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Going Broader and Deeper in Understanding How to Close the Achievement Gap(s) A. Wade Boykin, Ph. D. Professor of Psychology Executive Director Capstone Institute at Howard university
The Achievement Gap is Multi-faceted • Minority Group vs. Majority Group • American Students vs. “The World” • 20 th Century Preparation vs. 21 st Century Preparation Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.
GAP CLOSING OPTIONS C P E R F PRE White Black Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved. POST
Evidence-Based Practices • Did we get these results because of what we did? • Can we repeat this and get the same results again? • Can we or others get the same results elsewhere in similar settings? Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.
Transactional Along with Technocratic Solutions Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.
P r o f e s s i o n a l Asset Focused Strategies D e v e l o p m e n Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved. t Guiding Functions (Adaptive Learning Orientations) Engagement 3 D Gap Closing Outcomes
Guiding Functions (Impact Engagement & 3 D Outcomes) • Self-Efficacy (Confidence that one can do what it takes to accomplish the desired outcome) • Self-Regulated Learning (Planning, monitoring & assessing ones own learning) • Belief Change (From Smartness as Fixed to Smartness as Incremental) Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.
Borman & Overman (2004) Resilient Students are higher than non-Resilient students in terms of: • More positive attitudes toward school • Engagement (Teacher Rating) • Efficacy Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.
Asset-Based Strategy Types that Impact Guiding Functions, Engagement, and Achievement • Information Processing Quality • Classroom Interpersonal Relationship Quality • Enabling Learning Goals • Classroom Collaboration • Meaningful Learning (Individual, Social) • Cultural Resources Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.
Information Processing Quality • Automaticity (Williams et al 2005) • Schema Based Instruction (Jitendra et al 2007) • Direct Teaching of Critical Thinking Skills Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.
Arithmetic Word Problem Structures • Change -Andy had five marbles. Then he gave three marbles to Nick. How many marbles does Andy have now? • Combine -Andy has two marbles. Nick has three marbles. How many marbles do they have altogether? • Compare -Nick has five marbles. Andy has two marbles. How many more marbles does Nick have than Andy? • Equalize -Nick has five marbles. Andy has two marbles. How many marbles does Andy have to buy to have as many marbles as Nick? Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.
Text Structure of Information Text • • • Sequence Pattern Descriptive Pattern Comparison-Contrast Pattern Cause-Effect Pattern Problem-Solution Pattern Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved. 3/16/2018 12
Somebody Wanted But So Overview of the “Somebody Wanted But So” Strategy Student identification of plot elements, such as conflicts and resolutions, can be facilitated by the use of the “Somebody Wanted But So” (SWBS) reading strategy. With SWBS, students complete a chart by creating a SWBS statement that identifies a character, the character’s goal/motivation, a conflict that impedes the character, and the resolution of conflict. The chart has four column headings: Somebody Wanted (character) (goal/motivation) But (conflict) So (resolution) While the SWBS reading strategy lends itself to after reading, it can be used during the reading of specific chapters or section of the text and with the main plot as well as subplots.
TSRQ Elements Caring (Genuine) Empathy Affective Support Instructional Support Encouraging the Best Holding Optimistic view of student(s) • Non-Patronizing • • • (Safit & Pianta 2001; Hughes & Kwok 2007; Hamre & Pianta 2005; Tennenbaum & Ruck, 2007) Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.
High Emotional Support Can Lead to Gap Closing Outcomes • High emotional support includes factors such as (1) Teacher sensitivity to child’s needs e. g. mood, interests etc. (2) Teacher reluctance to impose her/his agenda unilaterally onto the child (3) Teacher creation of a positive affective climate (4) Teacher deployment of classroom management marked by clear yet flexible expectations and behavioral guidelines. (Hamre and Pianta, 2005) Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.
TSRQ When You Work Really Hard In School, Which of the Following Reasons Are Most Important To You Percentages Blk My Teachers Encourage Me To Work Hard The Teacher Demands It Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved. Wht Hisp Asn 31% 47% 31% 41% 15% 29% 19% 20% Ferguson (2003)
Information Processing Plus TSRQ Crosnoe et al (2010) • In classrooms that promoted inference-based learning techniques, low math achieving students improved their math achievement outcomes more steeply from the third to the fifth grade than was the case for average and high achieving students. This gap closing result however occurred only when these classrooms also fostered TSRQ, and did not occur in classrooms that primarily manifested “basic skills” instruction. Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved. 3/16/2018 17
Enabling Learning Goals Kaplan & Maehr (1999) Mastery Performance Goals Emotional Tone -. 35 Peer Relationships -. 31 Perceived Academic Efficacy Disruptive Behavior . 49 -. 41 Significant Regression Coefficients Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.
Classroom Collaboration v Collaboration and collaborative learning v Student accountability, ownership and responsibility v Student voice and choice v Inclusiveness Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.
Collaborative Activities • Numbered Heads Together Students with mixed abilities are place in groups of four and randomly assigned numbers. While in groups students are given problems or questions to solve or answer. They are given time to “put their heads together” to reach a correct response. By randomly calling out numbers each group member is prompted to insure that all members are knowledgeable of the appropriate response. When certain numbered group members respond correctly, the whole group receives positive recognition. Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.
Meaningful Learning v Relevance v Personal Connections v World Connections v Subject Matter Connections v Importance v Prior Knowledge, Competences and Understanding Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.
Percent of Motivational Strategies Observed Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.
PERSONALIZATION EXAMPLE • There are 3 objects. Each is cut in one-half. In all, how many pieces would there be? ABSTRACT • Billy had 3 candy bars. He cut each one of them in half. In all, how many pieces of candy bar did Billy have? CONCRETE • Joseph's teacher, Mrs, Williams, surprised him on December 15 when she presented Joseph with 3 Hershey Bars, Joseph cut each one of them in onehalf so that he could share the birthday gift with his friends. In all, how many pieces of Hershey Bars did Joseph have for his friends? PERSONALIZED Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.
STIPEK (2004) Constructivist Teaching Ø Phonics Instruction Embeddedin Meaningful Text Ø Modeling & Guided Use of Explicit Comprehension Strategies Ø Multiple Methods of Reading Instruction Ø Connection to Children’s Personal Experiences Ø Encouragement of Self Expression Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved. Didactic Teaching Ø Isolated Phonics Instruction Ø Rote Memorization Ø Teachers Read to Students Without Engaging in Conversation Ø Correctness Emphasis in Children’s Writing
Prediction of Didactic Teaching % Below Grade Level % Eligible Lunch % African American % Latino in School . 18. 04. 42*. 06 P <. 001 Entries are regression coefficients Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved. Stipek (2004)
Cultural Resources v Family, peer, community socialization v Traditions, rituals and practices v Fundamental core values v Culturally salient learning structures v Popular culture Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.
Cultural Modeling (Carol Lee, Northwestern University) This entails bringing examples from students’ popular cultural interests into the classroom in ways that require students to use interpretive or critical thinking skills to express these popular culture examples. Then, students are made fully conscious and reflective of their deployment of these skills. Students are then shown how these same skills that they display underlie tasks in the formal curriculum. Students then are lead to apply these skills to tasks in the formal curriculum. Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.
Communal Learning Prompt [Instructions should be given to the students while they are holding hands and standing in a circle around the tutor/teacher]. I would like you to help each other by working together. It is important that you feel connected with the students that you are working with in your group. You should also try to do everything that you can to share, help and work well together for the good of the group so that everyone will [learn/compete the story/task/project]. Your group is counting on you to do the best you can so that everyone will succeed and not just for one of you to do well. Since all of you live in the same neighborhood, have similar friends, and go to the same school, then you are very important to each other. You should feel close to each other and you should support one another. Remember also, that you and your group are working together to make the most of this time that you are spending here together. Therefore, you and your group should be helpful, kind, and giving for the good of everything in your group. You can do better if you all take part in [learning/completing the story/task/project]. Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.
Posttest Performance -Learning Condition by Ethnicity Interaction C= Communal study condition G= Inter-Group Competition study condition I = Interpersonal Competition study condition Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved. Hurley, Allen, & Boykin (2009)
Professional Development Regimen • Pre-Workshop Activity • Workshop • Follow Up Support • Feedback • Coaching • Demonstrations • Learning Community/Planning Time Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.
Shifting the Paradigm with Some Policy Implications • Let Evidence Be Our Guide • Pay Particular Attention to Classroom Dynamics • School Organization to Support Achievement of Classroom Goals • Focus on Assets • Educate the Whole Student • Broadly Build Stakeholder Capacity • Seek Multiple Success Pathways Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.
Talent Development Context All Students (Stakeholders) Can Learn With Multiple Stakeholder Input Evidence Based Framework Assessment & Evaluation Guiding Functions & Engagement Complemental Activities Central Reform Program Organizational Development 3 -D Leadership Managing the Change Process Focus on Assets: Asset Focus Strategies Family & Community Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved. Engagement Academic Support Programs Curriculum Enhancements & Framework Language Arts Math Classroom Management Social & Emotional Development Subject Matter Teacher Professional Development Focus on Continuous Improvement Professional Learning Communities Modules/Transactions Multiple Outcomes (Whole Person) Continuous Improvement Support Services
Brookdale SHS Classroom Observation Data: Classroom Management 3. 5 3 3. 2 2. 9 3 2. 7 2. 6 Means 2. 5 2 Baseline Workshop Follow-up 1. 5 1 0. 5 0 CM/Setting the Culture CM/Managing the Period CM/Regulating Student Behavior Targeted Domain Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved. 3/16/2018 33
Brookdale SHS Classroom Observation Data: Maximizing Student Engagement 4 3. 7 3. 4 3. 5 3. 3 3. 1 2. 8 3 2. 4 2. 5 Means 3. 2 2. 5 2. 4 2. 5 2 2 Baseline Workshop Follow-up 1. 5 1 0. 5 nd en t/E id em ga g en t St ud E n ga g m ag e ng en t E St ud en t/M em en t/B eg l T ic a rit C dl e in ni ng nk in g hi m om g C rn in Le a M ea ni ng fu l L ea rn in un ity g 0 Targeted Domains Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved. 3/16/2018 34
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FOR MORE INFORMATION ADDRESS: CAPSTONE Institute Howard University Holy Cross Hall, Room 427 2900 Van Ness Street, N. W. Washington, D. C. 20008 PHONE: 202/806 -8484 FAX: 202/806 -8498 EMAIL: [email protected] org WEBSITE: www. capstoneinstitute. org Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.
SUPER SCHOOLS!! Low Student and Staff Turnover Multidimensional Leadership Continuous Commitment to Improvement Multiple Stakeholder Involvement Education of the Whole Child Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.
Asset Finding Questions • What are things that you (your students) like to do in school? • What gets you (your students) to try hard or work hard in school? • In what ways do you (your students) like to learn in school? • What do you (your students) like to learn about in school? • What have you learned outside of school that would (might) help you to learn in school? • What have you learned from your family members that would (might) help you to learn in school? Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.
Creating A Climate To Sustain High Levels Of Attainment 1. Meaningful, Universally Understood Goals 2. Close Monitoring of Academic Functioning 3. Collaboration on & Coordination of Curriculum & Instruction 4. Recruitment & Development of Staff 5. School Organization to Support Goals Achievement Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.
Ways to Impact Self-Efficacy, Self Regulation & Belief Change • • • Self-Efficacy Competence Experiences (optimal challenge) Modeling Social Persuasion Asset Focused Factors Self Regulated Learning Modeling Strategy Value Feedback Fading Asset Focused Factors Belief Change Competence Experiences (act into thinking differently) Data Driven Information tied to Prior Experiences Asset Focused Factors Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.
Process Praise PROCESS PRAISE SOUNDS LIKE THIS: • You really studied for your English test, and your improvement shows it. You read the material over several times, outlined it, and tested yourself on it. That really worked! • I like the way you tried all kinds of strategies on that math problem until you finally got it. • It was a long, hard assignment, but you stuck to it and got it done. You stayed at your desk, kept up your concentration, and kept working. That's great! Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.
Classroom-based Communalism Study: Comparison of Fractions Posttest Performance Coleman, 2003
Evidence-Based Approach to School Improvement • Programs based on research literature • Programs based on on-site data • On-site data based on sound methods and instruments • Enabling conditions are provided and documented • Implementation quality is assessed & adjustments are made • Instruction is guided by assessment • Outcomes are evaluated and linked to conditions and implementation Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.