needs evaluation – the IFRC Summary MESI ANPIL www. ifrc. org Saving lives, changing minds.