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Grammar Review Nouns
Common vs. Proper Nouns Ø Common Nouns l l l teacher school state restaurant country book Proper Nouns Mrs. Rasinen Foley High School Alabama Sonic Argentina Brave New World
Making Nouns Plural 1. Add an –s to most nouns to make them plural. Ex. dog=dogs test=tests car=cars Add –es to singular nouns ending in –ch, -s, x, or –z. Ex. bench=benches brush=brushes dress=dresses box=boxes quiz=quizzes 3. Change f to v and add –es to the end of most singular nouns ending in f, lf, or fe. Ex. knife = knives leaf = leaves 4. Change the y to i and add –es to a singular noun ending in a consonant followed by y. Ex. fly=flies battery=batteries penny=pennies 2.
Making Nouns Plural 5. Add an –s to a singular noun ending in a vowel followed by y. Ex. day=days boy=boys key=keys Add –es to most words ending in o and preceded by a consonant. Ex. potato=potatoes echo=echoes 7. Add an –s after the most important word in a hyphenated compound noun or to one written as two words to make it plural. Ex. brother-in-law=brothers-in-law computer drive=computer drives 8. Memorize odd or irregular plurals. 6. Ex. man=men woman=women tooth=teeth goose=geese child=children foot=feet
Give It a Try! Ø Make the following nouns plural l l l lunch success flower tomato try life wife - mother-in-law - video game - star - fox - penny - toy - church
Give It a Try! Ø Make the following nouns plural l l l lunches successes flowers tomatoes tries lives wives - mothers-in-law - video games - stars - foxes - pennies - toys - churches
Making Nouns Possessive Ø Possessive nouns show possession or ownership. Ø Use apostrophes to make nouns possessive, NOT PLURAL. Ø NEVER use an apostrophe to make a pronoun possessive.
Ø Making Nouns Possessive Add an apostrophe and a –s to a singular noun. Ex. kitten’s tail Ø wife’s speech If a singular noun ends in –s and is one syllable, add an apostrophe and a –s. Ex. dress’s collar Ø glass’s color If a singular noun ends in –s and is more than one syllable, add an apostrophe. Ex. business’ strategy Ø Add only an apostrophe to a plural noun that ends in –s. Ex. fans’ excitement Ø students’ scores Add an apostrophe and –s to a plural nouns that does not end in –s. Ex. children’s books oxen’s stalls
Give It a Try! (cookie) decoration (Joneses) house (children) books (story) characters (Keats) poems (cookies) decorations (Jones) house (women) clothing (stories) characters (containers) lids
Give It a Try! cookie’s decoration Joneses’ house children’s books story’s characters Keats’s poems cookies’ decorations Jones’s house women’s clothing stories’ characters containers’ lids
Joint Ownership Ø When showing possession for compound constructions, the placement of the apostrophe s indicates who owns the object. Joint Ownership My mother and father’s house My brother and sister’s treehouse Each entity owns each object My mother’s and father’s houses Tom’s, Cathy’s, and Casey’s tennis rackets
Compound Nouns Ø A compound noun is a noun made up of two or more words. l Open • Gray fox, press secretary, line of sight l Hyphenated • Father-in-law, tenth-grader, good-bye l Closed • Headlight, postmaster, policeman
Collective Nouns Ø A collective noun refers to a specific group of persons or things. l Ø The noun is singular if the entire group is acting as one. l l Ø Ex. Group, club, team, couple, city, congregation, class, jury, swarm, flock The jury is ready with the verdict. The class averaged a high score. The noun is plural if the individual members of the group are acting. l l The jury are discussing their opinions. The class are preparing for their tests.
Pronouns – Replace Nouns Ø 1 st l l Singular – I, me Plural – we, us Ø 2 nd l l l Person Singular – you Plural – you Ø 3 rd l Person Singular – he, him, she, her, it Plural – they, them
Possessive Pronouns – Replace Possessive Nouns Ø 1 st l l Singular – my, mine Plural – our, ours Ø 2 nd l l l Person Singular – your, yours Plural – your, yours Ø 3 rd l Person Singular – his, hers, its Plural – their, theirs
Types of Pronouns Ø Personal (I, she, they, him, you) Ø Possessive (my, hers, theirs, your, our) Ø Reflexive and Intensive (myself, himself, themselves) Ø Demonstrative (this, that, these, those) Ø Interrogative (who, what, whose, whoever) Ø Relative (that, whoever, whose, which, who) Ø Indefinite (all, any, both, each, one, several)