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Good Agriculture Practices: The Asian Perspectives - Why farmers in Asia need to adopt Good Agriculture Practices: The Asian Perspectives - Why farmers in Asia need to adopt GAP? Kit Chan APO E-Learning Course on Good Agriculture Practice (GAP) for Greater Market Access 4 th – 6 th November 2015, APO Secretariat Video Conferencing Center (Session 2)

Concerns of the Global Food Economy Concerns Interventions § Food Insecurity Protection, Diversification, Innovation, Concerns of the Global Food Economy Concerns Interventions § Food Insecurity Protection, Diversification, Innovation, § Cost of Food (Global food crisis) Subsidize food prices, Price ceilings, Food coupons, § Farm Productivity Increase farm yield, Reduce farm waste, P&D management, Post-harvest handling, § Market Access Promotion, Enhance competitiveness, § Logistics management, cluster farms / small Economics of small farms, rural poverty, length of food chain, etc farm integration, § Food Safety Food safety assurance (traceability) § Ecological concerns on farming Soil fertility, Water management, P&D resistance, Bee population, Climate Change No consensus in resolving problem § 2

Good Agriculture Practice, GAP Why do farmers pursue farming in the first place ? Good Agriculture Practice, GAP Why do farmers pursue farming in the first place ? Ø They have inherited the land identified for farming only. Ø They have inherited the business from the elders. Ø They believe that the agrifood business is profitable. 3

Good Agriculture Practice, GAP Agriculture is a Science §The farmer needs to understand the Good Agriculture Practice, GAP Agriculture is a Science §The farmer needs to understand the biological functions and the chemical consequences of the production systems §The farmer needs to know the next course of logical responses to any interferences to the crop cycles Agriculture is a Business § Farmer need to sell his crop for a fair return § In business there is always risks involved. There shall be competition § Farmer must be aware of events outside his farm that impact the crop market § The farmer must form linkages into the market 4

Challenges of Asian small farms accessing credible markets Retail market requirements §Quality acceptable by Challenges of Asian small farms accessing credible markets Retail market requirements §Quality acceptable by supermarkets Capacity of small farmers §Pre-harvest and post-harvest handling §Farmers lack production techniques to achieve high crop yield §Consistent and regular supply §Lack the skills to improve quality §Quantity supplied to all the stores §Lack adequate post-harvest technology §Competitive pricing §Lack economic production capacity Overcoming the capacity issue § Training program with a purpose § Clustering for a dedicated clientele § Fulfilling the retail requirement with a GAP strategy

How would Farmers Participate in the GAP Production if we still assume that Farmers How would Farmers Participate in the GAP Production if we still assume that Farmers in most part of Asia and the Pacific are elderly and are not literate? 6

The Farmer is an expert in the crop that he grows because he is The Farmer is an expert in the crop that he grows because he is out in the fields every day tending to its growth and the problems it encounters 7

Major changes and trends in the agrifood system The agrifood system operates in a Major changes and trends in the agrifood system The agrifood system operates in a globalize market now § Food supply chains making cross border destinations § Sources of production comes from all corners § Survival in the business rests on stakeholder competitiveness Consumption patterns have changes § Food not destine to hungry stomachs § Destination guided to what consumers are willing to pay § Consumers demand for quantity, quality, standards and choice § Supermarkets will continue to expand influence the system

Drivers of Change in Asian Food Systems - 1 Changes in the Industry Changes Drivers of Change in Asian Food Systems - 1 Changes in the Industry Changes at Ground Level § Market liberalization Global Food Sector § Increased international trade Globalize supermarkets § Global ICT connectivity § Horticulture logistic operations § Increased capital flow; FDI § Global sourcing § Globalization § Global telecommunication § Knowledgeable Young Urban Consumers § Differentiated product § Educated & informed consumers § Convenience foods § Ability to choose § Safe and healthy food § Dual earners, small family § Concern for environment Changes in Consumer Demands § Demand sustainable production § Falling % food expenditure Rising Income § Consume more meat & dairy and high value food The Affluent Consumers § Increased personal income § Confidence of sustaining the high income 9

Drivers of Change in Asian Food Systems - 2 Changes in the Industry Information Drivers of Change in Asian Food Systems - 2 Changes in the Industry Information & Communication § Market information available § Production and costs information § Advances in IC tools Changes at Ground Level § § § Technology & Innovation Urbanization § Farm management technology § Post harvest technology § Enhanced shelf life § Long distance transportation § Lower production cost / unit § § Urban dwellings Space and time deficit More social activities Catering sector demands high quality products § § § Transparency of Information Farmers access to market info. Consumers access to production information Social media Higher Farm Productivity Better seed quality Fertilizer application Effective P&D control Irrigation technology New PHH techniques Modern Home and Work Lifestyle § Small family units § Electrical gadgetries § Easy to prepare foods § No extended family members 10

Drivers of Change in Asian Food Systems - 3 Changes in the Industry Women Drivers of Change in Asian Food Systems - 3 Changes in the Industry Women in the Workplace Population Profile Food Quality Standards Changes at Ground Level § More financially independent § Make purchasing decisions § Ability to choose More Active Role in Public Education for women More women in the work force Healthy and nutritious food Less meat, less fats, less portion § Developed countries shrinking population § Developing countries expanding population § National food quality standards § Private 3 rd party food quality standards § Supermarket requirement § § Changing Demographic Landscape § Developed countries rising number of elderly people § Different consumption trends of the elderly people § Developing countries large number of young people Food Quality and Food Standards § Demands food safety assurance § Demand higher farm production standards and traceability 11

Drivers of Change in Asian Food Systems - 4 Changes in the Industry Climate Drivers of Change in Asian Food Systems - 4 Changes in the Industry Climate Change § New government emphasis and initiations (water, land) § Production system § Policy directions on food security Changes at Ground Level § § Farm production Production schedule Production Yields, Quality Production techniques Costs and pricing of food 12

Changes in Monitoring Food Safety § Historically, food safety concerns involved only food processors Changes in Monitoring Food Safety § Historically, food safety concerns involved only food processors § Food safety responsibilities now affect all stakeholders of food chain § Food safety regulators traditionally use enforcement mechanisms to remove unsafe food from the market § Exporters are now warned to take prevention of hazard contaminations at every critical control point of the food chain § In the past, regulators are responsible to monitor & control food safety § Adoption of food chain framework facilitates a consumer driven, monitor & control approach in production and food safety system 13

Why would farmers want to comply with GAP Standards ? 14 Why would farmers want to comply with GAP Standards ? 14

Market Access 15 Market Access 15

Food supply sources has become globalized § Global competitiveness between producer countries § Competition Food supply sources has become globalized § Global competitiveness between producer countries § Competition is not between the stakeholders of the chain § Competition is now between supply chains § Price competitiveness among producer countries § Lower production costs § Higher productivity § Consistent and reliable supply, logistics management § Better service § Maximizing comparative advantage § Taking advantage of marketing windows § FOREX rates

The Modern Food Retailing Industry § Some features of the modern food retailer 1. The Modern Food Retailing Industry § Some features of the modern food retailer 1. Market share of food retailing industry held by a few giant corporations 2. Supermarkets operate on low costs high volume system 3. Buy direct from processors or large farms 4. Spatial distribution of retailers – out of city centers to the periphery 5. Size of retail centers have increased § Retailers now insist on the farm supplier: 1. Reliability of regular supply 2. Consistently high quality levels 3. Price levels acceptable to the retailer 4. Comply with internationally recognized food quality / safety standards

Preferred Supplier Supermarkets are often supplied by more than one supplier for the same Preferred Supplier Supermarkets are often supplied by more than one supplier for the same product. § § Supermarkets have preferred stores – locations, clientele & store size Supermarkets have preferred suppliers How to achieve Preferred Supplier status? § Logistics advantages – consistency, regularity, § Large product range (variety), quality § Commercial connection / relationship § Flexible price 18

Building Market Linkages Rationale for market linkages is to build constructive connectivity with the Building Market Linkages Rationale for market linkages is to build constructive connectivity with the major buyers § Trying to understand the business modality of the buyer § Trying to explaining the supplier linkage position and product nature § Trying to secure any possible trial shipments 19

A typical supply chain of fresh horticulture produce Wholesale Market Farm, Inputs, Monitor & A typical supply chain of fresh horticulture produce Wholesale Market Farm, Inputs, Monitor & Control Collector, Transporter Farm Processing, Pack, Label & Storage Processor Transporter Distributor Retailer Certification Supermarket Consumer Transporter Market chain and product path towards higher value adding generated along the way Catering Consumer Ex-farm price, F. O. B. Mark-ups, Feedback from clients, Traceability, Reverse Logistics F. O. B. pricing Exporter C&F Importer Collector, Transporter SPS, Insurance, Customs, B/L, etc Transporter Pack, Label, Storage & PHH Haulage, Port loading Forwarding Agents Supermarket Consumer Food Safety Certification BRC, IFS, HACCP, GAP 20

A market oriented approach to implement GAP Standard Every stakeholder in the chain is A market oriented approach to implement GAP Standard Every stakeholder in the chain is a supplier and a consumer – they will exert pressure up the chain as a consumer and be responsible as a supplier down in the chain Every stakeholder is responsible not only of its own role, but will also keep a watch that the others also keep their responsibilities The action of one stakeholder will affect everyone in the chain 21

Benefits from GAP compliance § Enhance food safety – thro’ improving coordination with suppliers Benefits from GAP compliance § Enhance food safety – thro’ improving coordination with suppliers § Reduce risk and liabilities in production – less recalls of products § Improve costs management – good practices of IPM § Improve productivity – introduce efficient operations management § Create competitive advantage – costs, market, credibility, price § Create market access – recognition by buyers § Improve farm ecology – thro’ good management of input resources 22

Thank you For more enquiries, please write to kitchan@kfarm. com or visit us @ Thank you For more enquiries, please write to kitchan@kfarm. com or visit us @ www. kfarm. com