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Global Studies Mrs. Patricia Rohling St. John the Baptist DHS Global Studies Mrs. Patricia Rohling St. John the Baptist DHS

World Religions World Religions

Religion is any specific system of belief about a deity, often involving rituals, a Religion is any specific system of belief about a deity, often involving rituals, a code of ethics, and a philosophy of life.

Religion helps to answer questions such as Why am I here? What is the Religion helps to answer questions such as Why am I here? What is the purpose of existence? What happens after death?

Religions can be Polytheistic - Belief in many gods Monotheistic - Belief in one Religions can be Polytheistic - Belief in many gods Monotheistic - Belief in one god

Animism - is the oldest known type of belief system - began in different Animism - is the oldest known type of belief system - began in different regions around the same time - no founder -Today, it is practiced world-wide, but is most common in Africa and the Americas.

-Most traditional cultures that practice Animism also have an oral tradition of story-telling, rather -Most traditional cultures that practice Animism also have an oral tradition of story-telling, rather than a developed writing system. Therefore, there are no formal sacred texts - rituals or worship tend to take place outdoors in nature led by a Shaman, Medicine Man, or Medicine Woman

- practice nature worship - They believe that everything in the universe has a - practice nature worship - They believe that everything in the universe has a spirit - also believe that ancestors watch over the living from the spirit world. - This belief resulted in ancestor worship as a means of communicating with and showing respect to ancestors.

Shintoism - means the “way of the gods” - established in Japan around 500 Shintoism - means the “way of the gods” - established in Japan around 500 BC - no real founder – it - evolved from a mixture of tribal religions with similar beliefs. - many consider Shinto to be a form of Animism due to the many similarities found between them. - no sacred texts - or body of religious law

- characterized by the worship of kami (spirits found in all living and non-living - characterized by the worship of kami (spirits found in all living and non-living things) kami were thought to control the powerful forces of nature - followers tried to win the favor of kami through prayer and offerings - it helped to unite all of Japan - found today in Japanese places of unusual natural beauty or interest

Traditionally, the Emperor of Japan was considered to be a direct descendant of the Traditionally, the Emperor of Japan was considered to be a direct descendant of the Sun Goddess who created the Japanese islands. Therefore, the Emperor was considered divine by the people who practiced Shinto

 • Places of Worship: Shinto shrines are usually dedicated near sites of impressive • Places of Worship: Shinto shrines are usually dedicated near sites of impressive natural beauty (e. g. , mountains, lakes, etc. ), or of historical importance to Japan. • The entrance to these shrines is usually indicated by the presence of a red gateway called a torri.

Hinduism Hinduism

Hinduism - began in India around 1500 B. C. - no single founder - Hinduism - began in India around 1500 B. C. - no single founder - believe in one unifying spirit, Brahman, who is too complicated for humans to understand. - worship many gods that give a more concrete form to Brahman

Three important Hindu gods are: • Brahman the Creator • Vishnu - the Preserver Three important Hindu gods are: • Brahman the Creator • Vishnu - the Preserver • Shiva the Destroyer

The Hindu goal of life is to achieve union with Brahman (mosku). This usually The Hindu goal of life is to achieve union with Brahman (mosku). This usually cannot be accomplished in one life-time.

Hindus believe in reincarnation or the rebirth of the soul in a new body Hindus believe in reincarnation or the rebirth of the soul in a new body after death.

 • This belief allows people to continue on their journey toward union with • This belief allows people to continue on their journey toward union with Brahman. People get closer to this union by being born into higher and higher levels of existence called castes.

In each lifetime, a person can come closer to union with Brahman by obeying In each lifetime, a person can come closer to union with Brahman by obeying the law of karma

Karma - consists of all the deeds of a person’s life that affect existence Karma - consists of all the deeds of a person’s life that affect existence in the next life By living in a right way, a person will be reborn into a higher level (caste). Evil deeds cause people to be born into a lower level or caste.

Good deeds involve following dharma, the moral and religious duties that are expected of Good deeds involve following dharma, the moral and religious duties that are expected of an individual. A person’s gender, class, age, and occupation all affect his or her dharma. “Individuals must do their dharma (duties) to get good karma and move up in caste in their next life. ”

Hindu Caste System Castes are social groups into which people are born and out Hindu Caste System Castes are social groups into which people are born and out of which they cannot move during their lifetime. A person may, by acquiring good karma, be born into a higher caste in the next life.

Street sweepers in Bombay, India. This type of work is considered “polluting” and is Street sweepers in Bombay, India. This type of work is considered “polluting” and is performed by the “out of caste” September, 2001

The caste system and caste identity still play a major role in Indian society. The caste system and caste identity still play a major role in Indian society. Blue is traditionally a color of the Brahmins, the highest of the castes.

The caste system limits social mobility for believers! The caste system limits social mobility for believers!

Unlike American society, individuals may not move up in social class though hard work, Unlike American society, individuals may not move up in social class though hard work, education, or luck during their lifetimes. Hindus are expected to do the dharma of only their caste. “it is better to do one’s dharma poorly than to perform the duties of another well”

Ganges River - is very sacred to the Hindus. Those who go into the Ganges River - is very sacred to the Hindus. Those who go into the river are said to be ridden of all their sins and attain immortality

Along the Ganges are special platforms called ghats, which have steps which allow the Along the Ganges are special platforms called ghats, which have steps which allow the pilgrims to get to the river. The ghats are also used to cremate the bodies of people who have died.

Sacred Text of Hinduism Sacred Text of Hinduism

Over several thousand years, Hindu teachings were developed and recorded in a number of Over several thousand years, Hindu teachings were developed and recorded in a number of sacred texts (holy books). These include the -Vedas a collection of prayers and sacred verses - Upanishads philosophical writings about Hindu beliefs

Buddhism Buddhism

-developed in India but spread to other areas especially China about 500 B. C. -developed in India but spread to other areas especially China about 500 B. C. - founded by Siddhartha Gautama a Hindu prince who left his wealthy home to search for the meaning of human suffering. - while mediating he found the answers to his question and became known as the Buddha or the Enlightened One

Buddha developed his religious philosophy and outlined his main ideas in in The Four Buddha developed his religious philosophy and outlined his main ideas in in The Four Noble Truths First: all people suffer Second: suffering is caused by desire that blinds one to the cycle of rebirth Third: to end suffering, end desire Fourth: to end desire follow the Eight Fold Path

The Eight Fold Path 1 know the truth-the cause of suffering 2 be selfless The Eight Fold Path 1 know the truth-the cause of suffering 2 be selfless and love all life 3 say nothing to hurt others 4 respect life 5 work for the good of others 6 free your mind of evil 7 control your thoughts 8 meditation

By avoiding extremes and following the Eight Fold Path, Buddhists believe that they can By avoiding extremes and following the Eight Fold Path, Buddhists believe that they can attain nirvana, a state of freedom from the cycle of rebirth. In Nirvana, a person would be in a state of union with the universe Buddha rejected the caste system

Buddhist sacred text is the Tripitaka or “three Baskets of Truth”- a collection of Buddhist sacred text is the Tripitaka or “three Baskets of Truth”- a collection of Buddha’s sacred teaching written after his death. It contains rules for monks, sermons, and discussions of Buddhist beliefs.

Places of Worship-Buddhism may be practiced individually, but temples and monasteries do exist. Places of Worship-Buddhism may be practiced individually, but temples and monasteries do exist.

Significant Religious People -The Dalai Lama is the spiritual leader of the Tibetan sect Significant Religious People -The Dalai Lama is the spiritual leader of the Tibetan sect of Buddhism, and is considered to be the reincarnation of the bodhisattva, or "buddha-to-be. " Buddhist monks can be identified by their traditional orange robes

The rise of Buddhism led to a flowering of architecture and the arts. Monks The rise of Buddhism led to a flowering of architecture and the arts. Monks built stupas or large stone mounds over the bones of Buddhist holy people. Stupas were known for their elaborately carved stone railings and gateways. Paintings and statues of the Buddha adorned these shrines.

Confucianism Confucianism

Confucius, born in 551 B. C. was China’s mot influential thinker. His teachings were Confucius, born in 551 B. C. was China’s mot influential thinker. His teachings were collected in The Analects (sacred text) and taught his followers that people had to accept their place in society. These places were expressed in five relationships.

Five Relationships - ruler to people - father to son - elder brother to Five Relationships - ruler to people - father to son - elder brother to younger brother - husband to wife - friend to friend [With the exception of friend to friend all the relationships were unequal]

Confucius believed - people are naturally good - education should be the road to Confucius believed - people are naturally good - education should be the road to advancement - to ensure social order, individuals must find accept their place in society. Confucius believed that children should practice Filial Piety

Confucianism will affect the development of China because citizens will obey the government and Confucianism will affect the development of China because citizens will obey the government and be content with their place in society

Taoism aka Daoism Taoism aka Daoism

Taoism is a Chinese philosophy founded by Laozi in the 6 th century B. Taoism is a Chinese philosophy founded by Laozi in the 6 th century B. C. Laozi taught people to contemplate the Tao [meaning “the way”] Taoists believe in yielding and acceptance. Followers rejected the world and human government - many live as hermits

Taoists also believe in a balance between Yin an Yang The Yin stands for Taoists also believe in a balance between Yin an Yang The Yin stands for Earth, darkness, and female forces. The Yang stands for Heaven, light, and male forces. The peace and well-being of the universe depend on harmony between yin and yang.

Two works contain the beliefs of Taoism - The Way of Virtue by Laozi Two works contain the beliefs of Taoism - The Way of Virtue by Laozi - Zhuang-zi written in the 3 rd century B. C. [it contains fables, sayings, and dialogues]

Judaism Judaism

The Hebrews were one of the nomadic groups who lived in Palestine. According to The Hebrews were one of the nomadic groups who lived in Palestine. According to Hebrew tradition, the Hebrews were enslaved in Egypt and God helped them to escape this slavery. They were led by the prophet Moses through the desert. In return for their loyalty to God, the Jews were promised the land of Canaan.

By about 1000 B. C. , the Hebrews had set up the kingdom of By about 1000 B. C. , the Hebrews had set up the kingdom of Israel with Jerusalem as its capital. They believed that God had promised them this land. Over time, Hebrew beliefs evolved into the religion known as Judaism.

Judaism was the first organized religion to teach monotheism. Jews believe that God had Judaism was the first organized religion to teach monotheism. Jews believe that God had made a Covenant with them through the prophet Abraham - God was their special protector and was all knowing, all powerful, and present everywhere

The sacred text of Judaism is the Torah. The Torah sets down many laws The sacred text of Judaism is the Torah. The Torah sets down many laws that form the moral basis for Judaism. [the Torah is the first five books of the Old Testament] Jews also believe that God gave Moses the Ten Commandments which are laws that deal with man’s relationship to God and each other.

In A. D. 135, Jerusalem was under the control of the Roman Empire. Some In A. D. 135, Jerusalem was under the control of the Roman Empire. Some Jews revolted against this rule and tried to create an independent state. The rebellion was crushed and the Jews were driven from the region and forbidden to return. This scattering of Jews was known as the Diaspora.

Judaism has had a strong influence on two other world religions: Christianity and Islam. Judaism has had a strong influence on two other world religions: Christianity and Islam.

Christianity Christianity

Christianity began in Palestine with the teachings of a Jew named Jesus in about Christianity began in Palestine with the teachings of a Jew named Jesus in about A. D. 30. Beginning with a small group of followers, Christianity grew and spread to become the official religion of the Roman Empire by A. D. 392.

According to Christian tradition, Jesus’ mother, Mary, had been told before his birth that According to Christian tradition, Jesus’ mother, Mary, had been told before his birth that Jesus was to be the Messiah (savior sent by God). Jesus grew up as a Jew - when he was about 30, he began to travel and preach. Many Jews and Romans were concerned that he was dangerous. Jesus was arrested, tried and executed.

His followers claimed that Jesus had risen from the dead, and worked to spread His followers claimed that Jesus had risen from the dead, and worked to spread his teachings. These teachings were rooted in Jewish tradition. Jesus accepted the Ten Commandments but also preached new ideas. His followers believe that Jesus is the son of God. Jesus’ mission was to bring salvation and eternal life to anyone who would follow his teaching

Jesus’ teachings included mercy and sympathy for the poor and helpless. He also taught Jesus’ teachings included mercy and sympathy for the poor and helpless. He also taught the brotherhood and equality of people before God. These teachings would appeal to the poor who believed that they would be rewarded in heaven for their earthly sufferings.