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Got Questions? Serving Up a Glass of New Technology Indiana Online Users Group Spring Got Questions? Serving Up a Glass of New Technology Indiana Online Users Group Spring 2004 Program May 14, 2004 Trendspotting: Libraries and technology (or, what do I have to learn now!) Howard Rosenbaum [email protected] edu http: //www. slis. indiana. edu/hrosenba/www/Pres/iolug_04/index. html

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU Trendspotting: Outline Technology trends in libraries Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] Trendspotting: Outline Technology trends in libraries I. Review: Catching up… II. • So, was I close? III. Moving forward IV. • Technical trends V. • Social trends VI. change III. Staying on the treadmill of

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting I. Review: Catching up… In November, 1998: School of Library and Information Rosenbaum: Trendspotting I. Review: Catching up… In November, 1998: School of Library and Information [email protected]

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU I. Review: Catching up… So, was Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] I. Review: Catching up… So, was I close? I said that: As the number of people on the net increases, the web is becoming a new form of community Community networks Digital neighborhoods and virtual communities Chat rooms Portals

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU I. Review: Catching up… So, was Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] I. Review: Catching up… So, was I close? There is increasing pressure to bring more of our routine social activities onto the net Education Business Retailing The home

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting I. Review: Catching up… So, was I close? Working the web PICS, Rosenbaum: Trendspotting I. Review: Catching up… So, was I close? Working the web PICS, P 3 P Languages: School of Library and Information [email protected]

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU I. Review: Catching up… So, was Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] I. Review: Catching up… So, was I close? Accessing the web Convergence: telcos, cable companies and ISPs are competing to control the infrastructure of the net They want to control the last mile Controlling the web Governments are busy writing legislation they hope will lead to a safer net DMCA, CIPA, ITFA

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU Trendspotting: Outline Technology trends in libraries Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] Trendspotting: Outline Technology trends in libraries I. Review: Catching up… II. • So, was I close? III. Moving forwards IV. • Technical trends V. • Social trends VI. change III. Staying on the treadmill of

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Technical trends: Wireless Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Technical trends: Wireless libraries Many are installing WLANS It requires a number of access points Each has a transmitter, a receiver, an antenna, and a bridge to the wire- based network A user with a card or wireless adapter can access the WLAN from anywhere within several hundred feet

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting II. Moving forward: Technical trends Wireless technologies School of Library and Information Rosenbaum: Trendspotting II. Moving forward: Technical trends Wireless technologies School of Library and Information [email protected]

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Technical trends The Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Technical trends The current standard is IEEE 802. 11 b (802. 11 a is intended to replace it) Older systems use the 2. 4 GHz band (~3. 5 Mbps) New systems use the 5 GHz (up to 30 Mbps) with less interference This is Wi-Fi Alliance certifies products A “Wi-Fi Certified”(tm) product interoperates with other certified products, even from different manufacturers

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting II. Moving forward: Technical trends School of Library and Information Science@IU Rosenbaum: Trendspotting II. Moving forward: Technical trends School of Library and Information [email protected]

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Technical trends: PDAs, Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Technical trends: PDAs, handhelds, tablets, cell phones As the price drops, mobile devices are becoming much more common As they become more powerful, there is a greater range of uses Taking advantage of wireless access to access library resources Libraries can offer a new range of services to wireless patrons

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Technical trends Information Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Technical trends Information delivery to handheld mobile devices presents new challenges How do we design and develop content for these devices? How can the web page be optimized for small screens? Interface design for palm sized computers and cell phones How do we stream information to cell phones? WAP? Voice. XML? Vox. ML? Voice Markup Language?

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting II. Moving forward: Technical trends Sample interfaces developed by ATT School of Rosenbaum: Trendspotting II. Moving forward: Technical trends Sample interfaces developed by ATT School of Library and Information [email protected]

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Technical trends: RFID Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Technical trends: RFID Radio-Frequency Identification Small electronic devices that consist of a small chip and an antenna It provides a unique identifier for that object Like a bar code, it is scanned to retrieve identifying information RFID devices work within a few feet (up to 20 feet for high-frequency devices) of the scanner Now manufactured cheaply enough to be “throwaway”

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Technical trends RFID Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Technical trends RFID systems have three parts: A transponder (RFID tag) that is programmed with information Active RFID has its own power source (up to 10 yrs) , passive does not A scanning antenna Puts out radio-frequency signals in a relatively short range (and powers passive RFID) A transceiver with a decoder to interpret the data

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Technical trends A: Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Technical trends A: Shopper enters store and scanners identify her clothing through embedded tags The store knows where she bought what she is wearing B: A microchip embedded in credit card talks to the checkout reader Payment authorization is automatic C: Checkout counter reader automatically tallies purchases D: As she removes detergent, the reader in the shelf recognizes the need to restock and alerts the staff

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Technical trends RFID Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Technical trends RFID can be used throughout the library

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Technical trends: Security Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Technical trends: Security Firewalls: purpose is to protect critical digital data from outside attack It also allows legitimate users internet access The best firewall is a standalone web server Types of firewalls Packet filtering Proxy server Stateful firewall system

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting II. Moving forward: Technical trends Simple firewall architecture School of Library and Rosenbaum: Trendspotting II. Moving forward: Technical trends Simple firewall architecture School of Library and Information [email protected]

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting II. Moving forward: Technical trends Complex firewall architecture School of Library and Rosenbaum: Trendspotting II. Moving forward: Technical trends Complex firewall architecture School of Library and Information [email protected]

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Technical trends A Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Technical trends A firewall examines every data packet passing into or out of the network and make decisions based on User ID, origin of data, destination of data, content of the data It can decide to Let the packets in or out of the network Reject the incoming or outgoing packets Alert sender that the message will not be delivered Alert sysadmin that an attempt to violate the rules has been made

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Technical trends: Digital Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Technical trends: Digital rights management A set of trusted system technologies and usage rights languages to encode rights into copyrighted works Controls access to and use and distribution of the work DRM technology secures content (HTML, PDF, MP 3 files) by creating a digital wrapper It includes an encryption algorithm to decrypt the content Can have access control, requiring a password or digital certificate to retrieve a decryption key from a specialized server

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Technical trends A Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Technical trends A DRM-enabled server can track usage and provide information for billing or other systems With DRM, content can be locked forever, set to allow one-time use, or to limit viewing to a specific time period DRM may be contained within the OS, program software, or in the hardware of a device DRM can prevent content duplication via screen captures, forwarding or printing Some applications can even recall e-mail or files, pulling them completely out of a user's reach

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Technical trends Ianella’s Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Technical trends Ianella’s functional architecture for DRM

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Technical trends Ianella’s Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Technical trends Ianella’s rights expression architecture for DRM

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Technical trends: Web Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Technical trends: Web services W 3 C: It is set of applications that standardize communication of information across systems, business partners, and customers They provide a standard means of interoperating between different software applications, running on a variety of platforms and/or frameworks They can then be combined in a loosely coupled way in order to achieve complex operations Programs providing simple services can interact with each other to deliver sophisticated added-value service

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Technical trends A Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Technical trends A web service is a software system designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network It has an interface described in a machine-processable format (specifically WSDL) Other systems interact with the Web service in a manner prescribed by its description using SOAP messages These are typically conveyed using HTTP with an XML serialization in conjunction with other Web-related standards W 3 C. (2004). Web Services Architecture.

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Technical trends Web Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Technical trends Web services use of reusable application components that dynamically interact with each other on the net using standard protocols Services include: Formatting messages using XML Invoking services via simple object access protocol (SOAP) Publishing services in Web services description language (WSDL) Locating services through universal description discovery and integration (UDDI)

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting II. Moving forward: Technical trends One view of web service architectures School Rosenbaum: Trendspotting II. Moving forward: Technical trends One view of web service architectures School of Library and Information [email protected]

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting II. Moving forward: Technical trends Web services in action School of Library Rosenbaum: Trendspotting II. Moving forward: Technical trends Web services in action School of Library and Information [email protected]

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Technical trends: Semantic Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Technical trends: Semantic web Web services will run on the semantic web The web can reach its full potential when data can be shared and processed by automated tools as well as by people Programs will share and process data even when they have been designed independently Data on the web will be defined and linked so that it can be used by machines for automation, integration and reuse of data across various applications

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Technical trends Agent-based Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Technical trends Agent-based transactions Personal information management Semantic web Collaborative research Business applications Digital libraries

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Technical trends Agent-based Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Technical trends Agent-based transactions There will be customizable programs that will be able to Collect Web content from diverse sources Process the information Exchange the results with other programs Agents will interact if they are written to process semantic content of web data They take advantage trust built into the semantic web Agents’ inference engines can exchange and recognize “proofs” based on inferences and rules

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting II. Moving forward: Technical trends Architecture of the semantic web School of Rosenbaum: Trendspotting II. Moving forward: Technical trends Architecture of the semantic web School of Library and Information [email protected]

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Technical trends Digital Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Technical trends Digital libraries and the semantic web DL, museums and archives are memory organizations There are technical and social areas of overlap between semantic web and these organizations They will develop as key foundations for supporting the semantic web For example: Semantic Web Advanced Development collaboration with the DSpace project Dspace is a joint project of MIT Libraries and HP Goal: develop a flexible digital archive to capture and distribute the intellectual output of MIT

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Technical trends Personal Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Technical trends Personal information management Agent based transactions take advantage of semantic web and networked information appliances Agents will use characteristics of semantic web to manage many of our routine tasks The devices in our homes will have descriptions of services and functionalities Our agents can understand these and make use of them The phone rings and the TV volume is turned down when you pick up

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Social trends: Blogs Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Social trends: Blogs This is just-in-time electronic publishing Began in the late 90 s Now some blogs are on individual machines, others on central servers Some are individual and others allow collaborative posting Among the genres of blogs are those that are part of work Used in education, media, some businesses

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting II. Moving forward: Social trends School of Library and Information Science@IU Rosenbaum: Trendspotting II. Moving forward: Social trends School of Library and Information [email protected]

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Social trends Now Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Social trends Now blogs are using RSS stands for “Rich Site Summary” or “Really Simple Syndication” It is based on XML It is a format for syndicating news and the content of news-like sites Key parts of a site (ex: headlines) are sent in a bare form, stripped of graphics and layouts These are incorporated into other websites Users can read dozens of websites, all on the same page

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Social trends The Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Social trends The content provider codes and validates information about each item in RSS text file The file contains static information about your site, plus dynamic information about your content Register it at the various aggregators Any site can now grab and display your feed regularly, driving traffic your way An RSS-aware program (news aggregator ) checks your site’s feeds for changes and displays new items Update your RSS file, and all the external sites that subscribe to your feed will be automatically updated

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Social trends RSS Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Social trends RSS is also used to share content among sites (syndication) Sites can harvest each other’s RSS feeds, and automatically display the new stories from the other sites in the network This drives more traffic throughout RSS data can also flow into other products and services like PDA’s, cell phones, email ticklers. and even voice updates

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Social trends: security Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Social trends: security Preventing and detecting unauthorized use of a computer Includes security of a computer, including OS, security of the networks to which a computer is connected and general Web security Whitson, G. (2003). Computer security: theory, process and management. Consortium for Computing Sciences in Colleges A set of procedures, practices, and technologies for protecting Web servers, Web users, and their surrounding organizations Garfinkel and Spafford (1997). Web Security & Commerce

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Social trends Computer Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Social trends Computer and net crime is a growing problem 75% of surveyed firms and agencies had security breaches and acknowledged financial losses CSI/FBI survey (2003) 2437 vulnerabilities reported in 2001 and 4129 in 2002 52, 658 documented in 2001 and 82, 694 in 2002 CERT/CC (2003) Attacks on Fortune 1000 companies are increasing at a 64% annual rate of growth Riptech http: //www. riptech. com

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Social trends The Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Social trends The window of exposure When bad stuff happens Schneier , B. (2000). Managed Security Monitoring: Closing the Window of Exposure. Counterpane Security. p 2

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Social trends Major Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Social trends Major security issues Internal network security (75% of attacks are internal) Copying/deleting files, changing code, sabotage Lack of skill to implement and maintain security Malicious code (in applets etc) Reliability and performance problems External hacking Social engineering attacks (information warfare) Denial of service attacks (brute force attacks) Natural disasters, accidents, and terrorism

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Social trends What Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Social trends What you want: The system can function when security measures are in place and downtime is minimized (availability) Only authorized people access back end data (secrecy) Data are accessible only to sender and receiver (privacy - confidentiality) Data are been changed during transmission (integrity) Data are verified by receiver as coming from sender (authenticity) Sender knows that receiver is genuine (non-fabrication) Sender cannot deny he or she sent it (non-repudiation)

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Social trends: spam Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Social trends: spam Millions of people receive dozens of unsolicited commercial e-mails (UCE), known popularly as spam E-mail addresses posted on Web sites or in newsgroups attract the most spam Spammers use software harvesting programs such as “robots” or “spiders” to record e-mail addresses listed on Web sites They crawl personal Web pages and institutional (corporate or non-profit) Web pages Newsgroups can expose to spammers the e-mail address of every person who posts to the newsgroup

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting II. Moving forward: Social trends School of Library and Information Science@IU Rosenbaum: Trendspotting II. Moving forward: Social trends School of Library and Information [email protected]

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU II. Moving forward: Social trends Center Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] II. Moving forward: Social trends Center for Democracy and Technology study (2003)

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU Trendspotting: Outline Technology trends in libraries Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] Trendspotting: Outline Technology trends in libraries I. Review: Catching up… II. • So, was I close? III. Moving forwards IV. • Technical trends V. • Social trends VI. change III. Staying on the treadmill of

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU III. Staying on the treadmill of Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] III. Staying on the treadmill of change What do I have to learn now? We have to learn lots and quickly The sociotechnical environment is changing around us at what seems like an increasing pace These changes provide new opportunities for us To improve services to patrons To provide new options in our work, hopefully to improve it The challenge is to integrate serious life-long learning into the job

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU III. Staying on the treadmill of Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] III. Staying on the treadmill of change What could the future hold? Developing a digital reference service that incorporates live web-based reference interviews Learning how to develop and manage digital libraries Having the skills and understanding to create and manage complex database driven websites Understanding how to negotiate with vendors over digital rights management issues Creating and updating a library blog with an RSS feed Being able to lock down the library’s computing infrastructure

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU III. Staying on the treadmill of Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] III. Staying on the treadmill of change What could the future hold? Delivering a range of library services through a wireless network And delivering it to a net-enabled wrist phone Using RFID tags to manage circulation and other functions Creating a set of web services to support library consortia Understanding how the library can take advantage of the semantic web

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU Sources Image sources: Slide 4: http: Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] Sources Image sources: Slide 4: http: //ibrary. spt. tec. sc. us/handouts/hist-techn. htm Slide 7: http: //www. win 2 biz. com/eng/wireless. htm Slide 9: http: //ww. zid. tuwien. ac. at/zidline/zl 08/wlan. html Slide 10: http: //www. notthefly. com/Home/home. html Slide 11: http: //www. ad. nl/images/wifi, 1. jpg Slide 12: http: //www. geekculture. com/joyoftech/joyarchives/543. html Slide 14: http: //www. edgereview. com/ataglance. cfm? Category=handheld&ID=337 Slide 15: http: //www. research. att. com/~yatin/publications/docs/ cscw/ui. html Slide 17: http: //www. rfidasia. com/htmdocs/rfid_systems/systems. htm Slide 18: http: //www. mindfully. org/Technology/RFID-Things-Forbes 18 mar 02. htm Slide 19: http: //www. library. com. tw/product/rfid 201 Slide 20: http: //www 2. infinit. com/. . . /2001/ 11/20011123 -141345. html Slide 21: http: //www. unwiredonline. net/support. htm

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU Sources Image sources: Slide 24: http: Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] Sources Image sources: Slide 24: http: //www. kcoyle. net/drm_basics 1. html Slide 25: http: //www. projectcool. com/security/ Article/7868 Slide 26: http: //www. dlib. org/dlib/june 01/iannella/06 iannella. html Slide 27: http: //www. dlib. org/dlib/june 01/iannella/06 iannella. html Slide 28: http: //cheltenhamtownship. org/library/libtech. htm Slide 29: http: //www. hirschgift. com/library 10. htm Slide 30: www. konekta. net/sr/wservices/ Slide 31: http: //www. exmlsystems. com/Technology. Insight. htm Slide 32: http: //www. business 2. com/articles/mag/0, 1640, 38627|3, 00. html Slide 36: http: //www. icot. or. jp/FTS/REPORTS/H 14 -reports/H 1503 -AITECReport 3/AITEC 0203 R 2 -images/006. gif Slide 38: http: //2 world. com/staging/aime/products/webpassport/ Slide 39: http: //chronotope. com/chronotope/2003/02/06. php

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information Science@IU Sources Image sources: Slide 40: http: Rosenbaum: Trendspotting School of Library and Information [email protected] Sources Image sources: Slide 40: http: //www. geekculture. com/joyoftech/joyarchives/535. html Slide 43: http: //www. faganfinder. com/search/rss. shtml Slide 44: http: //www. netls. org/. . . /News%20127/127%20 final. htm Slide 45: http: //www. fcol. com/network_security. htm Slide 47: homepage. mac. com/ronsbell/Blogs/B 380834556 Slide 48: http: /ww. itportal. it/special/sicurezza/crearevirus/ Slide 49: http: //www. stanford. edu/~ravp/ Slide 50: http: //www. pro-j. com/gulmece/karikatur/bilgisayar/spam. jpg Slide 50: http: //www. goring-by-sea. uk. com/images/spam. gif Slide 51: http: //www. cdt. org/speech/spam/030319 spamreport. shtml Slide 52: http: //www. loa-cnr. it Projects. html Slide 53: http: //www. prairienet. org/~yamada/ssitehistoryindex. html Slide 54: http: //www. epicski. com/. . . /Dryland. Training/Dryland 8. htm

Rosenbaum: Trendspotting Got Questions? Serving Up a Glass of New Technology Indiana Online Users Rosenbaum: Trendspotting Got Questions? Serving Up a Glass of New Technology Indiana Online Users Group Spring 2004 Program May 14, 2004 School of Library and Information [email protected] Trendspotting: Libraries and technology (or, what do I have to learn now!) Howard Rosenbaum [email protected] edu http: //www. slis. indiana. edu/hrosenba/www/Pres/iolug_04/index. html