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GROUNDWORK FOR COLLEGE READING WITH PHONICS Fourth Edition John Langan © 2008 Townsend Press GROUNDWORK FOR COLLEGE READING WITH PHONICS Fourth Edition John Langan © 2008 Townsend Press

Part II, Chapter Eight: Signal Words II THIS CHAPTER IN A NUTSHELL To help Part II, Chapter Eight: Signal Words II THIS CHAPTER IN A NUTSHELL To help make their ideas clear, writers use signal words, also known as transitions — words that carry the reader from one idea to the next. — Typical illustration transitions are for example and for instance. — Typical contrast transitions are but and however. — Typical cause and effect transitions are reasons, because, and as a result.

SIGNAL WORDS CONTRAST Example Besides addition words and time words, there are three other SIGNAL WORDS CONTRAST Example Besides addition words and time words, there are three other common kinds of signal words: • Example words • Contrast words • Cause and effect words

EXAMPLE WORDS Which item below is easier to read and understand? A. Be careful EXAMPLE WORDS Which item below is easier to read and understand? A. Be careful when buying an old house. The plumbing, wiring, and roof may need to be replaced. B. Be careful when buying an old house. For instance, the plumbing, wiring, and roof may need to be replaced.

EXAMPLE WORDS Which item below is easier to read and understand? A. Be careful EXAMPLE WORDS Which item below is easier to read and understand? A. Be careful when buying an old house. The plumbing, wiring, and roof may need to be replaced. B. Be careful when buying an old house. For instance, the plumbing, wiring, and roof may need to be replaced. The words for instance make the second item easier to understand. They make it clear that the plumbing, wiring, and roof are among a number of things that may need to be replaced.

EXAMPLE WORDS Example words tell us that a writer will provide one or more EXAMPLE WORDS Example words tell us that a writer will provide one or more examples to make a given idea clear. Here are some common example words: (for) example (for) instance to illustrate including such as once

EXAMPLE WORDS In the sentences below, notice how the example words signal that one EXAMPLE WORDS In the sentences below, notice how the example words signal that one or more examples will follow. At least nine states get their names from rivers that flow through them. For example, Minnesota is named after the Minnesota River. President John F. Kennedy was famous for his sense of humor. To illustrate, once during a lecture he was asked how he had become a hero during World War II. He answered that he had no choice: “They sank my boat. ”

CONTRAST WORDS Which item below is easier to read and understand? A. The dog CONTRAST WORDS Which item below is easier to read and understand? A. The dog next door is lovable. She barks a lot at night. B. The dog next door is lovable although she barks a lot at night.

CONTRAST WORDS Which item below is easier to read and understand? A. The dog CONTRAST WORDS Which item below is easier to read and understand? A. The dog next door is lovable. She barks a lot at night. B. The dog next door is lovable although she barks a lot at night. The word although in the second item shows a contrast: the dog is lovable even though she barks so much at night.

CONTRAST WORDS Contrast words signal that a writer is pointing out differences between subjects. CONTRAST WORDS Contrast words signal that a writer is pointing out differences between subjects. Here are some common words that show contrast: but instead still difference yet in contrast as opposed to different(ly) however on the other hand in spite of differs from although on the contrary despite unlike rather than while nevertheless even though

CONTRAST WORDS In the sentences below, notice how the contrast words signal that one CONTRAST WORDS In the sentences below, notice how the contrast words signal that one idea is different from another idea. Alberto was angry when he didn’t get a raise. His wife, however, took the news calmly. A cup of coffee can give you a quick energy boost. On the other hand, coffee can also make you irritable and unable to sleep at night.

CAUSE AND EFFECT WORDS Which item below is easier to read and understand? A. CAUSE AND EFFECT WORDS Which item below is easier to read and understand? A. The baby refused to eat her breakfast. I was in a bad mood all morning. B. The baby refused to eat her breakfast. As a result, I was in a bad mood all morning.

CAUSE AND EFFECT WORDS Which item below is easier to read and understand? A. CAUSE AND EFFECT WORDS Which item below is easier to read and understand? A. The baby refused to eat her breakfast. I was in a bad mood all morning. B. The baby refused to eat her breakfast. As a result, I was in a bad mood all morning. The phrase as a result makes clear that the baby’s behavior caused the bad mood.

CAUSE AND EFFECT WORDS Cause and effect words show that the writer is discussing CAUSE AND EFFECT WORDS Cause and effect words show that the writer is discussing one or more reasons or results. Here are some common cause and effect words: therefore so because (of) thus (as a) result effect (as a) consequence results in cause explanation consequently lead to affect due to since reason

CAUSE AND EFFECT WORDS In the sentences below, notice how the cause and effect CAUSE AND EFFECT WORDS In the sentences below, notice how the cause and effect words introduce a reason for something or the result of something. Students who work full-time sometimes nap before classes because they are tired after work. The lifeguard thought she spotted a shark. As a result, the beach was closed for the rest of the day.

CHAPTER REVIEW In this chapter, you learned about three additional kinds of signal words CHAPTER REVIEW In this chapter, you learned about three additional kinds of signal words that writers use: • Example words — Writers may provide examples to help make an idea clear. — Words that signal examples include for example and for instance. • Contrast words — Writers often discuss how two things are different from each other. —Words that signal contrast include but and however. • Cause and effect words — Writers often discuss the reasons why something happens or the effects of something that has happened. — Words that signal causes include reason and because. — Words that signal effects include therefore and as a result. The next chapter—Chapter 9—will develop your skill in making inferences about what you read.