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GROWTH OR A FIXED MINDSET? WHAT DIFFERENCE DOES IT MAKE TO THE SUCCESS OF GROWTH OR A FIXED MINDSET? WHAT DIFFERENCE DOES IT MAKE TO THE SUCCESS OF A STUDENT TEACHER? Charlotte Meierdirk School of Education and Childhood Studies Twitter @lottiemeierdirk Charlotte. meierdirk@port. ac. uk In collaboration with Dr Frances Warren, School of Psychology Frances. warren@port. ac. uk University of Portsmouth, England

 BACKGROUND Approaches to teaching and learning by student teachers during their training and BACKGROUND Approaches to teaching and learning by student teachers during their training and QTS years. Part funded by FHSS (Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences) This paper is a study into the changing mindset of the student teacher at the Uo. P. The Uo. P has a relatively small cohort of PGCE students with around 100 students enrolled every year. Seven different PGCE subjects are taught: English, Modern Foreign Language (MFL), Mathematics, Science, Business, Geography with Computer Science. All these subjects cover the 12 -16 age groups except Business, which is taught to the 14 -19 age range. The structure of the PGCE course is the same for all the courses.

 Research is ongoing This study will investigate student teacher’s learning and teaching beliefs Research is ongoing This study will investigate student teacher’s learning and teaching beliefs and the changes in these, from their acceptance on the ITE course, during the course, at the end of the course. I will focus on the 1 st cohort (2015/16)during this presentation. . WHAT IS THE STUDY?

 A common belief in our society is that people with high ability and A common belief in our society is that people with high ability and self-belief in that ability are likely to embrace the challenges that they tackle in life with high levels of resilience, determination and thus success. However, it is not ability or belief in that ability that predicts resilience and perseverance in the face of challenge and failure (Dweck, 1999); rather it is the individual’s belief about the nature of ability (referred to as Self Theory of Intelligence also known as Mindset). Mary Cay Ricci (2013) explored the differences between an educator’s mindset and a pupil’s mindset. A pupil’s mindset directly affects how they face a challenge and an educator’s mindset directly influences how a child feels about themselves. WHAT IS MINDSET?

 Individuals with a growth mindset believe that they can develop their intelligence. Dweck Individuals with a growth mindset believe that they can develop their intelligence. Dweck (2006) theorises that intelligence is malleable and can be developed. Children who have a growth mindset believe they can learn anything and no challenge is too hard. WHAT IS GROWTH MINDSET?

 Individuals with a fixed mindset believe that their intelligence is innate (i. e. Individuals with a fixed mindset believe that their intelligence is innate (i. e. I was born this way/this is what I am). Praising a child and attributing their success to intelligence, as opposed to effort, encourages the development of a fixed mindset (Pomerantz & Kempner, 2013). Feedback from a teacher who encourages a fixed mindset, for example stating that not everyone is good at maths or English, leads to lower student motivation (Rattan, Good and Dweck, 2012). WHAT IS FIXED MINDSET?

 Your. Learning questionnaire – the questionnaire contains a Likert scale that investigates the Your. Learning questionnaire – the questionnaire contains a Likert scale that investigates the teacher’s attributes (Developed by School of Psychology, University of Portsmouth). The mindset scale runs between 1 -6, 1 = growth mindset 6 = fixed mindset 3 = midway METHODOLOGY

May 2016 - Completed at the end of the PGCE course. Written questionnaire (n=71). May 2016 - Completed at the end of the PGCE course. Written questionnaire (n=71). No large statistical significance between subject taught and mindset. STEM subjects mean mindset 2. 5526 Non- STEM subjects mindset 2. 6346 However, English mean 2. 56 and MFL mean 2. 7 No large difference between male and female students Male 2. 5816 Female 2. 6818 YEAR 1, 2015/16 COHORT

 Those students who showed extreme growth mindsets. Most growth mindset were…. In the Those students who showed extreme growth mindsets. Most growth mindset were…. In the questionnaire they had mindsets of between 1 and 3, with some student teachers reaching a 1. The 10 most growth mindset students consisted of: 1 CS, 3 MFL, 3 Maths, 2 Science, 1 English (1 st cohort). THE GROWTH MINDSET EXTREMES

 Those students who showed extreme mindsets, either fixed or growth. Most fixed mindset Those students who showed extreme mindsets, either fixed or growth. Most fixed mindset were…. In the questionnaire they had mindsets of between 4 and 6, which some student teachers reaching a 6. The 6 most fixed mindset students consisted of: 2 Science, 4 MFL(1 st cohort). THE FIXED MINDSET EXTREMES

 Out of the cohort 7 student teachers ended the year with ‘satisfactory’ for Out of the cohort 7 student teachers ended the year with ‘satisfactory’ for their teaching. Their mindset scores were: 6, 4, 3. 5, 3 and 2. ‘satisfactory’ mean = 3. 64 Out of the cohort 25 student teachers ended the year with ‘outstanding’. Their mindset scores were: 1, 1, 1, 2, 2. 25, 2. 5, 3, 3, 3. 5, 4, 5. ‘outstanding’ mean = 2. 15 ANY RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHING AND MINDSET?

Growth Fixed Got a job in her first placement Took feedback to heart Very Growth Fixed Got a job in her first placement Took feedback to heart Very reflective Questioned things Could see the good in people Fantastic at writing essays Instantly likeable Hard on herself Better with feedback A worrier Optimistic Cried during feedback Everything was black and white – couldn’t see other people’s viewpoints. Didn’t get on with people Only taught the way he wanted ANY OTHER DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A FIXED/ GROWTH MINDSET TEACHER?

PUBLICATIONS Meierdirk, C. (2017). Research and reflexivity: The discourses of females completing teacher education. PUBLICATIONS Meierdirk, C. (2017). Research and reflexivity: The discourses of females completing teacher education. Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, (In print). Meierdirk, C. (2016). Reflections of the student teacher. Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 18(1), 23. doi: 10. 1080/14623943. 2016. 1230054 Meierdirk, C. (2016). Reflective practice in teacher training. In Horton, S. and Sims Schouten, W (Eds. ), Rethinking Social Issues in Education for the 21 st Century, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars. Meierdirk, C. (2016). Developing a Growth Mindset in Business, Teaching Business and Economics, (19) 3, 25 -28. Meierdirk, C. (2016). Is reflective practice an essential component of becoming a professional teacher. Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 17(3), 1 -10. Meierdirk, C. (2016). The changing identity of the student teacher. International Journal of Education Teaching and Learning, 1 (1), 17 -35. Meierdirk, C. (2016). Reflective practice in the business classroom, Economics Business Education Association, 20 (2). 23 -25.

Publications cont… WARREN, F. , MASON-APPS, E. , HOSKINS, S. , DEVONSHIRE, V. THE Publications cont… WARREN, F. , MASON-APPS, E. , HOSKINS, S. , DEVONSHIRE, V. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN IMPLICIT THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE, ATTAINMENT, AND SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS IN A UK SAMPLE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN. (SUBMITTED TO LEARNING AND INSTRUCTION) APPERLY, I. A. , WARREN, F. , ANDREWS, B. J. , GRANT, J. , & TODD, S. (2011). DEVELOPMENTAL CONTINUITY IN THEORY OF MIND: SPEED AND ACCURACY OF BELIEFDESIRE REASONING IN CHILDREN AND ADULTS. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 82(5), 1691 -1703. DOI: 10. 1111/J. 1467 -8624. 2011. 01635. X

 Dweck, C. S. (1999). Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality and development. Philadelphia, Dweck, C. S. (1999). Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality and development. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press. Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York: Random House. Dweck, C. S. (2012). Mindset: How you can fulfil your potential. London: Robinson. Pomerantz, E. M. , & Kempner, S. G. (2013). Mother's daily person and process praise: Implications for children's theory of intelligence and motivation. Developmental Psychology, 49. (11), 2040 -2046. Ricci, M. (2013). Mindsets in the classroom. 1 st ed. Austin, Texas: Prufrock Press. REFERENCES