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© Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Chapter 19 Agricultural and Related Technology © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to Chapter 19 Agricultural and Related Technology © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Objectives • Explain what agriculture is. • Name the two major types of agriculture. Objectives • Explain what agriculture is. • Name the two major types of agriculture. • List the six major groups of crops grown on farms. • Describe the seven main types of machines used in growing and harvesting crops. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Objectives • Label the five main types of livestock farms. • Give examples of Objectives • Label the five main types of livestock farms. • Give examples of how technology is used in aquaculture. • Summarize how biotechnology can be used in agriculture. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Objectives • Identify five methods of food preservation used today. • Paraphrase the definition Objectives • Identify five methods of food preservation used today. • Paraphrase the definition of artificial ecosystem. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Early Agriculture • Began about 10, 000 years ago • First farmers were nomads Early Agriculture • Began about 10, 000 years ago • First farmers were nomads in the Middle East • They planted seeds of grasses for food • These grasses produced a new crop called grain • Crops were tended with crude hoes and bone sickles © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Science and Technology • Modern farming uses science • Plant science • Cross-pollination • Science and Technology • Modern farming uses science • Plant science • Cross-pollination • Animal science • Crossbreeding • Modern farming uses agricultural technology • New machines • Modern equipment • Food preservation and storage techniques • Weather and seasons © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Types of Agriculture • Agriculture takes place: • On farms • On ranches • Types of Agriculture • Agriculture takes place: • On farms • On ranches • In gardens • Main branches: • Crop production • Animal husbandry (U. S. Department of Agriculture) © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Crop Production • Grows plants to provide: • • Human food Animal feed Natural Crop Production • Grows plants to provide: • • Human food Animal feed Natural fibers Ingredients for medicines Ingredients for industrial processes Plants for landscaping Trees for ornamental and wood products © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Animal Husbandry • Involves: • Breeding animals • Feeding animals • Training animals • Animal Husbandry • Involves: • Breeding animals • Feeding animals • Training animals • Uses of these animals include: • • Food Fibers Physical work Pleasure © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Agricultural Crops • Crops raised today come from all over the world • Major Agricultural Crops • Crops raised today come from all over the world • Major types of crops: • • • Grains Vegetables Fruits Nuts Forage crops Nonfood © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Grains • Members of the grass family with edible seeds • Include wheat, rice, Grains • Members of the grass family with edible seeds • Include wheat, rice, corn, barley, and oats • Main food energy source for 75% of the world’s population (Deere and Company) © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Vegetables • Plants with edible leaves, stems, roots, or seeds • Provide important vitamins Vegetables • Plants with edible leaves, stems, roots, or seeds • Provide important vitamins and minerals • Include beets, carrots, lettuce, celery, peas, melons, and cabbage • Grown on truck farms (U. S. Department of Agriculture) © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Fruits • Plants cultivated for their edible parts • Include berries, apples, pears, plums, Fruits • Plants cultivated for their edible parts • Include berries, apples, pears, plums, lemons, limes, figs, dates, and grapes • Grown in orchards or on berry farms © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Nuts • Plants with hard-shelled seeds • Include walnuts, pecans, almonds, filberts, coconuts, and Nuts • Plants with hard-shelled seeds • Include walnuts, pecans, almonds, filberts, coconuts, and peanuts • Most are grown on trees in orchards • Peanuts grow underground on farms © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Forage Crops • Plants grown for animal food • Include: • Hay crops, such Forage Crops • Plants grown for animal food • Include: • Hay crops, such as alfalfa and clover • Grasses used for pasture © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Nonfood • Plants grown for uses other than food • Includes: • • • Nonfood • Plants grown for uses other than food • Includes: • • • Tobacco Cotton Rubber Nursery stock for landscaping Christmas trees © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

A Crop’s Life Cycle © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for A Crop’s Life Cycle © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Advances in Agriculture • Growing crops used to be laborintensive • Farming has become Advances in Agriculture • Growing crops used to be laborintensive • Farming has become equipmentintensive • New tools and machinery have been developed • Work is easier and more productive © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Technology in Agriculture • Growing crops involves technological devices and systems © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Technology in Agriculture • Growing crops involves technological devices and systems © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. • Power (pulling) equipment • Tillage equipment • Planting equipment • Pest control equipment • Irrigation equipment • Harvesting equipment • Storage equipment Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

History of Pulling Equipment • Animals were tamed and trained to pull loads in History of Pulling Equipment • Animals were tamed and trained to pull loads in the Stone Age • By 3500 B. C. , oxen were used to plow fields • During the 1900 s, tractors replaced animal power on most farms (U. S. Department of Agriculture) © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Discussion What are some other uses, other than farm applications, for tractors? © Goodheart-Willcox Discussion What are some other uses, other than farm applications, for tractors? © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Types of Tractors • Wheel tractors • Track machines (Deere and Company) © Goodheart-Willcox Types of Tractors • Wheel tractors • Track machines (Deere and Company) © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Features of Tractors • Tractors provide power to pull all types of farm equipment Features of Tractors • Tractors provide power to pull all types of farm equipment • All tractors have: • • • Power source (engine) Way to transmit the power for pulling a load Method of controlling speed and direction Traction devices (wheels or tracks) Operator’s area (seat, cab, and controls) Hitch for fastening equipment © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Tillage Equipment • Breaks and pulverizes the soil • Develops a seedbed for seeds Tillage Equipment • Breaks and pulverizes the soil • Develops a seedbed for seeds and plants • Includes: • Plows • Discs • Harrows © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Plows • Cut, lift, and turn over soil • Can be traced back to Plows • Cut, lift, and turn over soil • Can be traced back to tree branches and antlers • Iron and steel plows were developed in the 1800 s • Modern plows have a blade-shaped plowshare © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. (Case IH) Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Discs • Prepare the seedbed • Used after or instead of the plow • Discs • Prepare the seedbed • Used after or instead of the plow • Series of curved discs on a shaft • Slice and crumble the earth as they are pulled through the ground (Deere and Company) © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Harrows • Used after plowing and discing • Frames with spikes or spring-shaped teeth Harrows • Used after plowing and discing • Frames with spikes or spring-shaped teeth • Dragged over the ground to make the soil fine and crumbly © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Minimum Tillage • Today, farmers are doing less tillage • This technique uses small Minimum Tillage • Today, farmers are doing less tillage • This technique uses small amounts of work to prepare the soil • Often used on soil that erodes easily • A set of chisels on a frame might be used to open the soil • Sometimes, no-tillage systems are used © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Discussion What are the advantages and disadvantages of minimum tillage and no-till farming? © Discussion What are the advantages and disadvantages of minimum tillage and no-till farming? © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Planting Equipment • Fertilizer must be applied to the soil • Seeds must be Planting Equipment • Fertilizer must be applied to the soil • Seeds must be planted to start the crop cycle • In early days, this was done by hand • Today, this is done with a grain drill (Deere and Company) © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Specialized Planting Machines • Used to plant vegetable plants • • Potatoes Corn Tomatoes Specialized Planting Machines • Used to plant vegetable plants • • Potatoes Corn Tomatoes Cabbage (Deere and Company) © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Pest Control Equipment • Developed to help control pests • Diseases • Insects • Pest Control Equipment • Developed to help control pests • Diseases • Insects • Neighboring plants • Cultivators are used to remove weeds • Break up the ground • Allow water to enter the soil • Cut off and pull out weeds © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Discussion How is this farmer applying fertilizer while cultivating a crop? (U. S. Department Discussion How is this farmer applying fertilizer while cultivating a crop? (U. S. Department of Agriculture) © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Pest Control Sprays • Herbicides control weeds • Pesticides control insects • Can be Pest Control Sprays • Herbicides control weeds • Pesticides control insects • Can be applied with ground equipment or airplanes © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Irrigation Equipment • Elements of irrigation systems: • Reliable source of water • Canals, Irrigation Equipment • Elements of irrigation systems: • Reliable source of water • Canals, ditches, or channels to move water • Way to control and distribute water • Dams are often used to control water at its source © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Irrigation Methods • Flood irrigation • Sprinkler irrigation • Drip irrigation © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Irrigation Methods • Flood irrigation • Sprinkler irrigation • Drip irrigation © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Flood Irrigation • Used on level fields • Sheet of water advances across a Flood Irrigation • Used on level fields • Sheet of water advances across a field • Furrows might be used between rows of plants to move water to the other end of the field (U. S. Department of Agriculture) © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Sprinkler Irrigation • Involves water source, pump, main lines, lateral lines, valves, and sprinkler Sprinkler Irrigation • Involves water source, pump, main lines, lateral lines, valves, and sprinkler heads • Common types of systems: • Solid set sprinklers • Pivot sprinklers (U. S. Department of Agriculture) © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Drip Irrigation • Uses main lines to bring water near plants • Tubes bring Drip Irrigation • Uses main lines to bring water near plants • Tubes bring water from main lines to each plant • Ensures each plant is properly watered • Reduces amount of water lost to evaporation © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Discussion Why is irrigation important to American agriculture? © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission Discussion Why is irrigation important to American agriculture? © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Harvesting Equipment • Crops must be harvested upon reaching maturity • Combines are used Harvesting Equipment • Crops must be harvested upon reaching maturity • Combines are used to harvest grains • Combination of a header and a thresher • Cut off top of plant and separate out grain (Deere and Company) © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Specialized Harvesting Machines • Combines or other special machines are harvest vegetables, cotton, fruits, Specialized Harvesting Machines • Combines or other special machines are harvest vegetables, cotton, fruits, and nuts • Swathers and balers harvest hay (Deere and Company) © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Storage Equipment • Crops are often stored before being sent to processing plants • Storage Equipment • Crops are often stored before being sent to processing plants • Crops are stored in: • • © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Silos Grain elevators Hay barns Climate-controlled buildings Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Raising Livestock • Animals are raised on: • Animals are raised to provide: • Raising Livestock • Animals are raised on: • Animals are raised to provide: • Meat • Milk • Materials for clothing © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. • • • Cattle ranches Dairies Swine farms Horse farms Poultry farms Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Equipment for Raising Livestock • Buildings to house animals • Buildings to process feed Equipment for Raising Livestock • Buildings to house animals • Buildings to process feed • Machines used to feed animals • Pumps and tanks to provide water • Machines and equipment to dispose of animal waste © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Discussion How is this cattle feedlot similar to a small-scale city? © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Discussion How is this cattle feedlot similar to a small-scale city? © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Special Types of Agriculture • Hydroponics • Growing plants without soil • Aquaculture • Special Types of Agriculture • Hydroponics • Growing plants without soil • Aquaculture • Growing and harvesting fish, shellfish, and aquatic plants • Forestry • Growing trees for commercial uses © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Agricultural Biotechnology • Used to create, improve, or modify plants, animals, and microorganisms • Agricultural Biotechnology • Used to create, improve, or modify plants, animals, and microorganisms • Can improve the nutritional value of foods • Can combat human and animal diseases © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Uses for Biotechnology • Increase crop yields • Produce plants resistant to pests, diseases, Uses for Biotechnology • Increase crop yields • Produce plants resistant to pests, diseases, and herbicides • Genetic engineering and gene splicing © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Food Production • Most foods have been processed or preserved before we eat them Food Production • Most foods have been processed or preserved before we eat them • Food production begins with farmers • Harvested food goes to processing plants and is then transported to consumers © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Discussion What types of workers are involved in food production? © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Discussion What types of workers are involved in food production? © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Food Processing • Conversion of harvested crops into ready-to-eat food © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Food Processing • Conversion of harvested crops into ready-to-eat food © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. • • • Sorting Washing Slicing Roasting Grinding Canning Flash freezing Boxing Cooking Adding preservatives Packaging Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Food Preservation • Prevents growth of microorganisms that spoil food • Techniques include: • Food Preservation • Prevents growth of microorganisms that spoil food • Techniques include: • • • Refrigeration and freezing Canning Dehydration Chemical preservation Irradiation Freeze-drying © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Refrigeration and Freezing • Most popular forms of preservation • Cold temperatures cause bacteria Refrigeration and Freezing • Most popular forms of preservation • Cold temperatures cause bacteria growth to slow or stop • Have little effect on taste and texture of most foods © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Canning • Preserves food in glass jars or metal cans • Uses heat to Canning • Preserves food in glass jars or metal cans • Uses heat to remove oxygen from container and kill microorganisms • Heating inactivates enzymes that could change the food’s color, flavor, or texture • Used to preserve fruits, vegetables, jams and jellies, soups, and juices © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Dehydration • Process by which foods are dried to preserve them • Increases salt Dehydration • Process by which foods are dried to preserve them • Increases salt and sugar concentrations, which kills bacteria • Used for soup, potatoes, dried fruits and vegetables, beef jerky, pasta, and instant rice (Cherry Marketing Institute) © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Discussion When is dehydrating a more useful process than canning? © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Discussion When is dehydrating a more useful process than canning? © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Chemical Preservation • Curing • Uses salt or sugar • Used for country ham, Chemical Preservation • Curing • Uses salt or sugar • Used for country ham, dried beef, corned beef, and pastrami • Pickling • Uses vinegar • Used for meat, fruits, and pickles © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Irradiation • • • Uses X-ray radiation to kill bacteria Does not significantly change Irradiation • • • Uses X-ray radiation to kill bacteria Does not significantly change food Can occur after food is packaged Used for chicken and beef Safety is still controversial © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Other Forms of Food Preservation • • • Freeze-drying Pasteurization Fermentation Carbonation Smoking Cheese Other Forms of Food Preservation • • • Freeze-drying Pasteurization Fermentation Carbonation Smoking Cheese making © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Artificial Ecosystems • Used to study agricultural processes and systems • Common examples: • Artificial Ecosystems • Used to study agricultural processes and systems • Common examples: • Terrariums • Hydroponics stations • Require close monitoring and management (Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture) © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Quality Control • Livestock farming • Food processing • • • Animal feed Animal Quality Control • Livestock farming • Food processing • • • Animal feed Animal health Meat preparation Crop inspection Fertilizer approval © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. • Food preparation • Food preservation • Food inspection • Sanitation Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Agricultural Managers • Manage daily activities of farms, ranches, and nurseries • Work in Agricultural Managers • Manage daily activities of farms, ranches, and nurseries • Work in the office and in the field • Workload might shift with season • Experience in farm or ranch work is often required © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Technology Teachers • Help students learn about technology • Must possess good communication skills Technology Teachers • Help students learn about technology • Must possess good communication skills and understand their subject area • Work in lab-type classrooms • Must be licensed by the state in which they teach © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Review Questions 1. _____ is using materials, information, and machines to produce the food Review Questions 1. _____ is using materials, information, and machines to produce the food and natural fibers needed to maintain life. Agriculture © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Review Questions 2. What are the two major types of agriculture? Crop production and Review Questions 2. What are the two major types of agriculture? Crop production and animal husbandry © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Review Questions 3. Name the six major groups of crops grown on farms. Grains, Review Questions 3. Name the six major groups of crops grown on farms. Grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, forage crops, and nonfood © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Review Questions 4. _____ equipment is designed to break and pulverize the soil. Tillage Review Questions 4. _____ equipment is designed to break and pulverize the soil. Tillage © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Review Questions 5. A cultivator is an example of _____ equipment. A. tillage B. Review Questions 5. A cultivator is an example of _____ equipment. A. tillage B. planting C. harvesting D. pest control © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Review Questions 6. Which of the following types of livestock farms raises cattle primarily Review Questions 6. Which of the following types of livestock farms raises cattle primarily for milk? A. Cattle ranches B. Dairies C. Swine farms D. Poultry farms B. Dairies © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Review Questions 7. What type of agriculture grows and harvests fish, shellfish, and aquatic Review Questions 7. What type of agriculture grows and harvests fish, shellfish, and aquatic plants in controlled conditions? Aquaculture © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Review Questions 8. How can biotechnology be used in agriculture? Increasing crop yields; producing Review Questions 8. How can biotechnology be used in agriculture? Increasing crop yields; producing plants resistant to pests, diseases, and herbicides; genetic engineering; and gene splicing © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Review Questions 9. Name three methods of food preservation used today. Any three of Review Questions 9. Name three methods of food preservation used today. Any three of the following: refrigeration and freezing, canning, dehydration, chemical preservation, irradiation © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Review Questions 10. A(n) _____ is a human-made complex reproducing some facets of the Review Questions 10. A(n) _____ is a human-made complex reproducing some facets of the natural environment. artificial ecosystem © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Glossary • Agricultural technology • Developing and using devices and systems to plant, grow, Glossary • Agricultural technology • Developing and using devices and systems to plant, grow, and harvest crops. It also includes raising livestock for food and other useful products. • Agriculture • Using materials, information, and machines to produce the food and natural fibers needed to maintain life. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Glossary • Animal husbandry • The breeding, feeding, and training of animals. • Animal Glossary • Animal husbandry • The breeding, feeding, and training of animals. • Animal science • The science of crossbreeding livestock. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Glossary • Aquaculture • The growing and harvesting of fish, shellfish, and aquatic plants Glossary • Aquaculture • The growing and harvesting of fish, shellfish, and aquatic plants in controlled conditions. It uses ponds, instead of soil, to grow its crop. • Artificial ecosystem • A human-made complex reproducing some facets of the natural environment. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Glossary • Baler • A machine that picks up a windrow (band of hay) Glossary • Baler • A machine that picks up a windrow (band of hay) and conveys it into a baling chamber, where the hay is compressed into a cube. • Biotechnology • A part of technology dealing with using biological agents in an industrial process to produce goods or services. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Glossary • Combine • A machine used to harvest grains. • Crop • Grain, Glossary • Combine • A machine used to harvest grains. • Crop • Grain, vegetables, or fruit that has been agriculturally cultivated. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Glossary • Cultivator • A machine used on farmland to remove weeds and open Glossary • Cultivator • A machine used on farmland to remove weeds and open the soil for water. • Disc • A series of curved discs on a shaft. Discs (disc plows) are used to prepare the seedbed. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Glossary • Drip irrigation • A type of irrigation that uses main lines to Glossary • Drip irrigation • A type of irrigation that uses main lines to bring water near the plants. Individual tubes or emitters bring water from the main lines to each plant. • Forestry • The growing of trees for commercial use, such as lumber and timber products, paper and pulp, and chips and fibers. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Glossary • Genetic engineering • Selective breeding and pollinating, which allows people to develop Glossary • Genetic engineering • Selective breeding and pollinating, which allows people to develop plants and animals with desirable traits. • Gene splicing • The process of using enzymes to cut the DNA chain at any point and splice them back together with more desirable parts. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Glossary • Grain drill • A machine developed in the early 1700 s to Glossary • Grain drill • A machine developed in the early 1700 s to plant seeds. It is also called a seed drill. • Harrow • A frame with teeth, dragged over the ground to give the soil tilth. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Glossary • Harvest • To remove edible parts of plants from trees and stocks Glossary • Harvest • To remove edible parts of plants from trees and stocks and to butcher animals to produce meat and other products for consumption. • Hydroponics • Growing plants in nutrient solutions without soil. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Glossary • Irrigation • Artificial watering to maintain plant growth in areas too dry Glossary • Irrigation • Artificial watering to maintain plant growth in areas too dry for successful farming. • Pest control • A spray used to control insects and weeds that may damage farm crops. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Glossary • Pivot sprinkler • A sprinkler that uses one long line attached at Glossary • Pivot sprinkler • A sprinkler that uses one long line attached at one end to a water source. The line is constantly moving very slowly in a circle. Sprinkler or mist heads apply the water as the line pivots. • Plant • To place seeds in the ground to grow. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Glossary • Plant science • The science of cross-pollinating crops. • Plow • A Glossary • Plant science • The science of cross-pollinating crops. • Plow • A blade-shaped plowshare that cuts, lifts, and turns over the soil. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Glossary • Sprinkler • A device used to control and distribute water. • Swather Glossary • Sprinkler • A device used to control and distribute water. • Swather • A machine that cuts and windrows the hay in one pass over the field. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Glossary • Tillage • The operation of breaking and pulverizing soil. • Tractor • Glossary • Tillage • The operation of breaking and pulverizing soil. • Tractor • A machine that provides power to pull all types of farm equipment. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. , Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.