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 Good Governance (1) (1 ) ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻴﺪ Good Governance (1) (1 ) ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻴﺪ

 ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ Governance “The manner in which power is exercised in the management of ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ Governance “The manner in which power is exercised in the management of a country’s social and economic resources for development” (World Bank) ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ")ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ( ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻲ “The exercise of economic, political and administrative authority to manage a country’s affairs at all levels …” (UNDP) ” "ﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺷﺆﻮﻥ ﺑﻠﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ( )ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻷﻤﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﻤﺎﺋﻲ

q Governance can be used in several contexts such as: Ø corporate governance ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ q Governance can be used in several contexts such as: Ø corporate governance ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ Ø international governance ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻲ Ø national governance ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ Ø local governance ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ q The concept of governance is closely linked to the working of the nation-state ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻴﺔ or its governing capacity . ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻢ

Hard State ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ Soft State ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺧﻮﺓ q It sets priorities ﺗﻀﻊ ﺍﻷﻮﻟﻮﻳﺎﺕ Hard State ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ Soft State ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺧﻮﺓ q It sets priorities ﺗﻀﻊ ﺍﻷﻮﻟﻮﻳﺎﺕ q It executes them . ﺗﻨﻔﺬﻫﺎ q Actual administration is based on rational bureaucratic principles ﺗﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﻋﻘﻼﻧﻴﺔ Administrators usually defy laws and regulations. ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﻮﻥ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺤﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ . ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻮﺍﺋﺢ § Officials & administrators collude to stop implementation of public policies. ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﻮﻥ ﻹﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻃﺄ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺆﻮﻟﻮﻥ . ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ § Corruption is widespread. ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﺮﻱ § Erosion of the rule of law and accountability. ﺗآﻜﻞ ﺳﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ . ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺀﻟﺔ §

Types of Governance ﺃﻨﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ Autocratic Participative ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﺩﻱ ﺗﺸﺎﺭﻛﻲ VS. Involved Empowering ﺍﻧﺨﺮﺍﻃﻲ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻨﻲ Types of Governance ﺃﻨﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ Autocratic Participative ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﺩﻱ ﺗﺸﺎﺭﻛﻲ VS. Involved Empowering ﺍﻧﺨﺮﺍﻃﻲ ﺗﻤﻜﻴﻨﻲ VS.

Areas of governance ﻣﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ Ø Civil society ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ Ø Political society ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ Areas of governance ﻣﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ Ø Civil society ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ Ø Political society ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ Ø Government ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ Ø Bureaucracy ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺮﻭﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ Ø Economic society ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ Ø Judiciary ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ

 What is Good Governance? ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻴﺪ؟ q ‘Good governance’ means competent What is Good Governance? ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻴﺪ؟ q ‘Good governance’ means competent management of a country’s resources and affairs in a manner that is open, transparent, accountable, equitable and responsive to people’s needs. ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻬﻠﺔ ﻟﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﻭﺷﺆﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ﻭﺷﻔﺎﻓﺔ "ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻴﺪ" ﻳﻌﻨﻲ . ﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺧﺎﺿﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﺀﻟﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﺼﻔﺔ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﺠﻴﺒﺔ q ‘Good governance’ refers to the management of government in a manner that is essentially free of abuse and corruption, and with due regard for the rule of law. ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻴﺪ ﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺧﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﺳﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ، ﻭﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ . ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺔ ﻟﺴﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ

Anlysis of good governance can look at any of the following relationships: ü between Anlysis of good governance can look at any of the following relationships: ü between governments and markets ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻮﺍﻕ ü between governments and citizens ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ ü between governments and the private sector ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ü between elected officials and appointed officials ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺆﻮﻟﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺨﺒﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺆﻮﻟﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﻨﻴﻦ ü between local institutions and urban and rural ﺑﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻷﺮﻳﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺮ residents ü between legislature and executive branches ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ übetween nation states and institutions. ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺆﺴﺴﺎﺕ

Civil Service Political Parties Civil Society Civil Service ﺍﻟﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ Media • Election Commission Civil Service Political Parties Civil Society Civil Service ﺍﻟﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ Media • Election Commission ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ • Anti- Corruption Commission • Auditor General’s Office ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻗﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ • Judiciary ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ • Legislature ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ • Executive ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ Pillars of good governance ﺃﻌﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻴﺪ

Political Principles of Good Governance ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻴﺪ 1. The establishment of a Political Principles of Good Governance ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻴﺪ 1. The establishment of a representative and accountable form of government . ﺍﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺗﻤﺜﻴﻞ ﻭﺧﺎﺿﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﺀﻟﺔ 2. A strong and pluralistic civil society, where there is freedom of expression and association. . ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻣﺪﻧﻲ ﻗﻮﻱ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﺩﻱ، ﺣﻴﺚ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ 3. Good institutions – sets of rules governing the actions of individuals and organisations and the negotiation of differences between them. ﻣﺆﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ . – ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﺗﺼﺮﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻔﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻭﺽ ﺑﺸﺄﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ 4. The primacy of the rule of law, maintained through an impartial and effective legal system. ﺳﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ، ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ ﻧﺰﻳﻪ ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻝ 5. A high degree of transparency and accountability in public and corporate processes. A participatory approach to service delivery is important for public services to be effective. ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺀﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺄﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ. ﻭﻧﻬﺞ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ . ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺍﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﻤﺮ ﻣﻬﻢ ﻟﻠﺨﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ

8 Characteristics of Good Governance 8 ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻴﺪ 8 Characteristics of Good Governance 8 ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻴﺪ

1. Participation ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ All men and women should have a voice in decisionmaking, either 1. Participation ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ All men and women should have a voice in decisionmaking, either directly or through legitimate intermediate institutions that represent their interests. Such broad participation is built on freedom of association and speech, as well as capacities to participate constructively. ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺃﻦ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻬﻢ ﺻﻮﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺻﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ، ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺆﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﻭﺳﻴﻄﺔ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺗﻤﺜﻞ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺤﻬﻢ. ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ، ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ . ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺑﻨﺎﺀﺓ

2. Rule of law ﺳﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ Legal frameworks should be fair and enforced impartially, 2. Rule of law ﺳﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ Legal frameworks should be fair and enforced impartially, particularly the laws on human rights. Impartial enforcement of laws requires an independent judiciary and an impartial and incorruptible police force. ، ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻦ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻫﺎ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﺤﻴﺰ ﻭﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ. ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺰﻳﻪ ﻟﻠﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻭﻗﻮﺓ ﺷﺮﻃﺔ ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪﺓ . ﻭﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﻔﺴﺎﺩ

3. Transparency ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ Transparency is built on the free flow of information. Processes, institutions 3. Transparency ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ Transparency is built on the free flow of information. Processes, institutions and information are directly accessible to those concerned with them, and enough information is provided to understand monitor them. ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ. ﻓﺎﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺆﺴﺴﺎﺕ ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻴﻴﻦ ﺑﻬﺎ . ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻔﻬﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺘﻬﺎ

4. Responsiveness ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ Good governance requires that institutions and processes try to serve all 4. Responsiveness ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ Good governance requires that institutions and processes try to serve all stakeholders within a reasonable timeframe. ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻴﺪ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺃﻦ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ . ﺑﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﺼﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺯﻣﻨﻲ ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻝ

5. Consensus oriented ﺍﻹﺟﻤﺎﻉ ﺗﻨﺤﻰ ﺗﺠﺎﻩ Good governance mediates differing interests to reach a 5. Consensus oriented ﺍﻹﺟﻤﺎﻉ ﺗﻨﺤﻰ ﺗﺠﺎﻩ Good governance mediates differing interests to reach a broad consensus on what is in the best interest of the whole group and how this can be achieved. ﻳﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻴﺪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺟﻤﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﺳﻊ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ . ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻛﻜﻞ ، ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ

6. Equity and inclusiveness ﺍﻹﻧﺼﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻤﻮﻟﻴﺔ A society’s well-being depends on ensuring that all 6. Equity and inclusiveness ﺍﻹﻧﺼﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻤﻮﻟﻴﺔ A society’s well-being depends on ensuring that all its members feel that they have a stake in it and do not feel excluded from the mainstream of society. This requires all groups, but particularly the most vulnerable, have opportunities to improve or maintain their well being. ﺭﻓﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺃﻦ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﻌﻀﺎﺋﻪ ﻳﺸﻌﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﺄﻦ ﻭﻻ ﺃﺤﺪ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﺄﻨﻪ ﻣﺴﺘﺒﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ، ﻟﻬﻢ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ، ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ. ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺮ ﺿﻌﻔﺎ، ﺃﻦ ﺗﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺻﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﺃﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ . ﺭﻓﺎﻫﻬﻢ

7. Effectiveness and efficiency ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ Good governance means that processes and institutions produce 7. Effectiveness and efficiency ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ Good governance means that processes and institutions produce results that meet the needs of society while making the best use of resources at their disposal. ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻴﺪ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺆﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺗﺆﺪﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺗﻠﺒﻲ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻔﻀﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ . ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ

8. Accountability ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺀﻟﺔ Decision- makers in government, the private sector and civil society organizations 8. Accountability ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺀﻟﺔ Decision- makers in government, the private sector and civil society organizations are accountable to the public, as well as to institutional stakeholders. This accountability differs depending on the organization and whether the decision is internal or external to an organization ﺻﻨﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﻭﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ ﻳﺨﻀﻌﻮﻥ ﻷﺼﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺴﺴﺎﺕ. ﻫﺬﻩ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﺀﻟﺔ ﺃﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭ، ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺀﻟﺔ ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﻋﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻫﻮ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﺃﻮ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﻟﺘﻠﻚ . ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ Accountability cannot be enforced without transparency and the rule of law. . ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻦ ﺗﻄﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺀﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ

Obstacles of Good Governance ﻣﻌﻮﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻴﺪ 1. Ignorance ﺍﻟﺠﻬﻞ 2. Corruption ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ 3. Obstacles of Good Governance ﻣﻌﻮﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻴﺪ 1. Ignorance ﺍﻟﺠﻬﻞ 2. Corruption ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ 3. Politicization of administration ﺗﺴﻴﻴـﺲ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ 4. Weak democratic institutions ﺿﻌﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ 5. Ineffective parliament ﺑﺮﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ 6. Absence of the rule of law ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺳﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ 7. Absence of meritocracy ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺍﺭﺓ

Activities 3 TRUE / FALSE: Indicate whether these sentences are true (T) or false Activities 3 TRUE / FALSE: Indicate whether these sentences are true (T) or false (F): 1. ( ) Good governance involves reaching a broad consensus between differing interests 2. ( ) Good governance refers to the management of government in a manner that is in the best interest of the ruling class. 3. ( ) The concept of governance is closely linked to the workings of the nation-state 4. ( ) Transparency is based on the idea of the free flow of information. 5. ( ) In the soft state, corruption is controlled and there is efficient management of the state. 6. ( ) One of the main obstacles to good governance is weak democratic institutions. 7. ( ) Good governance emphasizes that the rights of the majority are only respected. 8. ( ) The hard state is a state which sets priorities clearly and implements them. 9. ( ) Accountability cannot be reached without transparency and the rule of law 10. ( ) In good governance, men only must be granted broad participation in the different levels of the

2)- Provide a term for the following definitions: 1. ………………………… Good governance requires that 2)- Provide a term for the following definitions: 1. ………………………… Good governance requires that institutions and processes try to serve all stakeholders within a reasonable timeframe. 2. ………………………… The exercise of economic, political and administrative authority to manage a country’s affairs at all levels. 3. ………………………… Decision- makers in government, the private sector and civil society organizations are accountable to the public, as well as to institutional stakeholders. 4. ………………………… the management of government in a manner that is essentially free of abuse and corruption, and with due regard for the rule of law. 5. ………………………… A society’s well-being depends on ensuring that all its members feel that they have a stake in it and do not feel excluded from the mainstream of society.

 3)- Complete the sentences below with a word from the list: representative – 3)- Complete the sentences below with a word from the list: representative – rule – judiciary – Corruption – consensus – institutions 1. Good governance means that processes and …………………… produce results that meet the needs of society 2. Impartial enforcement of laws requires an independent ………………………… and an impartial and incorruptible police force. 3. One of the political principles of good governance is to establish a ………………………… and accountable form of government. 4. In a soft state, ………………………… is widespread. 5. Good governance mediates differing interests to reach a wide ………………………… on what is in the best interest of the whole group. 6. The absence of the ………………………… of law is a serious obstacle to good governance.

 : 4)- Translate into English 1. ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ : 4)- Translate into English 1. ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﻄﺒﻖ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻴﺪ ﺑﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ. ……………………………………………………………………………………. . …………………………………………… …………………………………………. . ……………………… 2. ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺭﺷﻴﺪ ﺑﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺀﻟﺔ ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ. ……………………………………………………………………………………. . …………………………………………… …………………………………………. . ………………………

5)- Translate into Arabic : 1. Freedom of the press and expression is important 5)- Translate into Arabic : 1. Freedom of the press and expression is important in countries which adopt principles of good governance. ……………………………………………. . ……………………………………………………………………………………. . ………………………………………… 2. An important characteristic of good governance is responsiveness where all institutions and administrations see their goal to serve the public efficiently. ……………………………………………. . ……………………………………………………………………………………. . …………………………………………

6)- Match the words in List (A) with words that relate to them in 6)- Match the words in List (A) with words that relate to them in List (B) A B 1. private 2. local _____ a. state _____ 3. democratic 4. civil _____ _____ b. making c. of law d. governance 5. nation _____ e. policies 6. Ineffective _____ f. institutions 7. decision _____ g. parliament 8. broad _____ h. sector 9. public _____ i. consensus 10. rule _____ j. society

7)- Rearrange the following to make meaningful sentences: 1. governance - processes - produce 7)- Rearrange the following to make meaningful sentences: 1. governance - processes - produce - meet - the - of - Good - that - and - means - needs - society - that - results - institutions ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1. obstacles - governance - institutions - and - weak - good two - of - important - parliament - ineffective - democratic - are …………………………………………………………………………………………………

)- Put each of the following words in a sentence: 8 1. corruption …………………………………………………………………………………… )- Put each of the following words in a sentence: 8 1. corruption …………………………………………………………………………………… 1. participation ……………………………………………………………………………………

9)- Complete the following news report based on the words from the list: sector 9)- Complete the following news report based on the words from the list: sector – accountability – assistance – countries – economic – reforms –efficiency – imbalances Good governance is important for ……………at all stages of development. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has long provided advice and technical ……………that has helped to strengthen good governance, such as promoting public ……………transparency and …………. …… Traditionally the IMF’s main focus has been on encouraging countries to correct economic ……………reduce inflation, and undertake important trade, exchange, and other market ……………needed to improve ……………and support sustained ……………growth.

 3=Israel-Gaza Conflict Intensifies Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu has said Israel is prepared 3=Israel-Gaza Conflict Intensifies Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu has said Israel is prepared to send troops into Gaza if Hamas does not stop firing rockets into Israel. Despite growing pressure for Israel to end its strikes, Mr. Netanyahu made it clear to world leaders that Israel would consider all options to defend itself from attacks from Gaza. He also stated his hopes for a ceasefire to avoid an invasion of Gaza, which would likely lead to an escalated death toll. Netanyahu said any end of air strikes would depend on Hamas ending its bombardment of Israel's cities. Sources say as many as 100 rockets a day are fired across the border, some reaching Tel Aviv. Air raid sirens sounded in Jerusalem for the first time in decades.

Israel said it still has hundreds of targets to hit and is targeting those Israel said it still has hundreds of targets to hit and is targeting those associated with Hamas. It already destroyed the Hamas prime minister's office. The death toll from the conflict has now claimed the lives of more than 50 Palestinians and three Israelis. Dozens more have been injured, many of them civilians. An Israeli military spokesperson said Israeli forces had targeted close to 1, 000 sites in Gaza, while Hamas has launched more than 400 missiles into Israel. The Israeli government also approved the call-up of 75, 000 reservists in preparation for a ground offensive. Diplomatic efforts are underway as regional leaders are meeting in Cairo in an attempt to stop the situation from further getting out of control.

Questions 3 1 - TRUE/FALSE: Read the text and check if the following sentences Questions 3 1 - TRUE/FALSE: Read the text and check if the following sentences are true (T) or false (F): 1. ( ) Israel's prime minister is considering sending soldiers into Gaza. 2. ( ) Netanyahu has so far refused to speak with other world leaders. 3. ( ) Netanyahu says a ceasefire could happen if Hamas stops firing rockets. 4. ( ) Almost 100 rockets have reached Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. 5. ( ) Israel said it still has around 100 more targets it wants to hit. 6. ( ) Israeli forces have so far hit around 1, 000 sites in Gaza. 7. ( ) Israel has asked 7, 500 reserve troops to prepare to enter Gaza. 8. ( ) Leaders from neighboring countries are talking in Cairo about solutions.

2 - PHRASE MATCH: Match the following phrases from the article 1. stop the 2 - PHRASE MATCH: Match the following phrases from the article 1. stop the situation _____ a. sirens 2. prepared _____ b. with Hamas 3. consider options _____ c. reservists 4. air raid _____ d. to send troops 5. the death toll _____ e. from getting out of control 6. targeting those associated _____ f. to defend itself 7. diplomatic efforts _____ g. from the conflict 8. call-up of _____ h. underway

3. SYNONYM MATCH: Match the following synonyms from the article: 1. prepared ______ a. 3. SYNONYM MATCH: Match the following synonyms from the article: 1. prepared ______ a. alternatives 2. options ______ b. tens of years 3. troops ______ c. give the OK 4. offensive ______ d. shelling 5. associated with ______ e. ready 6. Civilians ______ f. wounded 7. approved ______ g. attack 8. bombardment ______ h. related to 9. injured ______ i. soldiers 10. decades ______ j. citizens

4. Choose the correct answer: 1. What is Israel's prime minister prepared to send 4. Choose the correct answer: 1. What is Israel's prime minister prepared to send into Gaza? _____________ 2. To whom did Benjamin Netanyahu make his intention clear? ____________ 3. What would Netanyahu consider? _______________________ 4. What would an invasion of Gaza lead to a rise in? ________________ 5. Where did air raid sirens sound for the first time in decades? ____________ 6. How many more targets does Israel want to hit? _________________ 7. How many sites has Israel already targeted? __________________ 8. How many reserve troops has Israel called up? _________________ 9. What is getting out of control? ________________________ 10. Why are regional leaders meeting in Cairo? __________________

5 - Find an opposite to the following words: 1. send x ………………… 2. 5 - Find an opposite to the following words: 1. send x ………………… 2. stop x ………………… 3. end x………………… 4. out of control x ………………… 5. destroy x ………………… 6. death x ………………… 7. intensifies x ………………… 8. approved x …………………

 : 6 - Put each of the following words in a sentence ……………………………………: : 6 - Put each of the following words in a sentence ……………………………………: 1. borders ………………………………… : 2. Conflict : 7 - Translate the following 1. ﺍﺳﺘﻬﺪﻓﺖ ﻗﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻼﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻠﻲ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺰﺓ ﻭﺭﻓﺢ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺭﺩﺕ ﺑﺈﻃﻼﻕ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺻﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺃﺮﺍﺿﻴﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻠﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ 8491 ………………………………………. . . …………. . …………………………. . . Best Wishes 5102