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Context - Why Repopulation Matters - A Livable Community - Potential Strategies - Role Context - Why Repopulation Matters - A Livable Community - Potential Strategies - Role of Senior Levels of Government - Role of Community - Summary -

Since the dawn of human evolution, humans have migrated across continents in search of Since the dawn of human evolution, humans have migrated across continents in search of food, shelter, safety, and hospitable weather. People still move for these reasons, but new reasons for human migration are arising, such as job relocation and overpopulation.

Rural-urban migration • is the moving of people from rural areas into cities. When Rural-urban migration • is the moving of people from rural areas into cities. When cities grow rapidly, as in Chicago in the late 19 th century or Shanghai a century later, the movement of people from rural communities into cities is considered to be the main cause. This kind of growth is especially commonplace in developing countries. Rural migrants are attracted by the possibilities that cities can offer, but often settle in slums and experience extreme poverty.

Rural Depopulation Urban population growth is generally far more rapid than total population growth, Rural Depopulation Urban population growth is generally far more rapid than total population growth, with about half the urban growth accounted for by migrants from the rural areas

This phenomenon has become more common in the 20 th Century as urban settlements This phenomenon has become more common in the 20 th Century as urban settlements have become more and more prolific. Various reasons have been cited for this movement. • No jobs in the rural areas • Mechanization - as more machines take over the work on the farms, less work is available for the people living on the farms and for the others in rural areas. • Better farming methods also led to less employment in rural areas as better yields are obtained from smaller areas as new fertilization methods and better hybrids are introduced. • Rates of payment in rural areas are lower than those in the city. • A lack of infrastructure in the forms of health care and education in rural areas.

 • 'Bright lights' syndrome - young people feel that there is no entertainment • 'Bright lights' syndrome - young people feel that there is no entertainment or possibility of different career opportunities, so they move to the cities. • Less and less money is available in rural areas as highways bypass villages and small towns, reducing the amount of work found there. • Drought or floods - as either of these natural disasters strike rural areas, money is lost and bank loans are called in - farmers are forced to move to cities to get work to repay the loans. • The growth of secondary and tertiary activities. More jobs are available in cities in these sectors of the economy, however the perception of more money is not always a reality. • As owners die, land is subdivided among the heirs who find that units are too small to be economically viable, one family member will buy up the land the rest of the family move to the city.

Who moves away from the rural areas? • The young people, especially males are Who moves away from the rural areas? • The young people, especially males are the first to move, as they are about to enter the job market. They are also responsible for providing for those left on the farms and other rural areas. Older males are often migrant workers working in the mines, so are absent from the rural areas. • Young females then move out, hoping for a better lifestyle. Many youngsters leave to go to universities and colleges as tertiary educational institutions are only found in the bigger centres. In some instances pupils have already gone off to boarding school for the secondary level, as the smaller farming regions do not offer any tuition above the primary level.

Push and Pull Factors Push and Pull factors are those factors which either forcefully Push and Pull Factors Push and Pull factors are those factors which either forcefully push someone into migration or attract them to migrate. • A push factor is a forceful factor, and a factor which relates to the country the person is migrating from. It is generally a problem which the results in people wanting to migrate. • A pull factor is something concerning the country a person migrates to. It is generally a good thing that attracts

Push Factors • • Poor Medical Care. Not enough jobs. Few opportunities. Primitive Conditions Push Factors • • Poor Medical Care. Not enough jobs. Few opportunities. Primitive Conditions Political fear Fear of torture and mistreatment Not being able to practice religion • Loss of wealth

Pull Factors • • Chances of getting a job Better living standards Education Better Pull Factors • • Chances of getting a job Better living standards Education Better Medical Care Security Recreation Family Links

Effects A permanent move to a new location, migration is a complex process that Effects A permanent move to a new location, migration is a complex process that can be produce profound changes for individuals and societies : • changes in population distribution • mixing of different cultures and races, what often leads to negative social behaviors – tensions in society between majorities and minorities, followed often by local struggles and racism and racial discrimination. • Also criminality – growth of - can be caused. But effects in different societies can be different. It is possible also some positive cultural effects of migration, for example exchange of cultural experience, new

Effects • demographic consequences: since migration is selective of particular age groups, migrants are Effects • demographic consequences: since migration is selective of particular age groups, migrants are mostly young and in productive age. It can cause a demographic crisis – population ageing, what in turn can be followed by economic problems (shrinking group of economically active population has to finance extending group of inactive population). • economic results, which are of the greatest importance for the

A Livable Community What makes this place a livable community? • Economic opportunity • A Livable Community What makes this place a livable community? • Economic opportunity • Access to services • An overall good quality of life Defined on individual terms!

Youth strategies – Involve youth in meaningful ways in planning for future – Identify Youth strategies – Involve youth in meaningful ways in planning for future – Identify opportunities for employment / business creation (must be proactive) – Connect youth with existing programs (general lack of awareness) – Involve business community (information sharing, apprenticeship, and mentorship) – Youth want / need high speed IT

Must be economic opportunity – Immigrant investors – Immigrant workers (family class) • Must Must be economic opportunity – Immigrant investors – Immigrant workers (family class) • Must be a welcoming community – Prepared for and ready to accept and integrate immigrants • Health and education services tailored to their needs • Multi-stakeholder group – Role of local businesses important • Local or regional immigration plan – – Opportunities Strategies Targets Ideally this is part of a larger plan for rural repopulation

A Welcoming Community • Employment opportunities. • Be hospitable and friendly towards newcomers. • A Welcoming Community • Employment opportunities. • Be hospitable and friendly towards newcomers. • Personal and community services, which respect different traditions and cultures. • Affordable and appropriate housing. • Presence of settlement agencies/multicultural associations • Appropriate cultural and recreational activities. • Public education on cultural issues and antiracial issues for local residents before and after newcomers arrive. • Spirituality usually important - churches should play an important role in seeking out and involving newcomers. • Resources on cultural issues in schools and

Role of Senior Levels of Government General • Repopulation cannot be forced – create Role of Senior Levels of Government General • Repopulation cannot be forced – create conditions • Invest in critical infrastructure • Manage natural resources • Invest in entrepreneurial development and business financing • Maintain key public services in rural regions • Invest in human resource and skills development • Ensure appropriate regulations: land use, trade, etc • Support development and

Role of Senior Levels of Government Specific • Information about population issues, policies, and Role of Senior Levels of Government Specific • Information about population issues, policies, and programs – One agency responsible for immigration • Build capacity (assist, support, train, etc) • Encourage and support repopulation plans where appropriate – Linked to economic and labour force development plans

Role of Community • Collaborative with senior levels • A welcoming community • Repopulation Role of Community • Collaborative with senior levels • A welcoming community • Repopulation plan – Fit with economic development plans – Fit with labour force development plans • Be realistic – What makes this place different or better? – Individual freedom and choice

A Process • Organize multistakeholder group • Assess the local / regional population trends A Process • Organize multistakeholder group • Assess the local / regional population trends • Decide which population(s) to target (youth, immigrants, seniors, expatriates) • Understand the needs of each – What kind of economic opportunity – What kind of services – What defines quality of life for them • Establish two linked plans – To attract / retain population – To develop a welcoming community

Implications for Community Planning • Housing and land use • Municipal services • Financing Implications for Community Planning • Housing and land use • Municipal services • Financing of municipal infrastructure • Small regional growth centres?

Summary • Individuals see economic opportunity, access to services, and the possibility of a Summary • Individuals see economic opportunity, access to services, and the possibility of a good quality of life • Defined on their own terms • Will be different among youth, immigrants, expatriates, and others • Potential for success if plans developed at community or regional level • Active involvement and participation from a wide range of community and regional stakeholders • Tied closely to economic development and labour force development plans of each region • Not every community can realistically

OZ No Gravity Oravská 3 821 09 Bratislava SLOVAKIA www. no-gravity. sk E-mail: gabriel. OZ No Gravity Oravská 3 821 09 Bratislava SLOVAKIA www. no-gravity. sk E-mail: gabriel. [email protected] sk

Thank You for you attention ! Dipl. Eng. Daniel Amariei, Ph. D Senior Project Thank You for you attention ! Dipl. Eng. Daniel Amariei, Ph. D Senior Project Manager