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Growth of Tourism Modern tourism is a product of Globalisation.
Key Terms • Leisure Time – Leisure time is time available after work, sleep and other necessary activities have been completed. A person is free to do what they want • Tourism – Tourism is the act of travel for the purpose of recreation and business, and the provision of services for this act. • Tourist – Tourists are people who travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for less than one consecutive year for leisure, and other purposes.
Growth of tourism Tourism doubles globally in size every 15 years, Is the biggest employer and source of revenue in the world Tourism is the world’s biggest industry. The World Tourism Organisation estimates that it employs up to 10% of the world’s workforce. In 1993, over 17 million foreign tourists visited the UK spending over £ 7 billion. Tourism is an even more important source of income in some LEDCs. For example, tourism contributes 80% to the GDP in the Caribbean. If tourism were a country and it’s wealth was measured by GDP, it would be third richest country in the world.
The Growth of Tourism Factors leading to Rapid Growth The Growth of International Tourism Year Number of International Arrivals 1950 25 m 1955 40 m 1960 60 m 1965 85 m 1970 120 m 1975 225 m 1980 285 m 1985 360 m 1990 450 m 1995 565 m 2000 700 m In addition to this there are larger numbers of domestic tourists who travel within their own countries. Some MEDCs are now concerned that they are losing large numbers of tourism income to LEDCs as there people travel overseas and have actively promoted domestic tourism to their residents.
Growth Factors • Increased Wealth (Affluence). More disposable income to be spent on leisure. • Increased Mobility. More people own cars, and can afford to take trains, ferries & planes. • Improved Accessibility. Modern highways, ports and airports make it easier to get to destinations and reduction in the cost of travel. • Increased Leisure. Time. People work shorter hours, and have more paid holidays. They have more time to go on holiday. Also, many people retire early, and life expectancy is increasing in most countries.
Growth Factors (Cont’d) • Technology Change. Development of jet engines, computerised booking systems, Internet access, ATM machines etc. • Product Innovation. From the package tour to tailored trips, cruises, long-haul travel) • Changing Lifestyles. Outdoor activities growing in popularity. People value their leisure time more. • Changing nature of ‘holidays’ (no longer seen as two-weeks in the sun. Mini-breaks, activity holidays etc. ). • Promotion (Travel agents, TV shows and advertising put travel in the minds of people). Improved infrastructure for tourists especially in LEDCs •
Different types of tourists include: Group tours Package tours Individual travel Backpackers Tourists seek different types of holidays.
The stage model of tourism 3 2 Growth of tourism 4 1 Match the descriptions to the stages. The local fishermen get better prices for their seafood. The bars and clubs stay open until 4 am. time It is difficult to get to your hotel from the airport due to poor quality roads. Some souvenir shops start to close down. The sea becomes too polluted to be used for swimming. The local government has to find new water supplies due to the increased demand. New airports are built. Rare species are no longer found in the area. People move to the area to work in the construction industry.
There are very few LEDCs who are not seeking to develop tourism because of the potential to earn foreign income that it brings. LEDCS with well developed tourism include: Brazil, China, Egypt, India and Thailand.
Why has tourism grown in the UK? improved transportation more people take early retirement Internet more leisure time
Mass tourism period is 1950’s to present. MEDCs share has now declined whilst LEDCs has risen. Some LEDCs look for industrialization as a path to development, others look for toursim. Why? • Seen as a smokeless industry (little pollution, few environmental problems)? ? • Seen as an opportunity to earn money, preserve national culture, wildlife and unique natural features. • Seen as a quicker way to increase national income than exporting primary products or developing a manufacturing sector. Problem: Some critics state that tourism perpetuates the dependence of people in LEDCs on people from MEDCs, continuing a tradition from colonial times.
Tourism is welcomed in many countries because it brings in foreign exchange. Tourism can bring economic improvement. Benefits: • Generates income for the local economy and it can encourage investment in other sectors thus creating a multiplier effect (In 200 tourism was in the top 5 export earners for 83 per cent of the world’s countries and was the main source of foreign exchange earnings for 38 per cent of countries. • Government revenue increases through taxes, e. g. good bought by tourists plus departure taxes, visas etc. • Generates employment for local people (list some examples) • Improves infrastructure such as better water, sewage systems, telephone and public transport systems.
As well as the formal sector it also generates money for the informal sector e. g. street vendors, rickshaw drivers etc.
• Leakage (Refers to the losses to the local economy from taxes, profits and wages that are paid to people and organisations outside the area) • : Problems may arise when infrastructure such as hotels, airlines, bus companies and restaurants may siphon away the profits of the industry toother countries. The World bank estimates that 55% of the gross revenue from tourism in LEDCs leaks its way back to MEDCs. • All inclusive tourists contribute most to leakage (estimates suggest that 80% money spent goes to foreign companies). • It is also classed as an enclave industry in that it brings few benefits to locals.
Leakage occurs in two ways: 1. Import leakage occurs when tourists demand high standards of facilities, equipment, food etc that the home country cannot supply. 2. Export leakage occurs when transnationals and foreign businesses send money back to their home countries. • Infrastructure costs can also be high. • Tourism can also drive up local prices e. g. rises in real estate, increasing building costs, land prices etc. (The problem is if not controlled wealthy outsiders can have a lot of control) • Over dependence can be a problem and can bring economic risks. Economic recession in MEDCs could bring serious problems if there is too much reliance on tourism.
Think of some situations where tourists might stop coming to an LEDC. • Tourism can have an impact on culture although it can be argued that it brings a two-way cultural exchange. It can also help to renew Indigenous cultures, cultural arts and crafts. • Loud tourists can cause resentment among locals and some locals resent being placed in a role of servitude. Some writers have referred to it as cultural bastardisation and trinketisation where people in developing countries are assimilated into the materialistic attitudes of the developed world. • Tourism can also bring stark contrasts in wealth e. g. high rise hotels and shacks. • Some tourists also don’t respect local cultures e. g. topless sunbathing. • Where cultures meet through tourism a process of transculturalisation often occurs leading to the adaptation of new cultures. • Cultural imperialism can also occur when tourists intensively impose there own cultures on the host country.
Negative impacts occur when the number of visitors is large and the environment cannot cope. Problems include: • Soil erosion • Increased pollution • Loss of wildlife habitats • Pressure on water resources etc. Through various case studies you will study the social, economic and environmental effects of tourism.
Using Waugh, pages 586 -90, supplement these PPT slides with additional information.