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Growth & Division Chapter 7 1816 -1832 Growth & Division Chapter 7 1816 -1832

American Nationalism Section 1 American Nationalism Section 1

Era of Good Feelings • James Monroe – 5 th President of the U. Era of Good Feelings • James Monroe – 5 th President of the U. S. – Era of Good Feelings • Period of time in which one political party existed • No major issues debated, • Everyone in politics and the country got along

Judicial Nationalism • Mc. Culloch vs. Maryland (1819) – Supreme Court ruled Congress had Judicial Nationalism • Mc. Culloch vs. Maryland (1819) – Supreme Court ruled Congress had power to create National Bank – Federal government the right to do the following four things: • Collect Taxes, barrow money, regulate commerce, raise army and navy – The state of Maryland tried to tax the federal bank – State governments could not interfere with an agency of the federal government exercising its powers within a state’s borders

Judicial Nationalism • Gibbons vs. Ogden (1824) – A steamboat company had a monopoly Judicial Nationalism • Gibbons vs. Ogden (1824) – A steamboat company had a monopoly of traffic going in & out of NY. The company also tried to include traffic in New Jersey – Supreme Court ruled the monopoly unconstitutional – This ruling gave the federal government the power to control interstate commerce

Jackson Invades Florida • Florida was Spanish territory in early 1800 s • The Jackson Invades Florida • Florida was Spanish territory in early 1800 s • The Creeks to resettled in Spanish Florida – The Creeks renamed themselves the Seminoles, which meant “Separatists” or “Runaways” – The Native Americans used FL as a base to raid settlers in GA – In response, the U. S. sent Andrew Jackson to command troops to combat the Seminoles • Adams- Onis Treaty – Spain gave all Florida territory to the U. S. – Finalized the western border of Louisiana Purchase – Arkansas River – 42 nd Parallel as northern border

Monroe Doctrine • President Monroe declared the American continents, “henceforth not to be considered Monroe Doctrine • President Monroe declared the American continents, “henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by European powers. ” – This declaration became known as the Monroe Doctrine • Goal: Prevent other great powers from interfering with Latin American politics (countries in turmoil • The Monroe Doctrine upheld Washington’s policy of neutrality – avoiding conflicts in European power struggles

Comprehension Check • 1. When President Monroe was elected, the period of time was Comprehension Check • 1. When President Monroe was elected, the period of time was known as what? • 2. True or False: Any state has a right to tax the federal government. • 3. Explain a monopoly. • 4. True or False: The Creeks resettled in Georgia and called themselves the Seminoles. • 5. True or False: The Monroe Doctrine allowed Europeans to control affairs in Latin America.

Early Industry Section 2 Early Industry Section 2

Transportation Revolution • Roads – National Road was funded by Feds even though many Transportation Revolution • Roads – National Road was funded by Feds even though many thought the Fed Gov could not fund internal improvements – Many private businesses laid 100’s of miles of toll roads/turnpikes – pay to use • Canals - man made water routes – Eerie Canal connected Albany to Buffalo – Robert Fulton – invented the steamboat – the Clermont – 3300 miles of canals dug which stimulated new economic growth

Transportation Revolution • Railroads – the “Iron Horse” – The first RR engine was Transportation Revolution • Railroads – the “Iron Horse” – The first RR engine was built by Peter Cooper – RR has 2 advantages over steamboats & stagecoaches: • Quicker & could go anywhere track was laid – RRs helped to settle the west & expand trade between the U. S. ’s different regions – RRs increased the need for

New Systems of Production • Industrial Revolution – Eli Whitney popularized interchangeable parts – New Systems of Production • Industrial Revolution – Eli Whitney popularized interchangeable parts – Improved communications through the invention of the telegraph by Samuel Morse • Journalists organized the Associated Press

The Land of Cotton Section 3 The Land of Cotton Section 3

Southern Economy • Cash Crops of the South: – Tobacco, rice, sugarcane, and cotton Southern Economy • Cash Crops of the South: – Tobacco, rice, sugarcane, and cotton – Cotton was the largest commodity in the South due to the invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney – produced 100, 000 bales – Cotton gin strengthened the institution of slavery – 1808, Foreign slave trade ended, but not domestic • High birthrates – population increased from 1. 5 million in 1820 to 4 million in 1850 – Very little industry in South, only 16% of Americans manufacturing came from the South

Southern Society Planters Yeoman Farmers Poor, Rural Whites Free African Americans Enslaved African Americans Southern Society Planters Yeoman Farmers Poor, Rural Whites Free African Americans Enslaved African Americans • Large plantations; 20+ slaves • Owned 4 - slaves • Lived on land too barren to farm • 93% of Af-Am in South were slaves – 37% of total population

Slavery • Slaves could be blacksmiths, carpenters, coopers, house servant, or field hand • Slavery • Slaves could be blacksmiths, carpenters, coopers, house servant, or field hand • Slave Gangs were controlled by a driver – a slave could be a driver if he was loyal & willing to cooperate • Frederick Douglass – anti-slavery movement • Slave Codes: slaves could not own property, learn to read/write, own firearms, testify in court, leave the owner’s land without permission

Coping with Enslavement • Slave coped through music, religion, and language –created a slave Coping with Enslavement • Slave coped through music, religion, and language –created a slave “culture” which gave them a sense of unity, pride, and mutual support • Resistance – Work slowdown, broke tools, set fires to homes & barns, risked beatings and mutilations to run away – Nat Turner Rebellion – 8/22/1831 • Killed 50 whites & sentences to death by hanging

Growing Sectionalism Section 4 Growing Sectionalism Section 4

Missouri Compromise • Monroe could not stop growing sectionalism and disputes over slavery – Missouri Compromise • Monroe could not stop growing sectionalism and disputes over slavery – Issue: Would slavery be allowed to expand West? – 11 free & 11 slave states = even number of senators & balance of power in Congress – Slavery would be prohibited in the LA Purchase territory north of MO’s southern border (Arkansas) – MO Compromise = temporary solution to the problem

Election of 1824 • Candidates: – Henry Clay – Kentucky – Andrew Jackson – Election of 1824 • Candidates: – Henry Clay – Kentucky – Andrew Jackson – Tennessee – John Q. Adams – Massachusetts – William Crawford – Georgia • Issues: states rights, national bank, tariffs, and internal improvements • Tie between Adams & Jackson – Adams & Clay make a deal = Corrupt Bargain • Jackson begins the Democratic Party in response

Election of 1828 • Republican Candidate = John Q. Adams • Democratic Candidate = Election of 1828 • Republican Candidate = John Q. Adams • Democratic Candidate = Andrew Jackson • Mudslinging: petty criticism of morals & personality of political candidates • Jackson becomes the president in 1828 – Most support came from South and West – The White House was reached by a common man from the western frontier