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GV-506 -week 9/10 1. 2. 3. Introduction to Conflict Management Mediation and Negotiations (week GV-506 -week 9/10 1. 2. 3. Introduction to Conflict Management Mediation and Negotiations (week 11) Peacekeeping, IGO’s, and NGO’s (next term)

Ingredients of Conflict 1. Needs 2. Perceptions—Emotions (role of culture) 3. Values (role of Ingredients of Conflict 1. Needs 2. Perceptions—Emotions (role of culture) 3. Values (role of culture) 4. Power 5. Distribution of costs and benefits (distributional aspects of bargaining) 6. Salience

Conflict Management • Analyze nature and type of conflict (e. g. single issue, economic Conflict Management • Analyze nature and type of conflict (e. g. single issue, economic issues, security dilemma concerns) • • Are the issues negotiable (divisible vs. basic needs)? Can issues be reframed? (Integrative bargaining) Causes of conflict Possible secondary issues-possible linkages Identify common interests if any Information structure Analyze the actors involved: Organization of groups/states The constituents of groups/states The power base of groups/states (e. g. First Intifada/Boycotts in South Africa) Prior experiences and interactions • • Determine type of management strategy Organize the setting • • • Logistics, ground rules, joint fact finding Negotiation (stage-week 11) Post-negotiation-debunking

Do’s and Dont’s • Do not: • Early conclusions • Single best answer • Do’s and Dont’s • Do not: • Early conclusions • Single best answer • Considering only ones sides’ interests (empathy) • Do • Focus on positions (instead focus on interests) • Difference between problem-solving (integrative) bargaining and traditional bargaining or combination • Cultural differences: collectivist vs. individualist societies—group cohesion vs. individual self-interest • Possible issue linkages • Contain issues

Escalation and de-escalation of conflicts • ESC: logic of contentious interaction, expansion of issues Escalation and de-escalation of conflicts • ESC: logic of contentious interaction, expansion of issues at stake, polarization • De-esc: • reciprocity in interaction (learning models- Baysian equilibrium) • Developing ties between adversaries • GRIT (unilateral) • T-F-T (Axelrod’s computer simulation) • Distinguishing between long-term vs. short-term interests • South Africa vs. Israel

Summary of Conflict Management Approaches • • Arbitration (Eritrea-Ethiopia) Meditation (week 11+ spring term) Summary of Conflict Management Approaches • • Arbitration (Eritrea-Ethiopia) Meditation (week 11+ spring term) Military Intervention Peacekeeping operations (spring term) International Court of Justice (Nigeria -Cameroon) Conference (Oslo agreements) Meditation Do nothing

Conflict management approaches 1 • Third party intervention (PKO’s-next term) • Things to consider Conflict management approaches 1 • Third party intervention (PKO’s-next term) • Things to consider • Is there an opportune moment (ripeness of conflict— Zartman) • Give war a chance? • Intervene and help one side, while mitigating human suffering • Stop the bloodshed-transform the conflict • Can external actors participate in state building? Or can external actors create institutional capacity? • Character, capabilities, leverage of interveners • Military intervention is only one option: alternating between soft and hard approaches • Pre emptive actions that can reduce tension (NO that does not include pre-emptive strikes!) • Intervention fatigue (e. g. Somalia effect) • ***Over commitment and Under commitment***

Conflict Management Approaches 2 • Mediation as a continuation of negotiation (next week-week 16) Conflict Management Approaches 2 • Mediation as a continuation of negotiation (next week-week 16) • To halve or step between two parties • What do mediators perform? • Develop rules for negotiation • Expand the issues to create possible linkages • Identifies agreement points • Reframe the dispute • Looming power? • Context of conflict and distribution of resources

Negotiations and Settlements • Negotiation: like a puzzle solving—focal points and coordination • Negotiation Negotiations and Settlements • Negotiation: like a puzzle solving—focal points and coordination • Negotiation as a bargaining game—positions • Organizational management—key power holders • Diplomatic Politics • Past experiences • Domestic audiences • Settlements • Both sides loose • One sides loosed-the other wins • Conversion or transformation of one or more sides • Extermination of one side

Mediation Famework (Wall, Lynn) Mediation Famework (Wall, Lynn)