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Global Studies Review 3200 B. C. -1700’s Global Studies Review 3200 B. C. -1700’s

Beginnings of Civilization • Geography- study of humans and their interaction with the environment. Beginnings of Civilization • Geography- study of humans and their interaction with the environment. Themes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Location (describes where something is) Place (features that make site unique) Regions (areas that share commons characteristics) Movement (looks at how + why people + things move) Human Environment Interaction • Culture- a groups knowledge, beliefs, values and customs – Cultural Diffusion-spread of ideas from one society to another.

Paleolithic Era • 2. 5 million B. C. -8000 B. C. • • • Paleolithic Era • 2. 5 million B. C. -8000 B. C. • • • hunting gathering wild game edible plants living in nomadic groups Old Stone Age

Neolithic Era • 8000 B. C. - 3000 B. C. • farming crops • Neolithic Era • 8000 B. C. - 3000 B. C. • farming crops • domestication of animals • living in settlements and villages • New Stone Age • Rise of cities and civilizations

Features of a Civilization • • Cities Government Writing Religion Public Works Job Specialization Features of a Civilization • • Cities Government Writing Religion Public Works Job Specialization Art & Architecture Social Classes

Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

Mesopotamia Mesopotamia

Babylonians Babylonians

Tigris & Euphrates Rivers present day Iraq • • • Mesopotamia ancient Sumer fertile Tigris & Euphrates Rivers present day Iraq • • • Mesopotamia ancient Sumer fertile crescent Polytheistic Ziggurats Cuneiform Wheel Sail plow • Babylonians • advanced knowledge in astronomy • Hanging Gardens • Hammurabi’s code (code of laws “eye for an eye”)

Nile River Nile River

Egyptians Egyptians

Nile River Present day Egypt • • Polytheistic (many gods) pharoah (god/king) Hieroglyphics Papyrus Nile River Present day Egypt • • Polytheistic (many gods) pharoah (god/king) Hieroglyphics Papyrus Pyramids Mumification (Book of the Dead) Calendar (based on floods of Nile)

Indus and Ganges Rivers Indus and Ganges Rivers

Indus and Ganges Rivers Indus-Pakistan Ganges-India • Mohenjo Daro and Harappa Valley • grid Indus and Ganges Rivers Indus-Pakistan Ganges-India • Mohenjo Daro and Harappa Valley • grid like pattern for city • plumbing • Organized government • Aryans – created caste system • Based on occupation – beginnings of Hinduism – (Vedas) – River sacred to Hindus

Huang He River Huang He River

Ancient Chinese Civilization Ancient Chinese Civilization

Huang He and Yangtze Rivers • • China Shang Dynasty (1766 BC-1100 BC) Mandate Huang He and Yangtze Rivers • • China Shang Dynasty (1766 BC-1100 BC) Mandate of Heaven- right to rule dynastic cycle-process of rule silk-bronze coin money Ancestor Worship Zhou Dynasty (1100 BC-221 BC)

Other Civilizations Phoenicians Hittites Other Civilizations Phoenicians Hittites

Persians Persians

 • Phoenicians (1500 -300 BCE) – Lebanon – created alphabet – proficient sailors • Phoenicians (1500 -300 BCE) – Lebanon – created alphabet – proficient sailors Other Important Civilizations • Hittites (1750 -1180 BCE) – Asia Minor – extracted iron from ore-able to create stronger weapons. • Persians (550 -330 BCE) – fertile crescent-present day Iran – barter economy • zoroastrianism (religion) • Hebrews – Israel – created monotheistic religion Judaism

Empires • A collection of nations or people ruled by a single authority usually Empires • A collection of nations or people ruled by a single authority usually a monarch, but other systems of gov’t too

Empires of CHINA 1. Qin (221 BC-206 BC) – Shi Huang Di – Legalism Empires of CHINA 1. Qin (221 BC-206 BC) – Shi Huang Di – Legalism (harsh) – Great Wall 2. Han (206 BC-220 AD) – Gao Zu began Empire – Confucious gov’t • Civil Service Exam • Filial Piety – Emperor Wudi • Growth of Trade (Silk Road) – Technology-Paper – Medicine-Anestetics 3. Sui (589 -618 AD) Grand Canal (1, 000 ft links N-S China) 4. Tang(618 -907 AD) – age of Buddhism – Footbinding – woodblock printing – Gunpowder – Paper Money – Magnetic compass 5. Song (960 -1279 AD) – Moveable type – Porcelain

Shi Huang Di Shi Huang Di

More Asian Empires • Mongols – Ghengis Khan(1206 -1227) – conquered lands throughout China More Asian Empires • Mongols – Ghengis Khan(1206 -1227) – conquered lands throughout China – Golden Horde (Tartars) • Batu (grandson) controlled most of Russia – Yuan dynasty (1279 -1368) • Kublai Khan (grandson) – Pax Mongolia: guarded trade routes (Silk Road) – Marco Polo • Korea (name from Koryo Dynasty) – -cultural bridge btwn. China and Japan – Hermit Kingdom – Choson Dynasty

India • Maurya Empire (320 -185 BC) – Chandragupta • United India • Strong India • Maurya Empire (320 -185 BC) – Chandragupta • United India • Strong government • Organized bureaucracy – Ashoka • Expanded empire • Promoted Buddhism • Public works (roads + wells for travellers) • Gupta Empire (320 -550 AD) – Chandra • Reunited northern India • Golden Age (peace, wealth, advancements) • Promoted Hinduism

Greece before Greece Minoans • • Crete 3, 000 BCE-1450 BCE Knossus King Minos-Labyrinth Greece before Greece Minoans • • Crete 3, 000 BCE-1450 BCE Knossus King Minos-Labyrinth Snake Goddess Trade Linear A Arthur Evans Mycenaeans • • • 2200 BCE Heinrich Schliemann Linean B Trojan War Homer Dark Ages

Ancient Greece (1750 B. C. -133 B. C. ) • Mediterranean Sea – Archipelago Ancient Greece (1750 B. C. -133 B. C. ) • Mediterranean Sea – Archipelago • Main City States – Sparta • military-discipline – Athens • • • Democracy Education Intellectualism Art Drama Philosophy (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle)

A not so Greek • Alexander the Great (359 BC- 326 BC) – not A not so Greek • Alexander the Great (359 BC- 326 BC) – not a “real greek” – conquered Greece, Persia, northern India, and Egypt – Accomplishments • Hellenistic civilization (Greek+Persian+Egyptian+Indian) • CULTURAL DIFFUSSION

Rome (509 B. C. -476 A. D. ) • Central location helped create vast Rome (509 B. C. -476 A. D. ) • Central location helped create vast empire. • 756 BC Etruscans and Latiums established city of Rome: rule by Tyrants • Republic 509 B. C. -31 B. C. – consuls, patricians, plebians controlled Roman affairs. – Twelve Tables (civil law) – Punic Wars-against Carthage, 3 wars, Hannibal, Rome won) • Julius Caesar – – great general Dictator popular for reforms killed by rivals (“et tu Brute”) • Empire 31 B. C. -476 A. D. Octavious/Augustus – Pax Romana (31 B. C. -180 A. D. ) • Roman Peace + stable gov’t

Roman Achievements • Architecture – emphasis on grandeur • Engineering – system of roads, Roman Achievements • Architecture – emphasis on grandeur • Engineering – system of roads, bridges, harbors, and aqueducts. • Science – Ptolemy (earth center of universe) – Pliny the Elder(wrote many books on different topics.

Roman Achievements • Roman Law – Applied to all people-created stability-5 basic principles • Roman Achievements • Roman Law – Applied to all people-created stability-5 basic principles • People equal under the law • Accused can face accusers • Decisions based on fairness • Person is presumed innocent • Guilt must be clearly established

Fall of Rome • Military Causes – Invasions from north – army lacked training Fall of Rome • Military Causes – Invasions from north – army lacked training and discipline – hired mercenaries – Huns pushed Goths over Empire’s boundaries • Economic Causes – heavy taxes – middle class disappears – farmers left land-used slave labor • Political Causes – Gov’t too strict – Curruption – Empire divided. • Social Causes – population decline (disease and famine) – people became selfish and lazy

Byzantine Empire 395 -1453 CE • Extension of Roman Empire – (Greco-Roman heritage) • Byzantine Empire 395 -1453 CE • Extension of Roman Empire – (Greco-Roman heritage) • Shaped developing cultures of Russia and Eastern Europe. • Constantinople – capital of Eastern Empire – Protected by water + walls – Major trading power (Western Europe-Arab empire) • Justinian and Theodora (527 -565) – code of laws – Hagia Sophia – Tried to reunite east +west failed due to plague • Orthodox Christianity

 • • • Middle East Crossroads of the World (Europe, Africa, Asia) Cultural • • • Middle East Crossroads of the World (Europe, Africa, Asia) Cultural diffusion-> Trade Preserved ancient writings of Greeks and Romans Islam Abassid Empire 740 s-900 s) – Shiite muslims – Trade increased • Safavid Empire (1500 -1722) – Persian muslims (shiite) • Ottoman Empire (1300 s-1919) – Controlled former area called Byzantine/Constantinople • Shiite vs Sunni – Sunni: “people who follow the Sunna (way of the prophet)” caliph should be good person – Shiite/Shia: caliphite must go to a descendent of Muhammad

Africa • Sahara desert-largest world barrier • Sahel-south of Sahara undergoing desertification • Savanna-grasslands-supports Africa • Sahara desert-largest world barrier • Sahel-south of Sahara undergoing desertification • Savanna-grasslands-supports farming and herding • Animism-early religion-spirits present in natural objects. • Oral history (griots) • Bantu Migrations (900 s BCE) – Migrations into South Africa

East Africa • Influenced by Monsoons • Kush (Nubia) • Auxum (100 -600 CE) East Africa • Influenced by Monsoons • Kush (Nubia) • Auxum (100 -600 CE) – Ethiopia – Christian – Traded w/ coins • Ivory • Gold • People • Swahili – Combination of Bantu + Arabic language West Africa • Land of Gold • Ghana (800 s-1076 CE) – Traded gold + salt • Mali (1230 s-1433 CE) – Sundiata (ruler + Epic story) – Mansa Musa (1307) • Devout Muslim: hajj = cultural diffussion • Timbuktu: center fro education, religion, culture – Ibn Battuta: wrote about travels in Africa • Songhai (1460 s) – Sunni Ali-great military leader – Askia Muhammad-Golden Age

Latin American Empires • Maya (300 -900 CE) – Yucatan Peninsula/Mexico – advancements in Latin American Empires • Maya (300 -900 CE) – Yucatan Peninsula/Mexico – advancements in astronomy – Human Sacrifice • Aztec (1200 -1520 CE) – Central Mexico – conquered by Spanish (Cortes) – Human Sacrifice • Incas(1438 -1525 CE) – Andes mts. /Peru – conquered by Spanish (Pizzaro) – road system + terrace farming • All were polytheistic, highly complex, and wellorganized

Empire of Japan • • Archipelago Ring of Fire borrowed culture from China terrace Empire of Japan • • Archipelago Ring of Fire borrowed culture from China terrace farming Shintoism (religion) Feudalism-land in exchange for military Bushido (code of conduct for samurai)

Europe • Dark Ages (476 AD -800) – – End of Roman Rule in Europe • Dark Ages (476 AD -800) – – End of Roman Rule in western Europe Rise of Tribes (Franks, Saxons, vikings) no books no learning/education • Preserved by monks and muslims – no government – no common language – no unity

Europe: Middle Ages (8001300) • 3 C’s (Clovis, Charles Martel, Charlemagne) • Feudalism – Europe: Middle Ages (8001300) • 3 C’s (Clovis, Charles Martel, Charlemagne) • Feudalism – fiefdom= system of loyalties – Manorialism-self sufficient estate – Chivalry-code of conduct • Church-most powerful institution – political-economic-social organization – Holy Roman Empire

Europe Middle Ages • Agricultural Revolution (after 900) – New inventions (harness for horses, Europe Middle Ages • Agricultural Revolution (after 900) – New inventions (harness for horses, 3 field system, moldboard plow) – More food =more people= more trade routes = fairs =towns • Crusades-Holy Wars (1095 - 1270) resulted in increased: – Trade, cultural diffusion, knowledge • Commercial Revolution(1500 s) – New business practices (checks, banks) – Capital = $ exchanged instead of bartering – end of feudalism – Important trade cities (Venice, Hanseatic League)

 • 1348 Bubonic Plague=trade declinedchurch lost power-1/3 population died • Hundred Years’ War • 1348 Bubonic Plague=trade declinedchurch lost power-1/3 population died • Hundred Years’ War 1337 -1453 – War between France and Britain over land • Thirty Years’ War 1618 -1648 – Between German Princes and Holy Roman Empire over religion – Treaty of Westphalia brought peace

 • Rebirth of Classics – Greek and Roman – Golden Age • Begins • Rebirth of Classics – Greek and Roman – Golden Age • Begins in Italy b/c of: – – – Europe-> Renaissance (13001650) Crusades urban centers wealthy merchants humanism= focus on human achievements not just religion Art focus=realism Artists: • Michelangelo, da Vinci-most famous – Writers: • Machiavelli-The Prince (end justifies the means) rulers should do anything to gain and keep power. • Johannes Gutenberg-printing press-#books increase, vernacular, spread of ideas.

Europe->Reformation (1517) • Martin Luther-1517 – 95 Theses – upset over selling indulgences. • Europe->Reformation (1517) • Martin Luther-1517 – 95 Theses – upset over selling indulgences. • Henry VIII (1491 -1547) – challenged Pope over divorce issue – Anglican church established (1534) • John Calvin (1541 -1564) – predestination-born sinners – Huguenots (French Calvinists) • John Knox-Presbytarianism in Scotland (1510 -1572) • Counter Reformation – Council of Trent (end abuses in Church)1545 -1663 – Inquisition (Catholics on trial) – Jesuits (remember practices of Jesus)

Europe: Exploration (1400 -1700) • • Search fo SPICES God-Gold-Glory Advances in sailing Columbus Europe: Exploration (1400 -1700) • • Search fo SPICES God-Gold-Glory Advances in sailing Columbus Magellan Da Gama Conquistadores – Cortes (Aztecs) – Pizzaro (Incas) • Destroyed Populations – Superior Technology – Disease – Slavery • Columbian Exchange – Ideas, animals, plants • Mercantilism – Power=wealth – Take raw materials produce + sell exports • Encomienda System – plantations – Class system

Europe: Absolute Monarchs(1500 • Spain 1800) – Isabella and Ferdinand • France (Bourbons) – Europe: Absolute Monarchs(1500 • Spain 1800) – Isabella and Ferdinand • France (Bourbons) – ”Sun King”-Louis XIV – Built Versailles Palace • Russia (Romanov) – Ivans’-> good and bad – Peter the Great • Inquisition – Phillip II • Armada defeated by England • England (limited monarchy) – Magna Carta (1215 King John) – Henry VIII (split with Pope) – Elizabeth I • war w/Spain + religious toleration • Westernization • expansion – Oliver Cromwell – Catherine the Great – William and Mary • modernization • expansion • Prussia (Hohenzollerns) – Frederick II (the Great) – military hero • civil war/resentment • Glorious Revolution-English Bill of Rights 1689 limited power • Austria-Hapsberg family – Maria Theresa (Holy Roman Empire, very powerful)

Scientific Revolution • 1543 • Europe • Cause: – – Exploration +expansion of trade Scientific Revolution • 1543 • Europe • Cause: – – Exploration +expansion of trade Continuing study of ancient ideas Geocentric (Church) vs Heliocentric (Copernicus) Development of scientific method • Effects: – – People question Church (main authority) Beginnings of modern science Belief in progress & power of reason New view of universe

Important Scientific Thinkers • • Copernicus Brahe Kepler Galileo Newton Boyle Bacon Descartes • Important Scientific Thinkers • • Copernicus Brahe Kepler Galileo Newton Boyle Bacon Descartes • • • Lavoisier Leeuwnhoek Linnaes Harvey Hooke Vesalius

Enlightenment: 1600 s -1700 s Philosophers used reason to find the truth, influenced by Enlightenment: 1600 s -1700 s Philosophers used reason to find the truth, influenced by the Scientific Revolution, promoted want for independence • People: – Thomas Hobbes: people are bad, gov’t = order – John Locke: natural rights – Montesquieu: separation of powers – Rousseau: born good, gov’t = protection – Voltaire: against slavery – Diderot: Encyclopedie – Wollstonecraft & Smith: don’t forget the ladies – Smith: Laissez Faire (economy) • Influenced Revolution around the world

Revolution • The overthrow or replacement of a government or political system. Revolution • The overthrow or replacement of a government or political system.

American Revolution • 1776 -1783 • Where: North America (13 colonies) • Cause: – American Revolution • 1776 -1783 • Where: North America (13 colonies) • Cause: – British Colony – Mercantilism – “No taxation w/out representation” – Influenced by Enlightenment (Locke & Montesquieu) • Effects: – United States of America

French Revolution & Napoleon • 1789 -1815 • France • Cause: – 3 Estates French Revolution & Napoleon • 1789 -1815 • France • Cause: – 3 Estates (3 rd=high taxes + few rights) – Influenced by Enlightenment & American Revolution – 1789 3 rd estate declares itself National Assembly; Bastille stormed, Declaration of Rights of Man, “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” – Effects – Reign of Terror-Robespierre-guillotine – Napoleon (1804 -1814) many changes, expensive, disaster in Russia (weather) – Congress of Vienna-restore balance of power

Latin American Independence • 1791 -1835 • Central + South America • Cause: – Latin American Independence • 1791 -1835 • Central + South America • Cause: – Nationalism-influenced by American and French Revolution. • Effects: – L’Ouverture (Haiti) – Bolivar (Liberator of Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Bolivia) – San Martin (Argentina) – Hidalgo & Morelos & O’Higgins (Mexico) – Lack of unity: Andes Mts & Amazon rain forest – Economic instability = Reliance on single crop economy

Industrial Revolution • 1750 -1850 • Where: – Britain-natural resources, harbor, navy, economic + Industrial Revolution • 1750 -1850 • Where: – Britain-natural resources, harbor, navy, economic + political stability • Cause: – Agricultural Rev-new inventions = food= People – New Inventions=steam power, cottage-factories, mass production – Urbanization • Effects: – Poor Working conditions-hours, pay, dangerous, child labor – Middle Class – Unions • People & Ideas: Adam Smith (Laissez Faire), Charles Darwin (evolution, natural selection), Utopia (perfect society), Karl Marx (Communist Manifesto, workers unite and share equally-classless society)

Russian Revolution (1917) • • Cause: cruel czars, losses in war, poverty 1905 (Bloody Russian Revolution (1917) • • Cause: cruel czars, losses in war, poverty 1905 (Bloody Sunday-marchers killed) March 1917 czar Nicholas abdicates Bolsheviks (Communists/Reds) take over”peace, land & bread”. • Lenin leads until 1924 -USSR-NEP • Stalin-totalitarian rule-Russification, 5 year plans, collective farms, secret police, forced famine, Great Purge, forced exiles, murders, millions killed died 1953

Chinese Revolution • 1930 s-1940 s • Cause: Nationalists (Guomindang w/leader Jiang Jeishi) vs. Chinese Revolution • 1930 s-1940 s • Cause: Nationalists (Guomindang w/leader Jiang Jeishi) vs. Communists (Mao Zedong) • 1949 Communists were victorious – Mao Zedong – Great Leap Forward – Cultural Revolution “Little Red Book”

Imperialism: domination by one country of the political, economic or cultural life of another Imperialism: domination by one country of the political, economic or cultural life of another region /country • 1800 -1914 • Cause: – resources, land + labor • Effects: – Africa • lack of unity-not free until 1960 s-boundary wars. – Americas • Lead to USA policing region – India • Sepoy Rebellion-rid foreigners-lost – China • Opium Wars-British won, Boxer Rebellion -rid foreigners-lost – Japan • Meiji Restoration-modernize • Impact: – – – cultural diffusion nationalism (#1) destruction of traditional societies improved standards of living cause of WW I

Nationalism: pride in one’s country, want of self determination • Germany: 1871 Otto Von Nationalism: pride in one’s country, want of self determination • Germany: 1871 Otto Von Bismarck • Italy 1871: Guiseppe Garibaldi, Guiseppe Mazzini • Austria: 1869 Dual Monarchy becomes Austria. Hungary • Turkey 1917 Kemal Ataturk • Israel: 1949 Balfour Declaration, Zionism • India: 1948 Mohandas Gandhi • Africa: 1910 -1079 Jomo Kenyatta, Nelson Mandela • Iran: 1925 Reza Khan

World War I (1914 -1918) • Cause: Imperialism, nationalism, militarism, assassination (Ferdinand) “Balkan Powder World War I (1914 -1918) • Cause: Imperialism, nationalism, militarism, assassination (Ferdinand) “Balkan Powder Keg”, alliances • Central Powers=Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottomans) vs. Allied Powers (Britain, France, Russia, USA, Italy) • Impact: several fronts, trenches, deadlier weapons-”Great war” • Effects: Treaty of Versailles (unfair to Germany) League of Nations formed

World War II (1939 -1945) • Cause: Germany + Italy = aggressive • Impact: World War II (1939 -1945) • Cause: Germany + Italy = aggressive • Impact: appeasement (give in), Germany invades Poland (starts war). • Allies (B, F, USSR, US) vs Axis (G, I, J) • Holocaust- genocide • Pearl Harbor –involves US • V-E Day May 1945 • Japan surrenders August 1945 after 2 A bombs dropped • Effects: Nuremberg Trials, Japan loses military, Germany split, United Nations formed

Cold War (1946 -1990) • USA vs USSR-hostilities-Democracy vs Communism • Truman Doctrine, Marshall Cold War (1946 -1990) • USA vs USSR-hostilities-Democracy vs Communism • Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan-prevent communism, strengthen democracy+capitalism • NATO vs Warsaw Pact=military alliances • Arms Race + Space Race • Korean War (n=c) (s=d)->no change • Vietnam War (n=c) (s=d) South=comm. • Cuba-Castro-missile crisis 1962 -embargo on Cuba w/US • End: détente (ease) – Reagan for U. S. A. – Gorbachev (glasnost, perestroika), nationalism, fall of USSR – Yeltsin new president of Russia

Around the World • Poland – -solidarity (union) Lech Walesa-No Communism • Germany – Around the World • Poland – -solidarity (union) Lech Walesa-No Communism • Germany – Fall of Berlin Wall • Ethnic/religious tensions – – – Bosnia Ireland (Catholic vs Protestant) Pakistan (Muslims) vs. India (Hindus) Israel (Jews vs Palestinian Muslims) Africa • • Apartheid (South Africa) Somalia Rwanda (Hutus vs Tutsi’s) Darfur (Omar al-Bashir) • Nuclear Warfare (North Korea, India, Pakistan) • Overpopulation (India, China-1 child policy)

 • Urbanization: – Pollution (acid rain, deforestation, depletion of ozone, desertification, global warming, • Urbanization: – Pollution (acid rain, deforestation, depletion of ozone, desertification, global warming, endangered species) • Green Revolution – fertilizers, farming techniques increase food. • Computer Revolution (new technology) • Satellite Technology (Space) • Medical Advances-genetics, cloning, stem cells, vaccines • Organizations: OPEC, OAS (Latin America), OAU (Africa), ASEAN (Asia) EU (Europe) • Terrorism –hijackings, 9/11, suicide bombings