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Ground Based Tropospheric Profiling With the RPGHATPRO 14 Channel Filterbank Radiometer Thomas Rose, Harald Ground Based Tropospheric Profiling With the RPGHATPRO 14 Channel Filterbank Radiometer Thomas Rose, Harald Czekala (Radiometer Physics Gmb. H) RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

Microwave Bands Spectral Bands of Operation: Frequencies: RPG-TEMPRO Humidity Profiling: 22 -31. 4 GHz Microwave Bands Spectral Bands of Operation: Frequencies: RPG-TEMPRO Humidity Profiling: 22 -31. 4 GHz Band (7 channels) Temp. Profiling (Trop. ): 50 -59 GHz Band (7 channels) Temp. Profiling (BL): 54 -59 GHz Band (4 channels) LWP / IWV: / 31. 4 + 90 GHz RPG-TEMPRO 90 RPG-HATPRO RPG-HUMPRO RPG-LWP 90 GHz 23. 8 GHz 36. 5/31. 4 GHz RPG-LWP-U 90 23. 8 RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

HATPRO Instrument Configuration RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto HATPRO Instrument Configuration RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

HATPRO Meteorological Station Weather Station and Time Reference: Rain Sensor: Provides rain flag for HATPRO Meteorological Station Weather Station and Time Reference: Rain Sensor: Provides rain flag for measurement documentation, control of super blower system GPS-Clock: Provides time reference standard for synchronization Humidity Sensor: Provides control of super blower system, documentation Humidity Sensor Temperature Sensor: Documentation of surface temperature Temp. Sensor Pressure Sensor: Documentation of baro-metric pressure, LN-target calibration Optional IR-Radiometer: Cloud base height detection, ceilometer function RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

HATPRO Rain / Dew Protection System removable dew blower Removal of dew and rain HATPRO Rain / Dew Protection System removable dew blower Removal of dew and rain by: - strong blower system System allows for temperature profiling during rain RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

RPG-HATPRO Optical Performance temperature profiler humidity profiler 23. 8 GHz, HPBW = 3. 9°, RPG-HATPRO Optical Performance temperature profiler humidity profiler 23. 8 GHz, HPBW = 3. 9°, Sidelobes: <-30 d. B (6. 5) RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H 55. 0 GHz, HPBW = 1. 9°, Sidelobes: <-30 d. B (4. 0) µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

Thermal Receiver Stabilisation Two stage thermal stabilisation system: Receiver stabilisation: <30 m. K over Thermal Receiver Stabilisation Two stage thermal stabilisation system: Receiver stabilisation: <30 m. K over full opera ting temperature range (-30°C to + 45°C) RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

RPG-HATPRO Receiver Layout Dual Profiler Direct Detection Filterbank Receivers based on MMIC Technology: RPG RPG-HATPRO Receiver Layout Dual Profiler Direct Detection Filterbank Receivers based on MMIC Technology: RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

Synthesizer Emission from Heterodyne System Synthesizer emission from a heterodyne profiling radiometer @ 26. Synthesizer Emission from Heterodyne System Synthesizer emission from a heterodyne profiling radiometer @ 26. 4 GHz detected by RPG-HATPRO during radiometer inter-comparison at DWD / Lindenberg, Germany, Sept. /Oct. 2005 RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

Synthesizer Emission from Heterodyne System Heterodyne system turned off: RFI disappears. ‘Passive’ radiometers are Synthesizer Emission from Heterodyne System Heterodyne system turned off: RFI disappears. ‘Passive’ radiometers are sometimes not fully passive but emit interference signals in the RF bands. RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

Compact Receiver Design 55 d. B Pre-Amplifier Splitter and Filter Section Boosters and Detectors Compact Receiver Design 55 d. B Pre-Amplifier Splitter and Filter Section Boosters and Detectors Video Amps, MUX, 16 Bit ADC Noise Injection Coupler 51 - 59 GHz 7 Channel Filterbank Receiver RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H Corrugated Feedhorn µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

RPG-HATPRO Receiver Allan Variance Receivers obey radiometer formula: or: Tested up to: tint = RPG-HATPRO Receiver Allan Variance Receivers obey radiometer formula: or: Tested up to: tint = 1000 sec 30 sec. Integr. Time → ∆T = 0. 1 K RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

58 GHz Brightness Temp. Noise in BL Mode 6 days time series of BL 58 GHz Brightness Temp. Noise in BL Mode 6 days time series of BL mode samples @ 58 GHz, 5° elevation (30 seconds integration time), RMS noise = 0. 08 K RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

Two Scanning Modes (Temperature Profiling) 1) Zenith Mode: vertical viewing direction, 51. 26 - Two Scanning Modes (Temperature Profiling) 1) Zenith Mode: vertical viewing direction, 51. 26 - 58 GHz, 7 channels, used for full troposphere temperature profiles (<= 10 km) 2) Boundary Layer Mode: vertical Resolution: 50 m (<=1000 m) System Requirements: - Elevation scanning: 5° - 90° requires narrow beamwidth (2° HPBW), leads to 250 mm eff. beam diameter - low noise channels - long integration periods - parallel acquisition of all channels - high receiver stability RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

RMS Errors of Both Observation Modes solid: boundary layer mode (4 channels) dotted: zenith RMS Errors of Both Observation Modes solid: boundary layer mode (4 channels) dotted: zenith mode (7 channels) dash-dotted: standard deviation of data set (360 samples) zenith mode BL mode σ data RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

Full Trop. Temperature Profile in Zenith Mode Inversion Full troposphere (zenith) scan. Inversion below Full Trop. Temperature Profile in Zenith Mode Inversion Full troposphere (zenith) scan. Inversion below 1 km is not well resolved (about 1 K). RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

Same Inversion Measured in BL Mode 6 hours later A B A: Radiosonde (red) Same Inversion Measured in BL Mode 6 hours later A B A: Radiosonde (red) and boundary layer scan (blue) profiles at the same time as above. A strong ground inversion of 4 K is resolved. B: 6 hours later the inversion has disappeared (12: 00). RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

Boundary Layer Measured in Zenith Mode Zenith observation mode. In the lower 500 m Boundary Layer Measured in Zenith Mode Zenith observation mode. In the lower 500 m layer the vertical structure is not resolved in detail (Data taken from 24. July to 28. July 2005 in Convective Storms Initiation Project, University of Salford / UK). RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

Boundary Layer Measured in BL Mode Boundary layer scanning mode. The vertical structure even Boundary Layer Measured in BL Mode Boundary layer scanning mode. The vertical structure even in the lowest layer <100 m is clearly resolved. RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

Boundary Layer Profiles Examples RPG-HATPRO, DWD Lindenberg, Sept. 2005 RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H Boundary Layer Profiles Examples RPG-HATPRO, DWD Lindenberg, Sept. 2005 RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

Boundary Layer Profile Examples Benin, West Africa, January 2006 (AMMA) RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. Boundary Layer Profile Examples Benin, West Africa, January 2006 (AMMA) RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

Development and Decay of Inversions RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Development and Decay of Inversions RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

Development and Decay of Inversions RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Development and Decay of Inversions RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

Verification of BL Measurements RPG-HATPRO at DWD Lindenberg, Sept. 2005 temp. sensors every 10 Verification of BL Measurements RPG-HATPRO at DWD Lindenberg, Sept. 2005 temp. sensors every 10 m meteorological tower (99 m) RPG-HATPRO RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

Direct Comparision at 10 / 100 m Levels Mast HATPRO RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. Direct Comparision at 10 / 100 m Levels Mast HATPRO RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

Direct Comparision at 10 / 100 m Levels Mast HATPRO RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. Direct Comparision at 10 / 100 m Levels Mast HATPRO RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

Direct Comparision at 10 / 100 m Levels HATPRO mast HATPRO dry adiabatic lapse Direct Comparision at 10 / 100 m Levels HATPRO mast HATPRO dry adiabatic lapse rate RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

BL HATPRO/Radiosonde Comparison Distance radiosonde launching site ↔ HATPRO: 4 km bias RMS RPG BL HATPRO/Radiosonde Comparison Distance radiosonde launching site ↔ HATPRO: 4 km bias RMS RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

BL Mode HATPRO/Radiosonde Comparison RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, BL Mode HATPRO/Radiosonde Comparison RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

Strong BL Temperature Inversions RPG-HATPRO at DWD Lindenberg, October 2005 RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. Strong BL Temperature Inversions RPG-HATPRO at DWD Lindenberg, October 2005 RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

BL HATPRO/Radiosonde Comparison RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto BL HATPRO/Radiosonde Comparison RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

Zenith Mode HATPRO/Radiosonde Comparison RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Zenith Mode HATPRO/Radiosonde Comparison RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

Zenith Mode HATPRO/Radiosonde Comparison RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Zenith Mode HATPRO/Radiosonde Comparison RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

Zenith Mode HATPRO/Radiosonde Comparison RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Zenith Mode HATPRO/Radiosonde Comparison RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

Zenith Mode HATPRO/Radiosonde Comparison RMS bias RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – Zenith Mode HATPRO/Radiosonde Comparison RMS bias RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

HATPRO Humidity Profiling up to 10 km Benin, West Africa, 19. January 2006 (AMMA) HATPRO Humidity Profiling up to 10 km Benin, West Africa, 19. January 2006 (AMMA) 45 kg/m^2 27 kg/m^2 RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

HATPRO Humidity Profiling Comparison with radiosonde data. RMS Error: 0. 5 g/m 3 RPG HATPRO Humidity Profiling Comparison with radiosonde data. RMS Error: 0. 5 g/m 3 RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

LWP / IWV time series High temp. and spatial res. LWP time series for LWP / IWV time series High temp. and spatial res. LWP time series for cloud analysis temp. res. : 1 sec. , abs. acc. : +/-20 g/m 2 , RMS Noise: +/- 2 g/m 2 30 g/m 2 (=0. 03 mm) RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

Stability Indices Retrieval Lifted Index, K-Index, Showalter Index, Totals Index, CAPE (derived from 7 Stability Indices Retrieval Lifted Index, K-Index, Showalter Index, Totals Index, CAPE (derived from 7 oxygen line and 7 water vapour line channels) thunderstorms likely 50 thunderstorms likely TTI 30 KI LI KO RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H -2 µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006

Summary • Direct Detection Filterbank Design offers high temporal resolution, optimum radiometric noise performance Summary • Direct Detection Filterbank Design offers high temporal resolution, optimum radiometric noise performance and high stability • Superior performance of BL mode in the boundary layer has been demonstrated for temperature profiling High temporal and spatial resolution for LWP cloud observations • • Close to 100% duty cycle for all channels • Low cost due to integrated receiver design and inhouse fabrication of all RF components RPG Radiometer Physics Gmb. H µRAD 06 – San Juan, Puerto Rico, Feb. /March 2006