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General Characteristics Hacker - a very skilled IT professional, a man who understands the very basics of computer systems. Originally, hackers were called programmers who corrected the errors in the software any faster, and not always elegant (in the context used in the programming style and its overall structure, Interface design) or a professional manner, and such changes were associated with the "clumsy job" because of their rudeness, Hence the name "hacker". Now hackers are very often confused with computer crackers - crackers, and such use of the word "hacker" is false. Hackers are called, for example, Linus Torvalds, Richard Stallman and other creators of the open systems world-. Sometimes the term used to refer to specialists in general - in the context that they have very detailed knowledge of any issues or have a fairly unconventional and constructive thinking. Since the advent of the word in the form of computer terms (happened in 1960), he has a new, often quite different meanings
Different meanings of the word «Jargon File» provides the following definition: Hacker (originally - someone who makes furniture with an ax): A person who loves the study details (details) programmable systems, the consideration to enhance their capabilities, as opposed to most users who prefer to restrict our study the minimum required. RFC 1392 reinforces this definition is as follows: "A person who enjoys thorough understanding of internal operations systems, computers and computer networks in particular. " Anyone programming enthusiastically (even obsessively) or who loves to program and not just theorize about programming. A person is able to appreciate and understand the value of hacking. A person who is strong in the fast programming. Expert in relation to a particular computer program, or anyone who frequently works with it, example: "hacker Unix» . (Definitions from first to fifth - interconnected, so that one person can fall under several of them. ) expert or enthusiast of any kind. Anyone can be a "hacker astronomy, for example. Anyone who loves intelligent testing, is a creative overcoming or circumventing limitations. Highly curious and programmer (or administrator, etc. ) featuring original thinking. The emergence of the hacker culture is closely linked to user groups of the mini-computer PDP and early microcomputers. Recently, the word "hacker" has a less common definition - the term referred to all network intruders, the creators of computer viruses and other computer criminals, such as carders, crackers, script kiddies. Many computer hackers can rightfully be called a hacker, because it does meet all (or nearly all) the above definition of the word "hacker". Although each case must be understood in what sense the word "hacker" - in the sense of "expert" or a sense of "cracker". In Russia, Europe and America, hacking computers, corrupt data, creation and dissemination of computer viruses and malicious programs pursued by the law. Malicious attackers according to international laws to combat cybercrime extradition subject like war criminals. Despite the historic wrong, mark files jargon, is now often use the word precisely in the latter sense - "a computer intruder". Moreover, in the movies a hacker is usually served as a person who is able to go "hack" any system that is actually impossible in principle. For example, in the movie "Password" Swordfish, "" programmer (played by Hugh Jackman) hacks into the code Vernamo - the only existing encryption systems, for which theoretically proved an absolute cryptographic security
Values hackers Among hackers decided to value their time and other hackers ("do not reinvent the wheel") that, in particular, implies the need to share their accomplishments by creating a free and / or open programs.
Social and cultural aspects Characters hackers are quite common in science fiction, especially in the genre of cyberpunk. In this context, hackers are usually the protagonists, who are struggling with oppressive structures, which are mostly multinational corporations. The fight usually goes for the freedom and access to information. Often in such a struggle sound communist or anarchist slogans. Bruce Stirling in his work "The hunt for hackers hacking movement is building to move phone phreakers that has emerged around the American zhurnala. TAP originally belonged to the youth of the Party Youth International Party, which is clearly sympathetic to the Communists. Journal TAP represented him technical support program (Technical Assistance Program) Party Abbie Hoffman (Abbie Hoffman), helps informal talk for free long distance and to produce political change in their country, sometimes unauthorized authorities.
Historical reasons for the existence of differences in the meaning of the word "hacker" Meaning of the word "hacker" in its original sense it probably originated in the walls of MIT in 1960 long before computers became widely. Then it is a part of the local slang and could denote a simple but rude solution to any problem; damn cunning trick of students (usually called the author and hacker). Until that time, the word «hack» and «hacker» used for various reasons without regard to computer technology in general. Originally appeared slang word «to hack» (hack, hack). It meant the process of making changes on the fly in their own or someone else's program (assuming that there are source code). Verbal noun «hack» means the result of this change. Very useful and worthy task was considered not simply inform the author of the program error, and immediately offer him a hack that fixes it. The word "hacker" was originally there from here. Haq, however, does not always have to fix bugs - it could change the behavior of a program against the wishes of its author. It was such scandalous incidents, mostly, and getting publicity and understanding of hacking as an active feedback loop between creators and users of software ever journalists were not interested. Then came the era of proprietary software code, source code of many programs have become inaccessible, and the positive role of the hacking began to fade - a huge amount of time to hack closed source code could be justified only to a very strong motivation – such As the desire to make money or scandalous popularity. As a result, a new, distorted understanding of the word "hacker": It means the attacker, using extensive computer knowledge to carry out unsanctioned, sometimes malicious action on your computer - hack computers, writing and spreading computer viruses. For the first time the word "hacker" was used by Clifford Stoll in his book "The Cuckoo's Egg", and promoting it helped a lot of Hollywood movie "Hackers". In such a computer slang word "hack", "hack" generally refers to cracking the protection of computer networks, Web servers and the like. An echo of the negative perception of the term "hacker" is the word "kulhatsker" (from the English. Words cool hacker), has gained acceptance in the domestic computer-related environment, with virtually the increasing popularity of the original word. This term is usually called an amateur, trying to imitate a professional at least outwardly - through the use of allegedly "professional" hacker terms and slang, the use of "hacker-type" programs, without attempting to understand their work, and so n. The name "kulhatsker" mocks the fact that, allegedly, a man, believing himself to cool Hacker (born cool hacker), is so ignorant that can not even read properly in English is, as he calls himself. In the English-speaking environment such people were called "skriptkiddi". Some of the individuals, known as the champions of free and open source software - for example, Richard Stallman - calling for the use of the word "hacker" only in the original sense.
Hackers in the literature Sergei Lukyanenko's novel in "Labyrinth of Reflections" as an epigraph cited a passage from a fictional them "Hymn to hackers. " Hackers in the movie Die Hard 4. 0 Password is "Swordfish" Hackers (film) The Matrix (movie) Pirates of Silicon Valley (film) Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2009 film)
Famous hackers (in the original sense of the word) Linus Torvalds - the creator of the open Linux Kernel Larry Wall - the creator of language and system of the Perl programming Richard Stallman - founder of the concept of free software Jef Raskin Founder Eric Raymond Open Source Initiative Known burglars Robert Morris - by Cher. VYa Morris 1988. (In fact, Morris Worm was the lab experience, so the intruder can be regarded as conditional. ) Adrian Lamo - known for hacking Yahoo, Citigroup, Bank of America and Cingular. Jonathan Joseph James - American hacker, was the first juvenile convicted of hacking. John Draper - one of the first hackers in the history of the computer world. Mark Dalton - author of Love Mail.
Famous hackers writers Chris Kasperski - author of popular books and articles on computer topics Kevin Mitnick - the most famous computer hacker, now a writer and expert in the field of information security