- Количество слайдов: 41
H 671 – Week 3 Social Influence Theories n Social Action Theory n Social Development Model n Social Network Theory
Social Action Theory
Create a Model for Sexual Risk Behavior
SAT Model of Sexual Risk Behavior
Social Development Model
Key features of theory n Addresses both delinquency and drug use n Takes a developmental approach – Stages separated by transitions in environment – Reciprocal effects of one stage to another n Include (atheoretical) risk and protective factors – Discusses mechanisms that will increase or decrease likelihood of antisocial behavior
What is the SDM? q Reciprocal Effects-past behaviors shaped present/future behaviors q Transactional-from one person to another q Transformational –developmental stages transform behavior Catalano R. F. , & Hawkins, J. D. (1996). The social development model: a theory of antisocial behavior. Delinquency and Crime.
Socialization q Perceived opportunities for involvement and interactions with others q q q The degree of the interaction Skills to participate in involvement and interaction Reinforcements (to either be pro- or anti-social) Catalano R. F. , & Hawkins, J. D. (1996). The social development model: a theory of antisocial behavior. Delinquency and Crime.
Social Bonding q q q Attachment to others Commitment that is in line with the norms Values and beliefs Catalano R. F. , & Hawkins, J. D. (1996). The social development model: a theory of antisocial behavior. Delinquency and Crime.
Risk and Protective Factors n n Multiple levels How do factors interact with causes of behavior? Feedback (antisocial behavior can influence bonding) Past behavior can predict future behaviormaking it both a result & contributor to development
Assumptions n Influenced by control theory, social learning theory, and differential association theory n Assumptions: 1. We as humans are satisfaction seekers-do what makes us happy 2. Society has a normative consensus about behaviors that everyone is aware of
Theory Overview n n We are socialized to learn patterns of behavior by family, friends, school, community, etc. 4 constructs to socialization: 1. perceived opportunities 2. degree of involvement & interaction 3. skills 4. reinforcement n Consistent socializing processes form a social bond, and that bond can affect behavior – Attachment to others – Commitment (investment) – Belief in values
Three processes that occur in families, schools and peer networks all influence social bonding/attachment. From Hawkins & Weiss, 1985
Catalano & Hawkins, 2002: http: //psycnet. apa. org/journals/pre/5/1/20 r. pdf
From Channing Bete Company, who now market the SDRG program based on this model
Developmental cascades Moira Haller, Elizabeth Handley, Laurie Chassin and Kaitlin Bountress (2010). Developmental cascades: Linking adoles cent substance use, affiliation with substance use promoting peers, and academic achievement to adult substance use disorders. Development and Psychopathology, 22, pp 899 916 doi: 10. 1017/S 0954579410000532
Social Network Theory
What is it? q Social Network Theory (SNT) is the relationship of the individual within a social system influences dispositions, and behavior (Berkman, 2000) q The belief behind social network theory (SNT) is that individuals are entrenched in thick webs of social relations and interactions q Helps explain social order: how autonomous individuals can combine to create enduring, functioning societies q Provides explanations for numerous social phenomena, from individual creativity to corporate profitability
Social Networks q Provide social interaction, communication channels, and reference for making decisions q An individual’s location/status within the system is important based on influence q Can be narrow or widespread, dynamic or static, homogenous or heterogeneous, transient or stable
Social Networks n Understanding that networks can be developed with organized purpose, what are some “groups” that you know that can provide this support? How do they do it? And do you see any consequences of it?
The Types of Ties in a Network What are some of your social networks Why you are considered part of that network? Borgatti, S. P. , et al. (2009). Network analysis in the social science. Science.
Structural Characteristics of Social Networks and their influence Heany, C. A and Israel. (2008). Social Networks and Social Support. In Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research and Practice; and K. Glanz, B. K. Rimer, and K. Viwanath (Eds). San Francisco CA; Jossey-Bass. pp. 189 -207.
Functional Characteristics of Social Networks and their influence Heany, C. A and Israel. (2008). Social Networks and Social Support. In Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research and Practice ; and K. Glanz, B. K. Rimer, and K. Viwanath (Eds). San Francisco CA; Jossey-Bass. pp. 189 -207.
Upstream and Downstream Factors Lisa F. Berkman, Ph. D. . Cabot Professor of Public Policy and Director, Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies WHO Geneva, June 2 -4, 2010
Social Network Video http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=k. IMjsho. X 6 r. Q
Social Networks and Religion q q q q Physical health, morbidity, and mortality Mental health and psychological well-being Health behaviors and personal lifestyles Self-esteem and personal efficacy Coping resources and behaviors Positive emotions Healthy beliefs Ellison C. G. , & Levin, J. S. (1998). The Religion-health connection: evidence, theory, and future Directions. Health Education and Behavior.
The Negative Consequences q Passively yielding responsibility for resolving crises entirely up to divine intervention q Unproductive or counterproductive religious coping responses Belief in original sin and belief in an omnipotent, omniscient deity may erode self-esteem and divert attention away from productive problem solving or emotion management Social norms and pressures can increase negative consequences of stressors Sources of stress through greed and gossip Perceived support vs. received support q q Ellison C. G. , & Levin, J. S. (1998). The Religion-health connection: evidence, theory, and future Directions. Health Education and Behavior.
Social Networks in the 21 st Century q q q Social networks in the modern day: Through television, internet and radio. Social networks can be mixed with overt contacts and vicarious information sources. Can you name any social networks you are a part of that are not traditional and do not involve proximal contact? q Do you see any advantages to this? q Any disadvantages? q How to do we combine both avenues to strengthen our network? q Next 3 slides – levels of networks
"Network self-organization stages" by Takemori 39 - Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3. 0 via Commons - https: //commons. wikimedia. org/wiki/File: Network_selforganization_stages. png#/media/File: Network_self-organization_stages. png
Theorized school-connectedness Rowe, F. , Stewart, D. , & Patterson, C. (2007). Promoting school connectedness through whole school approaches. Health Education, 107(6), 524 542. doi: 10. 1108/09654280710827920
Real-world whole-school ethos Hawe, P. , Bond, L. , Ghali, L. M. , Perry, R. , Davison, C. M. , Casey, D. M. , . . . Scholz, B. (2015). Replication of a whole school ethos changing intervention: different context, similar effects, additional insights. BMC Public Health, 15(1), 1 14. doi: 10. 1186/s 12889 015 1538 3
Co-citation analysis for Social Network Analysis http: //eduinf. eu/2012/03/15/co-citation-analysis-of-the-topic-social-network-analysis/
TTI https: //suifaijohnmak. wordpress. com/2012/10/01/
THE THEORY OF TRIADIC INFLUENCE Levels of Causation Intrapersonal Stream Biological/Nature BIOLOGY/ PERSONALITY Ultimate Causes 1 Social/ Personal Nexus 2 Sense of Self/Control Distal Influences 7 13 8 h Skills: Social+General 14 Proximal Predictors b c B C Others’ Beh & Atts 9 i j k l m u d e n 16 SOCIAL NORMATIVE BELIEFS o 11 w 20 q Values/ Evaluations x v 6 Interactions w/ Social Instit’s p Perceived Norms 15 5 f 10 Motivation to Comply s CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT 4 Interpersonal Bonding 19 A Nurture/Cultural 3 SELF-EFFICACY t BEHAVIORAL CONTROL Affect and Cognitions Cultural/Attitudinal Stream SOCIAL SITUATION a Social Competence g Self Determination Expectancies & Evaluations Decisions Social/Normative Stream Information/ Opportunities Knowledge/ Expectancies 17 F 18 ATTITUDES TOWARD THE BEHAVIOR 21 DECISIONS/INTENTIONS D E 12 r I 22 H G Trial Behavior EXPERIENCES: Expectancies -- Social Reinforcements -- Psychological/Physiological Experiences 23 J K Related Behaviors 48